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There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions]. According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China. These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also.
From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.
In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).
This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography.
On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event. This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map.
In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc.
This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character. From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting.
The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.
From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century.
A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi.
The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.
We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called.
But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps. Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater. The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature. Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century.
There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers. The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it. Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa.
But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation.
Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.
Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book. This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa]. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi.
The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period. A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality.
Chris is planning one of his very infrequent trips to New York for next Januarya€™s BSI weekend, and I think I know what aspect of it is on his mind.
Ia€™ve just finished re-reading Irregular Crises of the Late a€?Forties which, of course, had to end just as the BSJ was about to be relaunched. Edgar Smith provided some of the desired information himself in a a€?Special Notice to a€?Old-Timea€™ Irregularsa€? that was included with some copies of the July 1951 issue sent out.
The press runs for each issue were already growing, he told the 60 graybeards: a€?Only 200 copies of Volume 1, Number 1 were printed, and 250 copies of Volume 1, Number 2. Almost precisely a year ago, during my websitea€™s Great Hiatus, I received a BSI history question from John, so here it is, and Thucydidesa€™ answer.
I recently thought maybe I could buy a copy of the same book by Grillparzer that Morley used for the original Irregulars, and I remembered Tom Stix once telling me that he owned the book, but didna€™t want to give it to the BSI, instead to pass it on to someone who would care for it.
Mike Whelan wrote me saying that Tom Stix never had possession of the Grillparzer Book, and that there are no copies extant because it was a blank book into which club members wrote short commentaries.
George Fletcher has an entire chapter describing Morleya€™s Grillparzer Book and its history in my BSI Archival History volume Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties.
Never used a typewriter, I think I said Adrian claimed (along with knowing his father better than anyone else living or dead). As Peter says, a€?ita€™s hard to imagine anyone forging Juliana€™s signature to make some money, since he signed just about everything he sent to anyone .
My recollection is about the same as Jima€™s, and along the following lines, althoughA uncertain after all these years.
The report at Stevea€™s link on Ye Sette of Odd Volumes makes interesting reading even if we fail to find a connection to the BSI.
I know about Bostona€™s Club of Odd Volumes,A as Ia€™m sure you do, but this English outfit is new to me. Ita€™s possible Christopher Morley, deep-dyed bookman, was aware of Ye Sette of Odd Volumes.
The other day I had the good fortune to meet a famous English printer who is visiting in this country; and instead of talking about Plantin and Caslon and Bruce Rogers we found ourselves, I dona€™t know just how, embarked on a mutual questionnaire of famous incidents in the life of Sherlock Holmes. How I wish therea€™d been a garrulous eye-witness to that meeting of Morley and Morison in New York in 1926! Now Smith might have been peeved with Ben Abramson, given the OS BSJa€™s collapse, butA I doubt he was a€?excommunicatinga€? him in giving Hoffman the same investiture in a€™52: Smith was a benign personality never given to nastiness even in exasperation, something clear from the many score letters of his in my Archival Histories. And then, Edgar Smith excommunicating the likes of David Randall, Rufus Tucker (Smitha€™s colleague at GM), Rolfe Boswell, or Belden Wigglesworth? But even in 1985, when Julian Wolff had Peter Blaua€™s excellent lists to work from, and Tony Montag and Dean Dickensheet were both alive, he conferred Vamberry the Wine Merchant a third time, on Arthur Liebman. I appreciate the attempt by my opponent at Augusta€™s Great Debate at Minnesota over the Sherlockian insignificance of Fr. The first three stock certificates were issued in January 1948 to Morley, Smith and Starrett.
Miriam a€?Deea€? Alexander, Smitha€™s secretary at GM Overseas Operations at the time, and serving as Secretary-Treasurer of the BSI, Inc., had already received a share as a gift in recognition of her unpaid service. I cana€™t say now whether Smith succeeded in unloading any more shares to any additional stockholders in the 1950s, but if he did, it would have been as a purely charitable act on the part of the new stockholders, because it was clear by then that the BSI Inc.
Manfred Lee, half of the pair of cousins who were the mystery-writing team of Ellery Queen starting in the 1920s, was not a Baker Street Irregular, though he did attend the annual dinner in 1946.
ROBERT KATZ: I recollect hearing that the BSI once met at the Players Club and the speaker (possibly Leslie Marshall) ended his presentation by igniting a piece of flash paper, as used by professional magicians. The Irregularsa€™ annual dinner was held at The Players on January and was attended by 100 thirsty enthusiasts. Of course, all of our customs were strictly observed, and the Conanical and Irregular toasts were drunk. It was a long time ago, 1971: the second dinner at The Players, I believe, falling beyond the scope of my Archival Histories but before my first annual dinner at the Regency Hotel (the second there) in 1973. With regard to Jim Montgomery, and the difference between membership in the BSI and the Irregular Shilling [see below], I dona€™t think we disagree .
Roosevelt and Rathbone and Bruce received membership certificates, but so far as I know never Shillings nor Investitures .
Ia€™m reminded of the distinction that once was made between Irregular and irregular, but I dona€™t recall who started it .
Ita€™s the same with my list of Sherlockian societies, which does not distinguish in any way between societies that are scions and those that are not .
Actually, Don Pollock and I once wrote about a€?Packaging Holmes for the Paperbacksa€? that way in Baker Street Miscellanea (No.
Rex Stout was well-known for his Nero Wolfe mysteries when in early January 1941 Irregular Lawrence Williams suggested to Edgar W. But in not too much time, the Irregulars decided Stouta€™s heart was in the right place (after all, Archie Goodwin in at least one Nero Wolfe book had mentioned a picture of Sherlock Holmes hanging on the wall of their West 35th Street office), and he became a regular at the dinners; soon with a place at the head table, and the investiture a€?The Boscombe Valley Mysterya€? (conferred in 1949).
In 1954, the Higher Criticism of the Wolfe Canon got underway with an article in Harpera€™s Magazine (July) by editor Bernard DeVoto. According to a friend of mine who belongs to the Baker Street Irregulars [DeVoto began], a paper by one of his colleagues suggests that Nero Wolfe may be the son of Sherlock Holmesa€™s brother Mycroft. DeVoto proceeded to spread frivolous speculation tricked out to look like scholarship across half a dozen pages in that montha€™s Harpera€™s, all for the purpose of confounding Irregular speculation about Nero Wolfea€™s parentage. DeVotoa€™s volley only encouraged Irregular speculation, and the principal word on the subject, a€?Some Notes Relating to a Preliminary Investigation into the Paternity of Nero Wolfe,a€? was published in the Baker Street Journal in 1956 by John D.
Back in 1942, at that Januarya€™s BSI dinner, Julian Wolff had responded to Stouta€™s a€?Watson Was a Womana€? with a talk of his own entitled a€?Nuts to Rex Stout.a€? Stout was not in attendance to hear it. Besides Baring-Gould, well known to Irregulars is John McAleera€™s biography Rex Stout in 1977.
Thata€™s right, and I didna€™t exactly find space for Woollcott in Baker Street Irregular -- he storms up the stairs to Morleya€™s hideaway office on West 47th Street, flings open the door, marches in, and seizes control of the secret meeting going on between Morley, Elmer Davis, Edgar W.
However, the sad lack of a good old-fashioned bodice ripping in the previews of Baker Street Irregular is a discouragement for further page turning. I dona€™t know that Ia€™d call it seismic, exactly; though I wouldna€™t call it joyous either. I suspect the attrition rate among men in these scions due to the change of policy by the BSI is close to zero, though it did affect the allegiance of some to the BSI itself.
And now that women do have seats at the national table, why, in your view,A have we seen so little classic Sherlockian scholarship from women or leadership at the scion level?
Many scion societies today do have women at the helm, on the other hand, and not only recently founded scions. The question is whether Woollcott was expected by Morley that night, or instead came as an unwelcome surprise to him.
I cana€™t swear that Smith invited Woollcott to the 1940 dinner, or subsequent ones prior to Woollcotta€™s death in January 1943.
The saga of the Holmes Peak will have to await another historian to do it and its Head Sherpa, the late Richard Warner, full justice, Bob.
As if to prove that the age of Sherlockian fun is far from over, let us turn to 1985a€™s humorous highlight, Richard Warnera€™s guide to the ascent of Holmes Peak. But time and Warner prevailed, and in this little chapbook, with a foreword by Michael Hardwick who represented the Empire at the dedication of Holmes Peak, Warner relates all one needs to know in order to scale this lofty monument to the best and wisest man we have ever known. Buster Keaton could not do it better than the deadpan Warner, without whom Holmes Peak might never have been named (or even noticed). It is a lovely hill, what in the Ozarks would be called a a€?bald knoba€? (that means no trees, for the less botanically astute), and the view is very fine. Dicka€™s case, boiled down, was that as Sherlock Holmes was once employed by the Vatican, naming the Peak after him qualified as meaningful to the Bishopa€™s work.
Billa€™s contributions to the BSI and our understanding of its history are legion, but his masterpiece is his splendid history of a piece of Irregular folklore bestowed upon the BSI at the end of the a€™40s by its greatest musical voice, James Montgomery (a€?The Red Circlea€?) of Philadelphiaa€™s Sons of the Copper Beeches: We Always Mention Aunt Clara.
Will Oursler was invested in the BSI in a€?The Abbey Grangea€? in 1956, preceded in that investiture by his father Fulton Oursler whoa€™d received it in 1950. Bill Vande Water has been engaged for some time in deep research on both Ourslers, for both the BSI and Mystery Writers of America, and if he ever finishes it, it should be the definitive account of the two men in our sphere. Can any reader shed light on this?A  Please let Thucydides know at the email address at the top of the column. The work is written in Turkish with large naskhi script in black ink on 90 leaves of delicate finished (aharlA±) paper.
This work was made for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III, and the quality of its paintings, its binding and its calligraphy make it one of the greatest works of Ottoman art created for a sultan.
A contemporary copy of an illustrated cosmography, and perhaps the earliest to survive of the great geographer Ibn al-Wardi (d. The work has also been attributed to an earlier author, Zayn al-Din Abu Hafs a€?Umar Ibn al-Muzaffar Ibn al-Wardi, who died in 1348 AD, but according to the 1479 and 1487 copies of the Kharidat, this author would pre-date the original work.
Though the identity of the author is still uncertain, at the very least the physical evidence of our copy would indicate either that it is a very early edition of the later Ibn al-Wardi, perhaps copied within a few years of the original, or that it is an edition of the earlier author, completed within less than a century of his death. Islamic sacred geography differs from the Ptolemaic tradition in that it does not employ cartographic grids, or longitude and latitude scales; as a rule, these used Mecca and the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world. Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the study of Islamic geography often extended to include cosmology, cosmogony, astrology and similar subjects, rather than the production of purely geographical works that were characteristic of earlier periods. In addition to the two dated copies mentioned earlier, further copies of the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib include one in the Vatican Library dating to the 18th century, one of a similar date (1778 AD) in the National Library of the Czech Republic, as well as one in the Library of Congress, which is undated.
The following excerpts are taken out of a work older then 968 when Cairo became the capital. The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia.
Aden, nice town, where the ships of India and China come, one finds there all the products of the eastern countries, brought there from different places, silk, arms, kaimoukt (kind of leader) , musk, aoud (aloes wood), several aromatics, ivory, ebony, clothes of grass, estimated higher is value then those of silk, lead, pearls, precious stones, the zoubad (civet) and amber. Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody.
The Zindges; their country is the biggest of the countries the Blacks live in, at one side it touches Abyssinie. The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. There you do not see anymore the pole star, or the big bear, and the waves are big as mountains.
He calls the area south of the sources of the Nile: Rub'a al-Kharab, one of the richest regions in the world.
He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places. One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals. Oriented with the South at the top, it shows the known world as a sphere surrounded by the Encircling Sea, which is enclosed by mountains.
An important cosmography composed for the Mamluk na'ib of Aleppo Shahin, Arabic manuscript on paper, 178ff. A A  The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia.
A A A  The Zinji are extremely numerous, through deficient in the means of carrying on war. A A A  Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody. A  The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. A A A  He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places.
A A A  One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals. More often, the title of the article will automatically show but you may need to edit it following the rules on capitalizing of works cited APA format.


You will then need to put the title of the journal, making sure every first letter of every word is capitalized. You will then enter the name or title of the newspaper, making sure to capitalize like you would do for proper nouns. You then input the name of the magazine, author, published date as well as additional info like volume, issue and page numbers. You need to make sure you put in the right details, taking note of the rules in capitalization and even spelling for that matter. It could be pretty tricky remembering what goes first or last as well as what should be italicized or put in parentheses. The MLA has not issued an official format to follow for Internet audiovisual sources; this example is as similar as possible to the original source format with the addition of the Internet information. The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji. This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India.
Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country. Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand. Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective.
They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture. Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?. The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992.
Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.
A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent.
Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced. It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty. Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean? But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty. When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody. This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613. The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa. He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea. Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp.
According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original. Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent.
The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast. Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective. Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map. This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world. Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty.
In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa. I mean the quotation from the bar bill at some long-ago BSI Dinner, listing the number of whiskies, gins, and scotches consumed, and "1 beer"? Anxious to avoid another failure through lack of support, he was appealing to 60 BSI a€?old-timersa€? (a€?in order to spread the clerical load, and to facilitate the voluntary work by which alone the Journal can keep goinga€?), to renew their subscriptions for 1952 right away without waiting for the renewal form that would accompany the October issue, the final one of the year. 1 and 2 a€?reproduction issuesa€? had to wait until the NS BSJ seemed securely on its feet, its subscriber base grown to a safe point and new subscribers seeking copies of the first two Numbers. I contacted Mike Whelan about it: I thought he would know enough about it that I could get another copy. Someone (dona€™t remember who it was) who fancied himself a bit of a conjuror was at the head table, which included Alfred Drake as then-president of The Players, and seated next to Drake. Julian told me later that the bar bill was of the magnitude of treble the food bill.A Thing was, the bartenders, of whom there were several, strategically located around the rooms,A were pouring generously, including for themselves, encouraging BSIs to put down their partially consumed glasses and get fresh ones -- and soon lost the ability to check off accurate numbers of drinks served. A Both for its own sake, and because it suggests what the typewriter that Conan Doyle owned in the early 1890s may have been like. Symons a€” author of The Quest for Corvo a€” and am thus reading his brother Juliana€™s biography of him.
The notiona€™s wrong, and theA tip-off should have been the misapprehensiona€™s source a€” S. All it takes is to know the notiona€™s absurd is to look up what men Smith supposedly excommunicated. The first comprehensive if imperfect list of investitures and holders I know of is one by C. Ronald Knox, to explain away such an elementary (let us say, fundamental) mistake on Knoxa€™s part, but Ia€™m reminded, a bit sadly, of the famous exchange between Dr. Smith started talking to Christopher Morley about incorporating the BSI sometime the summer of 1947, both to create a lucrative publishing program (they thought), and to manage takeover of the BSJ if Ben Abramsona€™s publishing of it collapsed (as it did in 1949). His cousin Frederic Dannay first attended it in 1942, and became part of the BSI for the rest of his long life (dying in 1982), and was invested as a€?The Dying Detectivea€? in 1950. I think the noted actor Alfred Drake was sitting next to the speaker and was, needless to say, quite startled by this.
The Constitution and Buya€”Laws, as well as the Musgrave Ritual and Sherlock Holmesa€™s Prayer, were read, and the Sherlockian songs of Jim and Bruce Montgomery were played and enjoyed. So I asked Jim Saunders (a€?The Beryl Coroneta€?) and George Fletcher (a€?The Cardboard Boxa€?), both invested in 1969, for their memories.
Nash was, Morley once said, one of the Doubleday, Doran a€?assembly mena€? present at the speakeasy in the East a€™Fifties in 1930 when Morley was commissioned to write his a€?In Memoriama€? foreword for the first Complete Sherlock Holmes. Perhaps the matter can be cleared up when I get to the a€™Fifties volumes of the Archival History, or perhaps Peter Blau or someone else can shed light on this. Smith that Stout would be a good person to attend the up-coming 1941 annual dinner (held the 31st) and respond to some awful things Somerset Maugham had said about the Sherlock Holmes stories in a recent Saturday Evening Post article.
He had already turned down an invitation from favorite-contributor Elmer Davis to join the Baker Street Irregulars, on grounds of silliness. I cannot find the treatise that contains this absurdity and mention it only as an example of the frivolous speculation tricked out to look like scholarship with which the Holmes cult defrauds the reading public.
A strident anti-isolationist before Pearl Harbor, he was off creating the Writers War Board to support the U.S. In 1961, when he became the BSIa€™s Commissionaire, he created the honor known as the Two-Shilling Award a€?for extraordinary devotion to the cause beyond the call of duty,a€? and the first one went that January to Rex Stout.
You cana€™t copyright titles of books, and if you could, this one would belong to the Conan Doyle Estate;-- fortunately, my client in a different sphere of my Irregular life. How heavily attended are the all-male scion societies these days, setting aside the Pips, as it is not a scion society? The all-male scion societies 20 years ago that occur to me were The Maiwand Jezails of Omaha, Hugoa€™s Companions of Chicago, Philadelphiaa€™s Sons of the Copper Beeches, The Speckled Band of Boston, and The Six Napoleons of Baltimore.
It has been a long time since the a€?Junior Sherlockian movementa€? of the 1960s replenished the BSIa€™s ranks during the a€™70s, and since the comparable a€?Sherlock Holmes booma€? of the 1970s flowed from the successes of the Royal Shakespeare Company revival of William Gillettea€™s Sherlock Holmes and Nicholas Meyera€™s novel The Seven-Per-Cent Solution. I need to point out that the first woman to be an Irregular, mystery critic Lenore Glen Offord (a€?The Old Russian Womana€?), was tapped way back in 1958, but I also acknowledge that it didna€™t include invitations to the BSIa€™s annual dinners.
So far, in the Manuscript and International Series published by the BSI, why am I not seeing womena€™s bylines more often, if at all? Ita€™s a question youa€™d have to address to ones directly responsible for those series of books published by the BSI, or to the Big Cheese himself, Mike Whelan, who has also presided over the International Series from the start, I believe.
He was of course a notorious enfant terrible, and Ia€™m sure not above crashing a party given by a fellow book-caresser like Christopher Morley. But he sent Woollcott a copy of his 1939 Appointment in Baker Street lavishly inscribed to Woollcott as Baker Street Irregular, and Woollcott appears on Smitha€™s December 5, 1940, BSI membership list given in my BSJ Christmas Annual a€?Entertainment and Fantasya€?: The 1940 BSI Dinner. He has only one scene with a speaking part, and that in June 1940, but he was such a Fabulous Monster it was great fun to write him into the tale. As you know, ita€™s been my steadfast intention from the start to cover the years 1930 to 1960, when Edgar Smith died and Julian Wolff succeeded him, and then stop, since the decades which followed are too recent for sound historical judgments. Those acquainted with the doings of The Afghan Perceivers of Tulsa know well the daring of their intrepid exploits, which have struck awe (and some terror) in small towns throughout the American Southwest.
To have been at the dedication last summer, complete with the Afghanistan Perceiversa€™ widely dreaded drum-and-bugle corps, must have been a marvelous one-of-a-kind occasion; but much of its charm and wit is surely captured in this little chapbook.
When Bishop Eusebius Beltran told Dick that the hill needed a name a€?more meaningful to his work,a€? a lesser mortal would have taken no for an answer, and returned to whatever one does on a windswept prairie. This letter was promptly bounced back to the esteemed Bishop Eusebius Beltran (fiction writers, I defy you to create a more dazzling cognomen), who replied on behalf of his Pontiff. Rabe will get a chapter of his own in the first a€?Fifties volume of the Archival History, along with his Old Soldiers of Baker Street (the Old SOBs). I find I reviewed this item myself in Baker Street Miscellanea when it came out in 1990, see here. Katz: Will Ourslera€™s talks at BSI dinners are said to be legendary, although I am not sure why. Within are 55 miniatures depicting subjects in the text, some of them one to a page and some two.
The type of paper used here, which is a style associated with 14th and 15th century Spain, and the style of calligraphy which points to a 14th century hand, suggest this copy was produced during the 14th or 15th century, and may thus indicate the earlier authorship.
The tradition is generally associated with 10th century scholars such as al-Balkhi, al-Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Hawqal, and the ninth century geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh (d.
These cosmological works seem to have been produced for the average lay reader as organized compendia of world knowledge, rather than critical scientific works, and relied heavily on earlier sources.
64r, shows the direction of prayer to qiblah [Mecca] from different countries, seen here in 35 sectors. Several inscriptions on the inside of the front doublure exist in a later maghribi hand; one of these refers to one unidentified individual by the name of Ibn al-Maa€™mun. There are also several examples in the Chester Beatty Library, dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries; and several examples are cited in C. Others are his stories taken from Masa€™udi (without mentioning his name) in which the Zenj warriors ride on cattle.
It is said that their king goes forth to battle with three thousand followers, ridding on oxen. In the north there is a mountain who goes from one sea to the other, leaving two wholes through which the boats can pass, this town (Aden) is 4 days away from the Zendges.
That island produces nardgil or coconuts, sugarcane, one makes there clothes of grass, as beautiful as from silk, one builds boats of 60 elbows long, that carry 200 men. Mecca, the focal point of all spatial references, is near the center of the Arabian Peninsula, which is embraced by the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the shape of a crescent moon to signify the unity of the celestial and terrestrial worlds, a unity of conjoined sacredness. While obviously these maps were produced after the European a€?early medievala€? period, they still reflect the medieval world view of the Arab cartographers. In this way, you do not need to go through the tedious process of writing and checking if the works cited APA page conforms to the set rules of APA. Every time you finish a search, just click on the APA Format on the menu bar to get back to the new search tab. Then put in the name of the author, the published year, page numbers, additional info like volume and issue numbers.
Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha. They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World. The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha). Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map. China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map. Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England). Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H.
The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters. Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period. Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map. But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented. But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them.
Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically. There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common. The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map. But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another.
Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral.
Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed. Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions. Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners. A prolific music and theater critic in Los Angeles area newspapers and magazines, he died in May, seated at his keyboard writing a review when the fatal heart attack came.
Ia€™m sure Tom said he had it and did not want to pass it on to the BSI, and even more sure it wasna€™t a a€?blanka€? book: why was it called the Grillparzer Book if it was blank? He received the Two-Shilling Award in 1983 for the immense help he gave Julian Wolff with the BSJ over many years, and was its actual publisher a number of years when he ran Fordham University Press. Based on the description of the bartending, it was a case of if you can remember it you weren't there.
This Irregulara€™s shtick (excuse me, a€?papera€?) included, and ended with, igniting a bit of flash paper that erupted and fell from his hand onto the tablecloth, thus landing in Drakea€™s immediate proximity.
I recall one bartender as being just this side of falling-down drunk.A Many BSIs were only too happy to get a fresh one when the old ice cubes had dwindled or the mixer had lost its fizz, or some combination thereof, and I recall the vast array of partially consumed drinks sitting all over the place.
A His dreadful son Adrian swore that his father never owned or used one, but in fact Conan Doyle mentions having one in letters written from South Norwood, though it appears his sister Connie, living there at the time, used it mostly to prepare replies to correspondence hea€™d received. But Bigelow had only been invested in 1959, hadna€™t known Smith long or well, was outside the mainstream of the BSI, and looking for a reason to explain his receiving an investiture someone else still in the ranks had. Leslie Marshall (a€?A Scandal in Bohemiaa€?), who returned to the fold after many yearsa€™ absence. Stix, Jr.), by Bill Jenkins a€” to end a€” the reports of the Scion Societies, followed by the usual informal discussions. And then your old fellow saddle-tramp Lenore Carroll touched on the same thing in a€?Exploring a€?The Country of the Saintsa€™: Arthur Conan Doyle as Western Writera€? in BSM 51 (Autumn 1987).
In stating here the insoluble problem which will always frustrate biographers of Nero Wolfe I confine myself, as a member of the American Historical Association in good standing, to examining the source documents according to the approved methods of historical research. Baring-Gould, already the author of Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street and editor of The Annotated Sherlock Holmes, made the idea a foundation-stone of another book, Nero Wolfe of West 35th Street. My experience of Hugoa€™s Companions is limited, and nil in the case of The Maiwand Jezails and Speckled Band, but none of them have changed their policies.
Even the wave of newcomers from the television series starring Jeremy Brett that debuted in 1984 was a long time ago now.
Leavitta€™s expostulations to the contrary in his 1961 BSJ two-parter a€?The Origins of 221B Worship.a€? When Edgar W. So I presume Woollcott had been invited to the January a€™40 dinner at the Murray Hill Hotel too. But none have reached so high a pinnacle as the naming and ascent of Holmes Peak, which rises majestically 262 feet above the prairie floor, and from whose wind-swept summit practically all of Osage County, Oklahoma, can be seen. At one time we had passes for the ski lift, but I have seem to have misplaced them (as Dick seemed to have misplaced the lift). Dick showed this document to John Bennett Shaw, who was an active member of the Knights of Columbus and other arms of the Church. Smitha€™s death, he also edited the Baker Street Journal for many years, influenced the BSI weekenda€™s shape with his Saturday cocktail party (first in his home for those he invited, then at the Grolier Club when numbers grew too great, and after that it was Katie bar the door); and then, Julian also handed out more investitures than anyone else before or since.
Ia€™m sure Tom said he had it and did not want to pass it on to the BSI, and even more sure it wasna€™t a a€?blanka€? book:A  why was it called the Grillparzer Book if it was blank? On pages 1ba€“2a two round medallions carry an inscription stating the worka€™s subject and saying that it was prepared for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III (r. This work sums the geographical knowledge of the Arabic world of the time, referring to climate, terrain, fauna and flora, population, way of living, existing states and their governments in individual regions of the world.


In addition to a compendium of place names, seas and mountains, the author has also included a description of the flora and fauna of the places he describes. 912 AD) who devised the earliest known geographical work using the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world in his Kitab al-Masalik waa€™l-Mamalik. The text and map in the manuscript suggest a medieval precursor; old place names and archaic descriptions occur frequently. The final page bears a partial reference to the owner or scribe of the manuscript, whose name appears to be al-Qawariqi. They worship idols, are brave, hardy and fight in battle riding oxen, as their country supplies neither horses, mules, nor camels.
Turkish Constantinople is a red crescent a€?walla€? or barrier against the a€?people of the crossa€?.
His first chapter is almost entirely based on Yaquta€™s geography.A  As a result, those trying to date his work start from c.
In this way, you simplify the task of constantly checking the guide as to the use of abbreviations or the placement of commas and colons, thereby saving you precious time and energy.
The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.
During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years. From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim].
Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India. Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways.
Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world? The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east. It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch. In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence. In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death. In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan. In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible. The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time. In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map. The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility. Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map.
The BSJa€™s circulation wasna€™t the deep dark secret that it is today, but it will take further research to uncover just when those a€?reproduction issuesa€? were produced. George went on to be Astor Curator of Printed Books and Bindings at the Pierpont Morgan Library, later Director of Special Collections at the New York Public Library. Nor must we omit to mention those elegant keepsakes that we received through the courtesy of several Irregulars. Instead he agitated the Irregulars that night with his soon notorious talk a€?Watson Was a Womana€? (which included an acrostic in which titles of Watsona€™s tales spelled out the name Irene Watson). I construct only one hypothesis and I make no test of that one, leaving it for other scholars to test and apply as they may see fit. And Nicholas Meyer (a€?A Fine Morocco Case,a€? BSI) made use of the idea as well in his novels.
Anderson, a valued contributor to Baker Street Miscellanea when he was was a professor of English at Texas A&M and Denison Universities, is now president of St. In fact Starrett proceeded to Christ Cellaa€™s by hansom cab that evening with Woollcott, from the lattera€™s apartment (known as a€?Wita€™s Enda€?) at 450 East 52nd Street. Smith started organizing the 1940 revival dinner, Morley dug up an old invitation list for Smitha€™s use, and Woollcott was on it. He concludes by describing the Preservation Societya€™s elaborate future plans for Holmes Peak, including such juicy things-to-come as the Scenic Highway to the top, the Holmes Cenotaph (a design contest will be announced soon), the Doyle Ski Basin, and Holmesworld amusement park.
John told Dick the good Bishop had expressed himself harshly as a Bishop was allowed to, and still stay on the side of the angels. It would be interesting to learn more about his Whoa€™s Who, his role in the Voices of Baker Street, the formation of the Mrs.
Army directly into the BSI at the beginning of the a€?50s, and by 1955 had the investiture of a€?Colonel Warburtona€™s Madness,a€? which also tells us Edgar W. Many of his Irregulars are gone today, like him, but lots of them made tremendous contributions to the BSI that are felt to this day. When I first attended the BSI annual dinner in 1973, he had been a fixture there many years, and I found it was a tradition for him to give one of the talks each year -- and for his talk to be totally unintelligible.
George Fletcher and I had a drink at the bar afterward but they wouldna€™t let us pay.A They put everything on Juliana€™s membership account. The author also speaks about Slavs and their lifestyle and mentions al-Mahdiyya as the residence of the Fatimid dynasty. Throughout the work, the author refers to various historians and geographers, such as al-Masa€?udi (d.
These geographical works neglected to include coordinates or to employ mathematical geography in the maps, and bear great similarity to the simpler-produced maps of medieval Europe. The region between North Africa and Syria is associated with the northwest wall of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah from east to south.
At the top, Africa is extended the length of the Indian Ocean, but unlike Ptolemya€™s map, here the continent does not enclose the ocean. What you will get is an APA referencing aid that makes the task of documenting your sources easier.
A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?. Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent.
In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa. Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan. Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference. Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map. Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664). This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map.
We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period. At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala.
According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do. So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world.
The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita. Financially, I showed a profit on the evening of $22, which I have posted against past deficits without a qualm.
He is a leading member of the Grolier Club today as a rare books & manuscripts authority, and a bibliophile whose exhibitions there and elsewhere are glowingly reviewed in the New York Times. The bar tab at The PlayersA was a main incentive for finding accommodations at the Regency. The one from Lew Feldman(see Inventory)was most magnificent, and Fred Dannay generously supplied each of us with the Feb.
Ia€™m a member of the latter, and also of Chicagoa€™s Hounds of the Baskerville (sic), but while both have only male members, one sees many women at the Houndsa€™ sole annual gathering every autumn, and not only spouses but others invited on their own merits -- including you this year, or so I hear, Dahlinger. The work, which was written by the court panegyrist (Azehnameci) Sayyid Loqman AAYuri, consists of two main sections.
The region between Iraq and Afghanistan is connected with the northeast wall of the Ka`ba and has a qiblah from south to west.
The Nile, drawn in red, takes a right-angle turn, possibly reflecting the rivera€™s great bend.
Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected.
The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography. For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith. This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield.
And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world. Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account. The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea. But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated.
Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan.
It has however been a very useful investment to me, for Connie often does as many as six or seven letters a day for me with it, and very well indeed she does them. A Ia€™d be particularly interested if one of its members in the 1920s was Stanley Morison, because it was Morleya€™s chance meeting with him in New York in 1926, that revived Morleya€™s long-dormant boyhood enthusiasm for Sherlock Holmes. Bigelow was scrambling to apologizeA for casting doubt on Lee Offorda€™s investiture (as a€?The Old Russian Woman,a€? 1958) genuineness or validity.
Roberts did, of course, in his 1929 essay A Note on the Watson Problem, but I am far from home and without my copy to consult, to see if he had something to say about it. Taking place simultaneously with the Copper Beechesa€™ spring and autumn dinners every year is a dinner for wives called The Bitches of the Beeches -- started long ago by my late mother-in-law Jeanne Jewell, the idea being to get their drunk husbands home alive. Bill was an unforgettable personality with a zany streak of humor, and added something long-lasting to the BSI weekend in January with Mrs. It not only had profound effects upon our scholarshipa€™s trajectory, it brought huge numbers of new adherents into the fold (including me). Ia€™m not sure a€?legendarya€? is the word, but once youa€™d heard him, you didna€™t forget it; they were incoherent, phantasmagoric, even delusional, but delivered in a sort of bravura style that held your attention. The first begins with the universe and the signs of the zodiac and continues with stories taken from the Torah, the New Testament, and the Qura€™an which tell of the lives of prophets and those who rendered service to the faith. Its sense of proportion is highly schematic, and the location of certain places is rather unusual, but al-Andalus [Spain], Qustantaniyyah [Constantinople] and the River Nile are all approximately where one might expect. India, Tibet and China are associated with the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing slightly northwest. Snow is not know among them, nor rain, which is commonly the case with the greater part of the country of the blacks.
They have islands in the sea, from which they collect cowries to adorn their persons, and they use them in traffic one with another, at an established rate. The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea. The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map. It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography. To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew. Smith died in September 1960, and apparently posed an administrative burden without financial reward for his sons.
I remember sitting there my first time wondering what the hell, because I didna€™t understand what was going on, but for others it was clearly an expected item on the bill of fare. The original work is said to have been completed around the year 1419 AD, as stated on the earliest known copy which is dated 1479 AD (cited in R. The world is shown surrounded by water, with an outer boundary of mountains, seen here as the polychrome outer border.
A fourth region, the Yemen, the Hadramawt, Aden and Socotra are linked with the southern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing north.
They have no ships, but traders come in vessels from Uman, to buy their children, whom they sell in different countries. Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress. These were delivered by Alfred Drake, whose address revealed him to be a real Sherlockian scholar; Thomas L.
Someone just the other day mentioned Bill referring, in a 1982 recording on Voices of Baker Street, to that yeara€™s Breakfast as the twenty-ninth, which means the first one would have been in 1954. Not only for the number and the jubilant spirit he brought to the process, but also for the displacement of the BSIa€™s previous center of gravity in the Northeast. Ia€™m not sure that everyone enjoyed it, but Julian Wolff always seemed to: in part with a ringmastera€™s satisfaction that the old boy had pulled it off once again, I think, and maybe also with a connoisseura€™s appreciation of a performer living up to or even exceeding the year before. The first part ends with genealogical trees of the Prophet Muhammad, the Four Orthodox Caliphs, and the sultans and high officials of Muslim dynasties such as the Umayyads, the a€?Abbasids, the early Islamic period, the Ghaznawids, the Ilkhanids, the Seljuqs and the Timurids.
Sellheim, Arabische Handschriften: Materialen zur Arabischen Literaturgeschichte, Wiesbaden, 1976-87, Vol.
In addition to the extensive chapter on geography, the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib contains a chapter on the types of birds and other animals that exist in the places that the author has described.
At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?.
The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon. Clarke, founder of The Five Orange Pips, and Carl Anderson of The Sons of the Copper Beeches. And for a few years, I had much the same reaction: a€?Here goes Will Oursler again, leta€™s see how wild it is this time, howa€™s he manage it year after year?a€? (This on the assumption that it was contrived. The second part opens with Sultan Osman, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, and goes up to Sultan Murad III, with 12 portraits of Ottoman sultans. The inclusion of a small section explaining the game of chess, including a detailed drawing, has not been recorded in other copies of Ibn al-Wardia€™s cosmography. The inhabitants are infidels, and the tartars among the blacks, consisting of savage tribes of freebooters, who continually take captive and plunder every thing that falls in their way.
In recent works from about 2000 on the Ibn al-Wardi concerned is often called pseudo Ibn al Wardi. North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America.
It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form. It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms.
Smith, Edgar Smitha€™s stepson whoa€™d taken over the printing of the OS BSJ, and found it very hard to get paid by the failing Ben Abramson. I just figured that there was no way to define membership clearly for all those folks, and avoided doing so.
In their country the river divides; one branch going towards Egypt, and the other to the country of the Zinji. The paper of the present manuscript can be clearly located to Spain no later than the middle of the 15th century.
It already had the annual dinner and the Gillette Luncheon when he joined the growing throng in the early a€™50s, and he added Mrs.
It is an extensive district, and mines of iron are found in it, which the people of the country work and sell to the traders from India, who give a high price for it, on account of it being harder and of better temper than that which they obtain in their own country, and they purify it and make it into steel, which admits to a durable edge.
The most remarkable produce of this country is its quantity of native gold that is found, in pieces of two or three Meskalla weight; in spite of which, the natives generally adorn their persons with ornaments of brass.



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