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Sue Friedman never knew her father's mother, who died of some type of abdominal cancer long before she was born.
In 1997, shortly before she was diagnosed with invasive cancer, the veterinarian from Coral Springs, Fla., read a magazine article in a doctor’s office about a simple blood test that could identify inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. After her own diagnosis, Friedman sought genetic counseling and then a blood test for the mutations.
Only about 5 to 10 percent of all cancers are the result of inherited genetic mutations, and most cancers occur in people with little or no family history of the disease.
Having a family history of cancer converts basic cancer screening into cancer surveillance, explains Margaret Eberl, a family practice and preventive medicine physician in Buffalo, N.Y. People with a strong family history of colorectal cancer, for example, should undergo screening with colonoscopy every five years, beginning at 40 or 10 years less than the age of the youngest person diagnosed in the family, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). For breast cancer, the ACS recommends that women at high risk—including those who have a BRCA mutation or a first-degree relative with a BRCA mutation—begin to receive annual screening by mammography and MRI by age 30, which is 10 to 20 years earlier than the guidelines that cancer organizations recommend for women at average risk. Beyond screening, says Eberl, “rapidly accumulating evidence” is showing that lifestyle interventions—such as maintaining a healthy body weight, getting more exercise, quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption—may contribute to lower risk of cancer for someone with a family history. Some cancer patients with a strong family history of cancer may have an inherited cancer syndrome that can be identified through genetic testing.
Knowing about her increased cancer risk was especially important to Friedman: Her inherited BRCA2 mutation meant that she has hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Friedman had most likely inherited her risk-raising BRCA2 mutation from her grandmother, who passed it on to her father, who then passed it on to her.
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Step-by-step instructions for the green card holding sponsor of an immigrant spouse of a U.S.
Approval of the visa petition does not mean the immigrant is guaranteed approval of a visa or green card, however.
If you find that there’s not enough space to give a full answer to a question, give the answer on a separate sheet of paper and attach it to the form. If the form asks for some information that you can’t possibly have, don’t just leave the space blank. The first thing to notice about page one of Form I-130 is that it runs in two columns (except for the tiny Part A near the top).
Question 2: This question, about whether you’re related by adoption, is meant for people who use this form to apply for an adopted child. Question 1: You must enter your last name (surname) in capital letters, but the first and middle name in small letters.
Question 8: The “place” of your marriage is the city and state, or city and country, where you got married. Question 14a: The information requested here is usually on the back of the older-style green cards. Question 14b: If you yourself immigrated through marriage, you cannot petition for a new spouse for five years, unless the first spouse died or you can prove by “clear and convincing evidence” that the previous marriage was bona fide (real).
Question 10: The Alien Registration Number is an eight- or nine-digit number following a letter A that USCIS will assign to many types of immigrant applicants. Don't attempt to lie here if your spouse entered illegally—he or she will ultimately need to prove legal entry, with a copy of the I-94 created or given at entry. Question 17: This is the continuation of Part C, so all questions still refer to your spouse.
Question 20: If your spouse's native language uses a non-Roman script (for example, Russian, Chinese, or Arabic), you’ll need to write the name and address in that script here (or find someone else to do it).
Question 1: This refers to other petitions being submitted simultaneously (for example, for children from this or other marriages), so that USCIS can process the petitions together. Question 2: This refers to previously filed petitions—which may include petitions for other spouses. As you might imagine, if you have a history of short marriages to people whom you helped get green cards, USCIS may initiate a marriage fraud investigation, and you should see a lawyer. Signature of person preparing this form if other than above. If you are preparing your own application, you can leave this blank.
Photos. You and your spouse must each submit a color passport-style photo, 2 ? 2 inches in size, taken within the past six months, showing your current appearances. After preparing and assembling all the forms and other items (see USCIS’s tips), you must send the packet to the USCIS “lockbox” office for the region where you live. A few weeks after you send in the visa petition, you should get a receipt notice from a USCIS Service Center (a different office from the lockbox to which you sent the I-130—the lockbox will have forwarded the file to a USCIS Service Center). The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalized characteristics, both of structure and decoration. The formal vocabulary of Ancient Greek architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, was to have profound effect on Western architecture of later periods.
The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky, with deeply indented coastline, and rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests. The climate of Greece is maritime, with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes.
The light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of Ancient Greek architecture.
The history of the Ancient Greek civilization is divided into two eras, the Hellenic and the Hellenistic The Hellenic period commenced circa 900 BC, (with substantial works of architecture appearing from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.
Prior to the Hellenic era, two civilizations had existed within the region, the Minoan and the Mycenaean. The towns established by the Dorian people were ruled initially by aristocracy, and later by tyrants - leaders who rose from the merchant or warrior classes. The art history of the Hellenic era is generally subdivided into four periods, the Protogeometric (1100-900 BC), the Geometric (900-700 BC), the Archaic (700 - 500 BC) and the Classical (500 - 323 BC) with sculpture being further divided into Severe Classical, High Classical and Late Classical. Already at this period it is created with a sense of proportion, symmetry and balance not apparent in similar pottery from Crete and Mycenae.
The development in the depiction of the human form in pottery was accompanied by a similar development in sculpture. The religion of Ancient Greece was a form of nature worship that grew out of the beliefs of earlier cultures. The Ancient Greeks perceived order in the universe, and in turn, applied order and reason to their creations.
There is a clear division between the architecture of the preceding Mycenaean culture and Minoan cultures and that of the Ancient Greeks, the techniques and an understanding of their style being lost when these civilizations fell. Mycenaean art is marked by its circular structures and tapered domes with flat-bedded, cantilevered courses.
The domestic architecture of ancient Greece employed walls of sun dried clay bricks or wooden framework filled with fibrous material such as straw or seaweed covered with clay or plaster, on a base of stone which protected the more vulnerable elements from damp. The rectangular temple is the most common and best-known form of Greek public architecture. During the late 5th and 4th centuries BC, town planning became an important consideration of Greek builders, with towns such as Paestum and Priene being laid out with a regular grid of paved streets and an agora or central market place surrounded by a colonnade or stoa. Public buildings became "dignified and gracious structures", and were sited so that they related to each other architecturally. Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium, the social centre for male citizens which included spectator areas, baths, toilets and club rooms. The earliest temples, built to enshrine statues of deities, were probably of wooden construction, later replaced by the more durable stone temples many of which are still in evidence today.
A few of these temples are very large, with several, such as the Temple of Zeus Olympus and the Olympieion at Athens being well over 300 feet in length, but most were less than half this size. The stone columns are made of a series of solid stone cylinders or drums that rest on each other without mortar, but were sometimes centered with a bronze pin.
The columns of a temple support a structure that rises in two main stages, the entablature and the pediment. The entablature is the major horizontal structural element supporting the roof and encircling the entire building.
The upper band of the entablature is called the 'cornice', which is generally ornately decorated on its lower edge. Every temple rested on a masonry base called the crepidoma, generally of three steps, of which the upper one which carried the columns was the stylobate. Door and window openings were spanned with a lintel, which in a stone building limited the possible width of the opening.
Ancient Greek buildings of timber, clay and plaster construction were probably roofed with thatch.
The earliest finds of roof tiles of the Archaic period in Greece are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth, where fired tiles began to replace thatched roofs at the temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700 and 650 BC. Vaults and arches were not generally used, but begin to appear in tombs (in a "beehive" or cantilevered form such as used in Mycenaea) and occasionally, as an external feature, exedrae of voussoired construction from the 5th century BC.
The temple rises from a stepped base or "stylobate", which elevated the structure above the ground on which it stood. The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which was a cella, a windowless room which housed the statue of the god.
The ideal of proportion that was used by Ancient Greek architects in designing temples was not a simple mathematical progression using a square module. The Parthenon, the Temple to the Goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, is the epitome of what Nikolaus Pevsner called "the most perfect example ever achieved of architecture finding its fulfillment in bodily beauty". Stylistically, Ancient Greek architecture is divided into three "orders": the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, the names reflecting their origins.
The Doric order is recognized by its capital, of which the echinus is like a circular cushion rising from the top of the column to the square abacus on which stress the lintels. Doric columns are almost always cut with grooves, known as "fluting", which run the length of the column and are usually 20 in number, although sometimes fewer.
Each triglyph has three vertical grooves, similar to the columnar fluting, and below them, seemingly connected, are small strips that appear to connect the triglyphs to the architrave below. The cornice is a narrow jutting band of complex moulding which overhangs and protects the ornamented frieze, like the edge of an overhanging wooden-framed roof.
The pediment is decorated with figures that are in relief in the earlier examples, but almost freestanding by the time of the Parthenon. The Ionic Order is recognized by its voluted capital, in which a curved echinus of similar shape to that of the Doric Order, but decorated with stylized ornament, is surmounted by a horizontal band that scrolls under to either side, forming spirals or volutes similar to those of the nautilus shell or ram's horn. Like the Doric Order, the Ionic Order retains signs of having its origins in wooden architecture. The columns are fluted with narrow, shallow flutes that do not meet at a sharp edge but have a flat band or fillet between them. The architrave of the Ionic Order is sometimes undecorated, but more often rises in three outwardly-stepped bands like overlapping timber planks. The Ionic Order is altogether lighter in appearance than the Doric, with the columns, including base and capital, having a 9:1 ratio with the diameter, while the whole entablature was also much narrower and less heavy than the Doric entablature. Formalized bands of motifs such as alternating forms known as "egg and dart" were a feature of the Ionic entablatures, along with the bands of dentils.
Caryatids, draped female figures used as supporting members to carry the entablature, were a feature of the Ionic order, occurring at several buildings including the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi in 525 BC and at the Erechtheion, about 410 BC.
According to Vitruvius, the capital was invented by a bronze founder, Callimarchus of Corinth, who took his inspiration from a basket of offerings that had been placed on a grave, with a flat tile on top to protect the goods. The Corinthian Order was initially used internally, as at the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Basae (c.450-425 BC).
Early wooden structures, particularly temples, were ornamented and in part protected by fired and painted clay revetments in the form of rectangular panels, and ornamental discs.
The clay ornaments were limited to the roof of buildings, decorating the cornice, the corners and surmounting the pediment. In the three orders of Ancient Greek architecture, the sculptural decoration, be it a simple half round astragal, a frieze of stylized foliage or the ornate sculpture of the pediment, is all essential to the architecture of which it is a part. In later Ionic architecture, there is greater diversity in the types and numbers of mouldings and decorations, particularly around doorways, where voluted brackets sometimes occur supporting an ornamental cornice over a door, such as that at the Erechtheum.A much applied narrow moulding is called "bead and reel" and is symmetrical, stemming from turned wooden prototypes. Architectural sculpture showed a development from early Archaic examples through Severe Classical, High Classical, Late Classical and Hellenistic. A metope from a temple known as "Temple C" at Selinus, Sicily, shows, in a better preserved state, Perseus slaying the Gorgon Medusa. The Severe Classical style (500 - 450 BC) is represented by the pedimental sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, (470 - 456 BC). The shallow reliefs and three-dimensional sculpture which adorned the frieze and pediments, respectively, of the Parthenon, are the lifelike products of the High Classical style (450 -400 BC) and were created under the direction of the sculptor Phidias. The frieze and remaining figures of the eastern pediment show a profound understanding of the human body, and how it varies depending upon its position and the stresses that action and emotion place upon it. The names of many famous sculptors are known from the Late Classical period (400 - 323 BC), including Timotheos, Praxiteles, Leochares and Skopas, but their works are known mainly from Roman copies. The scene appears to have filled the space with figures carefully arranged to fit the slope and shape available, as with earlier east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympus. Hellenistic architectural sculpture (323 - 31 BC) was to become more flamboyant, both in the rendering of expression and motion, which is often emphasised by flowing draperies, the Nike Samothrace which decorated a monument in the shape of a ship being a well known example. You can get Free Printable Resume Templates Blank and make this for your education in computer, tablet, and smartphone device for free. Not only birth date and place, but an accurate, specific birth time is essential to your reading, and will be requested when you email or call to schedule a session for the first time.
Unfortunately, we cana€™t assume that a parent's memory of your birth time is accurate; often it is not. Occasionally, even the agency of vital statistics will not have a record of your birth time. This process, called a€?chart rectification,a€? is time-consuming, and will add $100 to the cost of a reading.
Yet there's a good chance that her own diagnosis of stage II breast cancer at age 34 was the result of a genetic mutation that was lurking in that branch of her family tree.


As recent studies have shown, a person’s knowledge of family members’ health is frequently imprecise or even flat-out wrong. During a colonoscopy, polyps can be found and removed, including those that may be precancerous. Screening may detect breast cancer early; however, only limited evidence supports the age at which to begin screening, so patients are advised to discuss personal circumstances with their health care providers to determine the best course of action. It put her at extremely high risk of developing a second breast cancer and ovarian cancer—which often goes undetected and undiagnosed until it has advanced to a late stage. So she began alerting her family members—including cousins she hadn't spoken with in more than 20 years—about their potential risks, as well. Like every immigrant, your spouse will eventually have to file his or her own, extensive immigrant visa or green card application.
It’s best to fill out the form on your computer, but if you’re writing answers by hand, use a pen with black ink. Make sure you indicate the question you’re answering (for example, “Part C., Item 7”), and date and sign every extra sheet. If your answer is really “none,” such as when the form asks for a middle name and you don’t have one, write “none” in the space provided. The left column, or Part B, asks for information about the petitioner—we are assuming that’s you. If you have just discovered that the divorce wasn’t final when your marriage took place, it may not be necessary to run to a lawyer.
USCIS is concerned that the first marriage was just a sham, with the long-term goal of getting you and your new spouse into the U.S.
For place of filing, you can use the city and state you were living in when you filed the petition.
A little typing assistance or advice from a friend does not count—the only people who need to complete this line are lawyers or agencies that fill out these forms on other peoples’ behalf. However, USCIS regulations permit your spouse to submit a photo that doesn’t completely follow the instructions if he or she lives in a country where such photographs are unavailable or are cost prohibitive. However, fees go up from time to time, so double-check this on the USCIS I-130 web page, or by calling USCIS at 800-375-5283.
The address can be found on the USCIS web page containing direct filing addresses for I-130s.
The receipt notice will tell you to check the USCIS website for information on how long the application is likely to remain in processing.
As soon as the petition is received by USCIS, you have established your spouse's place in line (known as his or her Priority Date). The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 350 BC. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles.
The architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day.
During the Hellenistic period, 323 BC - AD 30, Hellenic culture was spread widely, firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander, and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture. Some cities, such as Sparta, maintained a strongly ordered and conservative character, like that of the Mycenae.
The first signs of the particular artistic character that defines Ancient Greek architecture are to be seen in the pottery of the Dorian Greeks from the 10th century BC. The decoration is precisely geometric, and ordered neatly into zones on defined areas of each vessel.
The tiny stylized bronzes of the Geometric period gave way to life-sized highly formalized monolithic representation in the Archaic period. However, unlike earlier cultures, man was no longer perceived as being threatened by nature, but as its sublime product. Their humanist philosophy put mankind at the centre of things, and promoted well-ordered societies and the development of democracy. This architectural form did not carry over into the architecture of Ancient Greece, but reappeared about 400 BC in the interior of large monumental tombs such as the Lion Tomb at Cnidos (c. It employed wooden columns with capitals, but the columns were of very different form to Doric columns, being narrow at the base and splaying upward.
The temple did not serve the same function as a modern church, since the altar stood under the open sky in the temenos or sacred precinct, often directly before the temple. The propylon or porch, formed the entrance to temple sanctuaries and other significant sites with the best-surviving example being the Propylaea on the Acropolis of Athens. Other buildings associated with sports include the hippodrome for horse racing, of which only remnants have survived, and the stadium for foot racing, 600 feet in length, of which examples exist at Olympia, Delphi, Epidarus and Ephesus, while the Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, which seats 45,000 people, was restored in the 19th century and was used in the 1896, 1906 and 2004 Olympic Games. The signs of the original timber nature of the architecture were maintained in the stone buildings. It appears that some of the large temples began as wooden constructions in which the columns were replaced piecemeal as stone became available. The columns are wider at the base than at the top, tapering with an outward curve known as "entasis". The frieze is one of the major decorative elements of the building and carries a sculptured relief.
The cornice retains the shape of the beams that would once have supported the wooden roof at each end of the building. The distance between columns was similarly affected by the nature of the lintel, columns on the exterior of buildings and carrying stone lintels being closer together than those on the interior, which carried wooden lintels. In a large building, this space contains columns to support the roof, the architectural form being known as hypostyle. Spreading rapidly, roof tiles were within fifty years in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean, including Mainland Greece, Western Asia Minor, Southern and Central Italy. The dome and vault never became significant structural features, as they were to become in Ancient Roman architecture. The majority of Temples were small, being 30-100 feet long, while a few were large, being over 300 feet long and 150 feet wide. Early examples, such as the Temple of Zeus at Olympus, have two steps, but the majority, like the Parthenon, have three, with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo at Didyma having six.
The cella generally had a porch or "pronaos" before it, and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts.
Each temple was defined as being of a particular type, with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front, and the other defining their distribution. The determining factor in the mathematics of any notable work of architecture was its ultimate appearance. However, the narrowing is not regular, but gently curved so that each columns appears to have a slight swelling, called entasis below the middle. Helen Gardner refers to its "unsurpassable excellence", to be surveyed, studied and emulated by architects of later ages.
While the three orders are most easily recognizable by their capitals, the orders also governed the form, proportions, details and relationships of the columns, entablature, pediment and the stylobate. It was firmly established and well-defined in its characteristics by the time of the building of the Temple of Hera at Olympia, c.
The echinus appears flat and splayed in early examples, deeper and with greater curve in later, more refined examples, and smaller and straight-sided in Hellenistc examples. The architrave is composed of the stone lintels which span the space between the columns, with a joint occurring above the centre of each abacus. A triglyph is located above the centre of each capital, and above the centre of each lintel. It is decorated on the underside with projecting blocks, mutules, further suggesting the wooden nature of the prototype.
Early architectural sculptors found difficulty in creating satisfactory sculptural compositions in the tapering triangular space. The horizontal spread of a flat timber plate across the top of a column is a common device in wooden construction, giving a thin upright a wider area on which to bear the lintel, while at the same time reinforcing the load-bearing strength of the lintel itself. The frieze, which runs in a continuous band, is separated from the other members by rows of small projecting blocks. The external frieze often contained a continuous band of figurative sculpture or ornament, but this was not always the case.
It grew directly out of the Ionic in the mid 5th century BC, and was initially of much the same style and proportion, but distinguished by its more ornate capitals. In 334 BC it appeared as an external feature on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, and then on a huge scale at the Temple of Zeus Olympia in Athens, (174 BC - AD 132). Many fragments of these have outlived the buildings that they decorated and demonstrate a wealth of formal border designs of geometric scrolls, overlapping patterns and foliate motifs.
At the corners of pediments they were called acroteria and along the sides of the building, antefixes. Wider mouldings include one with tongue-like or pointed leaf shapes, which are grooved and sometimes turned upward at the tip, and "egg and dart" moulding which alternates ovoid shapes with narrow pointy ones.
Remnants of the Archaic architectural sculpture (700 - 500 BC) exist from the early 6th century BC with the earliest surviving pedimental sculpture being remnants of a Gorgon flanked by heraldic panthers from the centre of the pediment of the Artemis Temple of Corfu.
Both images parallel the stylized depiction of the Gorgons on the black figure name vase decorated by the Nessos painter (c.
The eastern pediment shows a moment of stillness and "impending drama" before the beginning of a chariot race, the figures of Zeus and the competitors being severe and idealized representations of the human form.
The pedimental sculpture represents the Gods of Olympus, while the frieze shows the Panathenaic procession and ceremonial events that took place every four years to honor the titular Goddess of Athens. But the figures are more violent in action, the central space taken up, not with a commanding God, but with the dynamic figure of Neoptolemos as he seizes the aged king Priam and stabs him. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more.
Also helpful are dates for which you can remember month and year, but not the specific day. Friedman learned that women of Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jewish descent, like herself, are more likely to carry BRCA mutations, and she quickly realized how little she knew about her young grandmother’s illness. But taking steps to uncover these hidden clues to cancer risk may pay off: Even when a person doesn’t have a known inherited cancer mutation, knowledge of family cancer history can inform decisions about cancer screening.
For individuals not at high risk, guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 10 years beginning at age 50, or use of an alternate screening method. She decided to reduce her risk by having surgery to remove her noncancerous breast as well as her ovaries and uterus. At that time, the immigration authorities will take a hard look at your spouse's health, background, financial situation, and other factors that might disqualify him or her from entering the U.S. When the form asks a question that does not apply to you, it will usually be obvious to USCIS (based on other answers on the form) that it does not apply to you, but sometimes not. The right column, Part C, asks for information about your foreign-born spouse, referred to as the relative.
Assuming that the divorce has since become final, you can simply correct the problem by remarrying.
The “result” is whether your petition was approved or denied (not whether the green card application was approved or denied).
If your green card hasn’t yet been issued, make a copy of the stamp placed in your passport indicating permanent residence. And no matter when the petition is approved, your spouse will have to wait until a visa becomes available in the category of spouses of U.S. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon), the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa), the town council building (bouleuterion), the public monument, the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium. From the Renaissance, revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture, but also its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion.
Hence temples were placed on hilltops, their exteriors designed as a visual focus of gatherings and processions, while theatres were often an enhancement of a naturally occurring sloping site where people could sit, rather than a containing structure.
The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape, pale rocky outcrops and seashore. 2800-1100 BC), known for their elaborate and richly decorated palaces, and for their pottery painted with floral and marine motifs. These qualities were to manifest themselves not only through a millennium of Greek pottery making, but also in the architecture that was to emerge in the 6th century. The Classical period was marked by a rapid development towards idealized but increasingly lifelike depictions of gods in human form. The natural elements were personified as gods of completely human form, and very human behavior.
At the same time, the respect for human intellect demanded reason, and promoted a passion for enquiry, logic, challenge, and problem solving. It is probable that many early houses had an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. Temples served as the location of a cult image and as a storage place or strong room for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question,, and as a place for devotees of the god to leave their votive offerings, such as statues, helmets and weapons.
Towns were also equipped with a public fountain house, where water could be collected for household use. The bouleuterion was a large public building with a hypostyle hall that served as a court house and as a meeting place for the town council (boule). The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town, and had rows of tiered seating set in a semicircle around the central performance area, the orchestra. Although the existent buildings of the era are constructed in stone, it is clear that the origin of the style lies in simple wooden structures, with vertical posts supporting beams which carried a ridged roof. This, at least was the interpretation of the historian Pausanias looking at the Temple of Hera at Olympia in the 2nd century AD.
Each column has a capital of two parts, the upper, on which rests the lintels, being square and called the "abacus".
Resting on the columns is the architrave made of a series of stone "lintels" that spanned the space between the columns, and meet each other at a joint directly above the centre of each column. In the case of Ionic and Corinthian architecture, the relief decoration runs in a continuous band, but in the Doric Order, it is divided into sections called "metopes" which fill the spaces between vertical rectangular blocks called "triglyphs". At the front and back of each temple, the entablature supports a triangular structure called the "pediment".


Masonry of all types was used for Ancient Greek buildings, including rubble, but the finest ashlar masonry was usually employed for temple walls, in regular courses and large sizes to minimize the joints. A door of the Ionic Order at the Erechtheion, (17 feet high and 7.5 feet wide at the top), retains many of its features intact, including mouldings, and an entablature supported on console brackets. It appears that, although the architecture of Ancient Greece was initially of wooden construction, the early builders did not have the concept of the diagonal truss as a stabilizing member. Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatch, their introduction has been explained by the fact that their fireproof quality would have given desired protection to the costly temples.
The iconic Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis occupies a midpoint at 235 feet long by 109 feet wide.
The ratio is similar to that of the growth patterns of many spiral forms that occur in nature such as rams' horns, nautilus shells, fern fronds, and vine tendrils and which were a source of decorative motifs employed by Ancient Greek architects as particularly in evidence in the volutes of capitals of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders. The architects calculated for perspective, for the optical illusions that make edges of objects appear concave and for the fact that columns that are viewed against the sky look different to those adjacent that are viewed against a shadowed wall. The entasis is never sufficiently pronounced as to make the swelling wider than the base; it is controlled by a slight reduction in the rate of decrease of diameter.
The columns at the ends of the building are not vertical but are inclined towards the centre, with those at the corners being out of plumb by about 2.6 inches.
A refinement of the Doric Column is the entasis, a gentle convex swelling to the profile of the column, which prevents an optical illusion of concavity.
At the top of the columns, slightly below the narrowest point, and crossing the terminating arrises, are three horizontal grooves known as the hypotrachelion.
However, at the corners of the building, the triglyphs do not fall over the centre the column.
At either end of the building the pediment rises from the cornice, framed by moulding of similar form. By the Early Classical period, with the decoration of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, (486-460 BC) the sculptors had solved the problem by having a standing central figure framed by rearing centaurs and fighting men who are falling, kneeling and lying in attitudes that fit the size and angle of each part of the space.
It's designed to be viewed frontally but the capitals at the corners of buildings are modified with an additional scroll so as to appear regular on two adjoining faces. Likewise, the columns always have bases, a necessity in wooden architecture to spread the load and protect the base of a comparatively thin upright. The base has two convex mouldings called torus, and from the late Hellenic period stood on a square plinth similar to the abacus.
They are referred to as dentils, meaning "teeth", but their origin is clearly in narrow wooden slats which supported the roof of a timber structure.
Sometimes a decorative frieze occurred around the upper part of the naos rather than on the exterior of the building. The capital was very much deeper than either the Doric or the Ionic capital, being shaped like a large krater, a bell-shaped mixing bowl, and being ornamented with a double row of acanthus leaves above which rose voluted tendrils, supporting the corners of the abacus, which, no longer perfectly square, splayed above them.
With the introduction of stone-built temples, the revetments no longer served a protective purpose and sculptured decoration became more common. Early decorative elements were generally semi-circular, but later of roughly triangular shape with moulded ornament, often palmate. 600 BC), with the face and shoulders turned frontally, and the legs in a running or kneeling position.
The Temple of Asclepius at Epidauros had sculpture by Timotheos working with the architect Theodotos. The remaining fragments give the impression of a whole range of human emotions, fear, horror, cruelty and lust for conquest. 180-160 BC) has a frieze (120 metres long by 2.3 metres high) of figures in very high relief. A family history may also play a role in whether a patient seeks genetic testing or learns about a risk of developing additional cancers. If the petitioner has a conviction for one of the specified offenses against a minor, then the petition will not be approved unless USCIS determines that the U.S.
To prove that the first marriage was bona fide, you should enclose documentary evidence showing that you and your former spouse shared a life, such as shared rent receipts, club memberships, children’s birth certificates, utility bills, and insurance agreements. As a backup, you will also need to list the city and country where your spouse would go to apply for the visa, if it turns out he or she really isn’t eligible to adjust status. USCIS allows you to leave portions blank (except your name and signature) if you already provided the information on your I-130. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. There is an abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands, particularly Paros and Naxos. Colonnades encircling buildings, or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms.
The Mycenaean culture occurred on the Peloponnesus (c.1500-1100 BC) and was quite different in character, building citadels, fortifications and tombs rather than palaces, and decorating their pottery with bands of marching soldiers rather than octopus and seaweed. In this cultural diversity, the art of logic developed, and with it the notion of democracy.
The major development that occurred was in the growing use of the human figure as the major decorative motif, and the increasing surety with which humanity, its mythology, activities and passions were depicted. However, by 600 BC, the gods were often represented by large statues and it was necessary to provide a building in which each of these could be housed. The architecture of the Ancient Greeks, and in particular, temple architecture, responds to these challenges with a passion for beauty, and for order and symmetry which is the product of a continual search for perfection, rather than a simple application of a set of working rules. Little is known of Mycenaean wooden or domestic architecture and any continuing traditions that may have flowed into the early buildings of the Dorian people. As with Minoan architecture, Ancient Greek domestic architecture centered on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. Some Greek temples appear to have been oriented astronomically.[ The temple was generally part of a religious precinct known as the acropolis. The development of regular town plans is associated with Hippodamus of Miletus, a pupil of Pythagoras. Remnants of bouleuterion survive at Athens, Olympia and Miletus, the latter having held up to 1200 people. Behind the orchestra was a low building called the sk?n?, which served as a store-room, a dressing-room, and also as a backdrop to the action taking place in the orchestra. The posts and beams divided the walls into regular compartments which could be left as openings, or filled with sun dried bricks, lathes or straw and covered with clay daub or plaster. The triglyphs are vertically grooved like the Doric columns, and retain the form of the wooden beams that would once have supported the roof.
The triangular space framed by the cornices is the location of the most significant sculptural decoration on the exterior of the building.
The blocks were rough hewn and hauled from quarries to be cut and bedded very precisely, with mortar hardly ever being used. This is evidenced by the nature of temple construction in the 6th century BC, where the rows of columns supporting the roof the cella rise higher than the outer walls, unnecessary if roof trusses are employed as an integral part of the wooden roof. As a side-effect, it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of overhanging eaves in Greek architecture, as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete.
Because of these factors, the architects adjusted the plans so that the major lines of any significant building are rarely straight.
These outer columns are both slightly wider than their neighbors and are slightly closer than any of the others. The Ionic order co-existed with the Doric, being favored by the Greek cites of Ionia, in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands.
The frieze is divided into triglyphs and metopes, the triglyphs, as stated elsewhere in this article, are a reminder of the timber history of the architectural style. The ancient architects took a pragmatic approach to the apparent "rules", simply extending the width of the last two metopes at each end of the building. The renowned sculptor Phidias fills the space at the Parthenon (448-432 BC) with a complex array of draped and undraped figures of deities who appear in attitudes of sublime relaxation and elegance.
These Ionic-style friezes around the naos are sometimes found on Doric buildings, notably the Parthenon. Ionic cornices were often set with a row of lion's masks, with open mouths that ejected rainwater. The sculpture is always located in several predetermined areas, the metopes and the pediment.
At this date images of terrifying monsters have predominance over the emphasis on the human figure that developed with Humanist philosophy. The acroteria were sculptured by Timotheus, except for that at the centre of the east pediment which is the work of the architect.
The frieze represents the battle for supremacy of Gods and Titans, and employs many dramatic devices: frenzy, pathos and triumph, to convey the sense of conflict.
The more dates the better - and, again, spread out over your lifetime, rather than bunched up in briefer period. Such information may even influence treatment choices for some patients, Friedman suggests. This petition asks USCIS to acknowledge your marriage and allow the immigrant to go forward with visa or green card processing. If your previous marriage ended by divorce, the date would be the date the judge signed the divorce judgment. The city is in code on the old type of card: for example, SFR is San Francisco, BUF is Buffalo, and LIN is the Service Center in Lincoln, Nebraska.
If you really can’t remember or are unable to find out the information asked for, enter whatever you can remember. Only when the Priority Date is current can he or she take the next step in the process, and apply for an immigrant visa or green card. This finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail, both architectural and sculptural, that adorned Ancient Greek architecture. In this characteristic environment, the Ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail. Both these civilizations came to an end around 1100 BC, that of Crete possibly because of volcanic devastation, and that of Mycenae because of invasion from Dorian people of the Greek mainland. The evolution that occurred in architecture was towards public building, first and foremost the temple, rather than towards grand domestic architecture such as had evolved in Crete. According to Aristotle, '"the site should be a spot seen far and wide, which gives good elevation to virtue and towers over the neighbourhood". A number of Greek theatres survive almost intact, the best known being at Epidaurus, by the architect Polykleitos the Younger.
It differs according to the order, being plain in the Doric Order, fluted in the Ionic and foliate in the Corinthian.
Blocks, particularly those of columns and parts of the building bearing loads were sometimes fixed in place or reinforced with iron clamps, dowels and rods of wood, bronze or iron fixed in lead to minimize corrosion. The indication is that initially all the rafters were supported directly by the entablature, walls and hypostyle, rather than on a trussed wooden frame, which came into use in Greek architecture only in the 3rd century BC. Only stone walls, which were replacing the earlier mudbrick and wood walls, were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled roof.
Some temples, like the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, had friezes of figures around the lower drum of each column, separated from the fluted section by a bold moulding. The palmate acroteria have been replaced here with small figures, the eastern pediment being surmounted by a winged Nike, poised against the wind.
It's not shown on the new style card; simply state where you were approved for permanent residence. If you don’t know exactly where the consulate is, just list the capital city of the country—USCIS will figure out which consulate the case will be sent to, based on which of the State Department's consulates in that country actually handle immigrant visas. Alternately, you can simply say “unknown,” but if you overuse the “unknowns” USCIS may return your entire application for another try. Deposits of high quality potter's clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands, with major deposits near Athens. The gleaming marble surfaces were smooth, curved, fluted, or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun, cast graded shadows and change in color with the ever-changing light of day. This led to a period with few remaining signs of culture, and thus often referred to as a Dark Age. Small circular temples, tholos were also constructed, as well as small temple-like buildings that served as treasuries for specific groups of donors. It is likely that many early houses and temples were constructed with an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. The early Ionic temples of Asia Minor were particularly ambitious in scale, such as the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. However, just as before, Elsa’s frosty powers could put the party in jeopardy.The short will also reunite the Oscar winning team behind the original film.
If you adjusted status, that would be the location of the USCIS office that was handling your case. The bottom line is that you have a lot of proving to do to persuade a suspicious government official that the previous marriage was bona fide. If the country listed doesn’t have diplomatic relations with the United States, USCIS will locate a consulate in a nearby country to handle the case. If your spouse is overseas and it would be difficult for her to send a signed G-325A to you for filing with USCIS, you can submit an unsigned G-325A and your spouse can submit a signed version when he or she goes to get the immigrant visa.
It was used not only for pottery vessels, but also roof tiles and architectural decoration. This fluting or grooving of the columns is a retention of an element of the original wooden architecture.
The Corinthian Order was a highly decorative variant not developed until the Hellenistic period and retaining many characteristics of the Ionic. Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee will bother be back in the directors chair, whilst Peter Del Vecho and Aimee Scribner are both on-board as producers. Class of Admission asks for the type of immigrant visa (check your visa for the code) or basis for your permanent residence (check your green card if you don’t remember).



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