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The '''Great Pyramid of Giza''' (also known as the '''Pyramid of Khufu''' or the '''Pyramid of Cheops''') is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids+ in the Giza pyramid complex+ bordering what is now El Giza+, Egypt+. Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to fourth dynasty+ Egyptian+ Pharaoh Khufu+, Egyptologists+ believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC.
It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for Fourth Dynasty+ Egyptian+ pharaoh Khufu+ (often Hellenicised as "Cheops") and was constructed over a 20-year period. In 2013 rolls of papyrus were discovered written by some of those who delivered stone and other construction materials to Khufu's brother at Giza.
Many alternative, often contradictory, theories have been proposed regarding the pyramid's construction techniques.
A modern construction management study, in association with Mark Lehner+ and other Egyptologists, estimated that the total project required an average workforce of 14,567 people and a peak workforce of 40,000.
In the north and south walls of the Queen's Chamber there are shafts, which unlike those in the King's Chamber that immediately slope upwards, are horizontal for around before sloping upwards. The shafts in the Queen's Chamber were explored in 1993 by the German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink using a crawler robot he designed, ''Upuaut 2+''. At the upper end of the Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole near the roof that opens into a short tunnel by which access can be gained to the lowest of the Relieving Chambers. At the top of the Grand Gallery, there is a step giving onto a horizontal passage some meters long and approximately in height and width, in which can be detected four slots, three of which were probably intended to hold granite portcullises+. The only object in the King's Chamber is a rectangular granite ''sarcophagus+'', one corner of which is broken. Today tourists enter the Great Pyramid via the Robbers' Tunnel, a tunnel created around AD 820 by Caliph al-Ma'mun+'s workmen using a battering ram. The Great Pyramid is surrounded by a complex of several buildings including small pyramids. The Giza pyramid complex, which includes among other structures the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre+ and Menkaure+, is surrounded by a cyclopean+ stone wall, the Wall of the Crow. In the early 1970s, the Australian archaeologist Karl Kromer+ excavated a mound in the South Field of the plateau. There are three boat-shaped pits around the pyramid, of a size and shape to have held complete boats, though so shallow that any superstructure, if there ever was one, must have been removed or disassembled. The result is a cedar-wood boat long, its timbers held together by ropes, which is currently housed in a special boat-shaped, air-conditioned museum beside the pyramid.
Although succeeding pyramids were smaller, pyramid building continued until the end of the Middle Kingdom. Great Pyramid of Giza+ The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. An example of a cover letter that can be sent with a business proposal, sales letter, invoice or other formal letter to a client.
An example of how the date and recipient's address should be formatted on a business cover letter.
The opening sentence of a cover letter comes after the greeting and acts like a title or subject line.
The body of your cover letter will include an introduction to your enclosures, as well as highlights of what the recipient will be reading.If your cover letter is accompanying a proposal, you can include a brief summary of your experience and why your company is a good choice for the recipient. With her long slender limbs, small waist and 'flawless complexion' (at least when she has makeup on), it is no surprise that many young girls dream of being just like Barbie. Titled a€?Is A Barbie Body Possiblea€™, the infographic points out how bizarre and abnormal a life-sized Barbie would look likea€”and also uncovers the a€?impossible physical proportionsa€? that are idolized by so many. By comparing Barbie to an average US woman, it was discovered that Barbie had a neck a€?twice as long and six inches thinnera€?a€”meaning she would be incapable of lifting her own head. Barbie also has a 16-inch waist (which is ironically smaller than her head), however this leaves her with enough room for a€?half a liver and a few inches of intestinea€?.
The infographic also lists out the probability of finding a person with Barbiea€™s measurements in the generation populationa€”some of which have a probability of one in a few billion. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World+, and the only one to remain largely intact. Initially at , the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure+ in the world for more than 3,800 years.
The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. Khufu's vizier+, Hemon+, or Hemiunu+, is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid. John Romer+ suggests that they used the same method that had been used for earlier and later constructions, laying out parts of the plan on the ground at a 1-to-1 scale.
Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they used critical path analysis+ to suggest that the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years.


There is a continuation of the horizontal passage in the south wall of the lower chamber; there is also a pit dug in the floor of the chamber. The horizontal distance was cut in 1872 by a British engineer, Waynman Dixon, who believed a similar shaft to the King's Chamber must also exist.
After a climb of , he discovered that one of the shafts was blocked by limestone "doors" with two eroded copper "handles". Realizing the problem was that the National Geographic Society+'s camera was only able to see straight ahead of it, they instead used a fiber-optic "micro snake camera+" that could see around corners.
Fragments of granite found by Petrie+ in the Descending Passage may have come from these now-vanished doors. Above the roof, which is formed of nine slabs of stone weighing in total about 400 tons, are five compartments known as Relieving Chambers. The sarcophagus is slightly larger than the Ascending Passage, which indicates that it must have been placed in the Chamber before the roof was put in place. The tunnel is cut straight through the masonry of the pyramid for approximately , then turns sharply left to encounter the blocking stones in the Ascending Passage.
Three remain standing to nearly full height but the fourth was so ruined that its existence was not suspected until the recent discovery of the first course of stones and the remains of the capstone. Mark Lehner+ has discovered a worker's town outside of the wall, otherwise known as "The Lost City", dated by pottery styles, seal impressions, and stratigraphy+ to have been constructed and occupied sometime during the reigns of Khafre (2520–2494 BC) and Menkaure (2490–2472 BC). This mound contained artifacts including mudbrick seals of Khufu, which he identified with an artisans' settlement. In May 1954, the Egyptian archaeologist Kamal el-Mallakh+ discovered a fourth pit, a long, narrow rectangle, still covered with slabs of stone weighing up to 15 tons. During construction of this museum, which stands above the boat pit, a second sealed boat pit was discovered. However, as authors Briar and Hobbs claim, "all the pyramids were robbed" by the New Kingdom+, when the construction of royal tombs in a desert valley, now known as the Valley of the Kings+, began. Herodotus visited Egypt in the 5th century BC and recounts a story that he was told concerning vaults under the pyramid built on an island where the body of Cheops lies. This step-by-step tutorial will walk you through a standard cover letter format, and the sections it includes, so you can use it as a cover letter template in your own business. It should sum up why you are contacting the recipient, and begin to introduce what the letter contains.You can reference previous contact you have had with the recipient in this section. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. It is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyramid was originally 280 Egyptian cubit+s tall (), but with erosion+ and absence of its pyramidion+, its present height is .
The Greeks+ believed that slave labour was used, but modern discoveries made at nearby workers' camps associated with construction at Giza suggest that it was built instead by tens of thousands of skilled workers. He writes that "such a working diagram would also serve to generate the architecture of the pyramid with precision unmatched by any other means".
Some Egyptologists suggest that this Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but Pharaoh Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid.
The Ascending Passage is long, as wide and high as the Descending Passage and slopes up at almost precisely the same angle.
He was proved right, but because the shafts are not connected to the outer faces of the pyramid or the Queen's Chamber, their purpose is unknown.
Some years later the National Geographic Society+ created a similar robot which, in September 2002, drilled a small hole in the southern door, only to find another door behind it. With this they were able to penetrate the first door of the southern shaft through the hole drilled in 2002, and view all the sides of the small chamber behind it. The first four, like the King's Chamber, have flat roofs formed by the floor of the chamber above, but the final chamber has a pointed roof. Unlike the fine masonry of the walls of the Chamber, the sarcophagus is roughly finished, with saw marks visible in several places.
It is believed that their efforts dislodged the stone fitted in the ceiling of the Descending Passage to hide the entrance to the Ascending Passage and it was the noise of that stone falling and then sliding down the Descending Passage, which alerted them to the need to turn left.
Hidden beneath the paving around the pyramid was the tomb of Queen Hetepheres I+, sister-wife of Sneferu+ and mother of Khufu+. Recent discoveries by Mark Lehner and his team at the town and nearby, including what appears to have been a thriving port, suggest the town and associated living quarters consisting of barracks called "galleries" may not have been for the pyramid workers after all, but rather for the soldiers and sailors who utilized the port. Mudbrick buildings just south of Khufu's Valley Temple contained mud sealings of Khufu and have been suggested to be a settlement serving the cult of Khufu after his death. Joyce Tyldesley+ states that the Great Pyramid itself "is known to have been opened and emptied by the Middle Kingdom", before the Arab caliph+ Abdullah al-Mamun+ entered the pyramid around AD 820. Edwards notes that the pyramid had "almost certainly been opened and its contents plundered long before the time of Herodotus" and that it might have been closed again during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt+ when other monuments were restored.


For example, you can mention the connection if you were introduced or referred by a mutual colleague, or previously met the recipient. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base.
The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples+ in honour of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba+ tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles. Verner posited that the labour was organized into a hierarchy+, consisting of two ''gangs'' of 100,000 men, divided into five ''zaa'' or ''phyle'' of 20,000 men each, which may have been further divided according to the skills of the workers.
The lower end of the Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite, each about long. At the end of one of his shafts, Dixon discovered a ball of black diorite+ (a type of rock) and a bronze implement of unknown purpose. The northern passage, which was difficult to navigate because of twists and turns, was also found to be blocked by a door. Vyse suspected the presence of upper chambers when he found that he could push a long reed through a crack in the ceiling of the first chamber. This is in contrast with the finely finished and decorated sarcophagi found in other pyramids of the same period.
Unable to remove these stones, however, the workmen tunnelled up beside them through the softer limestone of the Pyramid until they reached the Ascending Passage. Discovered by accident by the Reisner expedition, the burial was intact, though the carefully sealed coffin proved to be empty. In light of this new discovery, as to where then the pyramid workers may have lived Lehner now suggests the alternative possibility they may have camped on the ramps he believes were used to construct the pyramids or possibly at nearby quarries. A worker's cemetery used at least between Khufu's reign and the end of the Fifth Dynasty+ was discovered south of the Wall of the Crow by Zahi Hawass+ in 1990. These were entrusted to a boat builder, Haj Ahmed Yusuf, who worked out how the pieces fit together. Edwards+ discusses Strabo+'s mention that the pyramid "a little way up one side has a stone that may be taken out, which being raised up there is a sloping passage to the foundations". He suggests that the story told to Herodotus could have been the result of almost two centuries of telling and retelling by Pyramid guides. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. They were also able to scrutinize the inside of the two copper "handles" embedded in the door, and they now believe them to be for decorative purposes. From lower to upper, the chambers are known as "Davison+'s Chamber", "Wellington+'s Chamber", "Nelson+'s Chamber", "Lady Arbuthnot+'s Chamber", and "Campbell+'s Chamber". Petrie+ suggested that such a sarcophagus was intended but was lost in the river on the way north from Aswan+ and a hurriedly made replacement was used instead. It is possible to enter the Descending Passage from this point, but access is usually forbidden. He theorizes that such a saw could have been attached to a wooden trestle+ and possibly used in conjunction with vegetable oil, cutting sand, emery or pounded quartz to cut the blocks, which would have required the labour of at least a dozen men to operate it. The entire process, including conservation and straightening of the warped wood, took fourteen years.
Edwards suggested that the pyramid was entered by robbers after the end of the Old Kingdom and sealed and then reopened more than once until Strabo's door was added.
Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry+ and dragging and lifting them into place.
This is the start of a vertical shaft which follows an irregular path through the masonry of the pyramid to join the Descending Passage. They also found the reverse side of the "door" to be finished and polished, which suggests that it was not put there just to block the shaft from debris, but rather for a more specific reason. It is believed that the compartments were intended to safeguard the King's Chamber from the possibility of a roof collapsing under the weight of stone above the Chamber. He adds: "If this highly speculative surmise be correct, it is also necessary to assume either that the existence of the door was forgotten or that the entrance was again blocked with facing stones", in order to explain why al-Ma'mun could not find the entrance. Also at the start of the Grand Gallery there is the Horizontal Passage leading to the "Queen's Chamber". As the chambers were not intended to be seen, they were not finished in any way and a few of the stones still retain masons' marks painted on them. The passage is 1.1m (3'8") high for most of its length, but near the chamber there is a step in the floor, after which the passage is high.



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