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Above, a fascinating 1867 map by William Hughes featuring the world according to ancient Greek astronomers, poets, historians and geographers. So far, maps were mainly based on an aggregation of facts, without any scientific treatment of geography. Ptolemy, the Greek mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer, gathered new information and corrected old errors and gave ancient geography its final shape, until the explorations of Columbus and Vasco De Gama. The city of Cattigara, located here in the bottom right corner of the map, is cited by Ptolemy as the southernmost known point. The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has generally assigned to the Greek Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B. We are not definitely informed as to just the course of improvement or advancement in early scientific map making among the Greeks, yet not a few names are known to us of those who made it a matter of special endeavor, as they specifically stated, to improve the work of their predecessors. The Greeks developed another idea: the distinction between civilized people and barbarians. Until the late sixth century BCE, the Greeks conceptualized the world as a series of concentric circles.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge. It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the eartha€™s landmass with data from ancient texts.
This chapter explains why you should read this book and how it can help you with any computer performance problem, now or in the future. Some have hundreds of pages of very difficult math that most people cana€™t do and most problems dona€™t require. There are so many different technologies in your transaction path; to read all the necessary books would take longer than the average corporate lifetime. Almost all manuals about a specific version of a technology were written under tremendous time pressure at about the same time the engineering was being completed; thus the engineers had little time to talk to the writers.
What Ia€™m about to tell you will work for any collection of computers, running any software that has ever been built. Whether you are studying the slow response time of a computer, the root cause of a traffic jam, or why you are always in the slowest line, understanding those forces gives you a big insight into why this is happening. Many parts of this book help you solve the diversity and complexity problems mentioned earlier by helping you quickly determine that large chunks of your computing infrastructure are not the problem.
Once focused, a large fraction of everyonea€™s effort is spent working in the right place and on the right problem. If you can replace S with the number 2 and U with the number 0.5 and calculate that R is equal to (spoiler alert) 4, then you have all the math you need for a long career in performance. In the future, money will still be important, humans will still want to avoid risk, office politics will still matter, and there will be many ways that you can be right, but still fail because you did not pay attention to the people involved.
Having worked many performance problems from problem discovery, through solution presentation to senior management, and then on to problem resolution, Ia€™ve made a few mistakes and learned a few tricks.
If you are impressed with work experience, then read on as Ia€™ve spent the last 25 years teaching performance fundamentals, capacity planning, modeling, and performance testing of websites.
If you are a person who is only impressed with academic qualifications then I have few to offer you.
Your business depends on a collection of computers, software, networking equipment, and specialized devices. All companies have an internal language and shorthand terms they use when describing the subset of the entire computing universe that determines their customera€™s experience. In performance monitoring you need to know three things: the incoming workload, the resource consumption and what is normal.
You need to know the incoming workload (what the users are asking your system to do) because all computers run just fine under no load.
Expected problems are when the users are simply asking the application for more things per second than it can do. Unexpected problems are when the incoming workload should be well within the capabilities of the application, but something is wrong and either the end-user performance is bad or some performance meter makes no sense. On any given day you, as the performance person, should be able to have a fairly good idea of how much work the users are asking the system to do and what the major performance meters are showing.
With rare exception Ia€™ve found the lack of easily available workload information to be the single best predictor of how bad the situation is performance wise. The data you collect can also be used to predict the future with the other three tools in your bag: Capacity Planning, Load Testing, and Modeling.
Capacity planning is the simple science of scaling the observed system so you can see if you have enough resources to handle the projected peak load, but it only works for resources you know about.
Capacity planning is like a pre-party checklist where you check if there are enough: appetizers, drinks, glasses, places to sit, etc. Capacity planning starts by gathering key performance meters at a peak time on a reasonably busy day.
Now scale (multiply) the observed meters by the bossa€™s answer to get the projected peak utilization.
In my experience, the application is rarely reengineered unless the inefficiency is egregious and the fix is easy and obvious. Capacity planning can be that simple, but there are a few more things you need to consider. Even though you base your projections on one peak day, you should look at the data over a period of a few days to a few weeks. Capacity planning can show you how busy key resources are at peak load, but it cana€™t tell you about response time changes as the load increases. Load testing is the art of creating artificially generated work that mimics the real work generated by the real users.
Load tests depend on good performance monitoring to keep an eye on critical system resources as the load builds. For a load test to be really useful it must test the entire part of the transaction path that you care about. Load testing can also help you find where subsystems break, and isolate the effect of one transaction type.
Load testing can tell you many interesting things, but it can only give you data on the computing infrastructure you have now. If you need to predict a future that is different from your present, then you need to model.
When your boss asks you to predict future performance of some application, first see if you can do a simple capacity plan.
This model of Hurricane Irene is accurate enough for anyone with a house on the Gulf of Mexico and it looks hopeful for Floridaa€™s Atlantic coast as well. In a computer context, imagine your model shows that at peak load this servera€™s CPU is 20% busy. Unfortunately, the above model of Hurricane Irene, at that moment, could not see far enough into the future to predict the devastating flooding Irene would cause in my home state of Vermont.
If you respect these limits, modeling is doable, useful and has its place when you are asking questions about the future. This chapter shows you how to gain confidence you will make it smoothly though a projected future peak load by scaling up your current observed load.
This chapter gives you practical advice on how to load test an existing application to see if can really handle the upcoming peak. This chapter dispels the myth of modeling complexity and shows how modeling performance can save you a lot of time and money. This chapter teaches you how to present your results so that they are understood and are believable. This book is concise, useful, and occasionally funny.A  It gives you the tools needed to explore, and discover the hidden truths about your computing world.
Unfortunately, the above model of Hurricane Irene, at that moment, could not see far enough into the future to predict the devastating flooding Irene would cause in my home state of Vermont.A  All models have limits. T-Enami.org - A Welcome, all who like old Photos of Japan !YOU ARE ONE OF OVER 100,000 VISITORS TO THIS SITE. This map includes nine maps on a single sheet, each illustrating the geographical views entertained at different periods and as expressed by prominent authorities of the time.
No snow is there, nor heavy storm, nor ever rain, but ever does Ocean send up blasts of the shrill-blowing West Wind that they may give cooling to men. Here we see that the world is divided into three continents, Europe, Asia and Libya [Africa], and that the western countries of the Mediterranean have gained some form and proportion. It is worth noting the superiority of the Ptolemaic system which would come to dominate European cartographic presentation until the discovery of America. There has been considerable debate about the true location of Cattigara, certainly Magellan and the other great navigators failed to identify it, with some attaching the name to Hanoi or South China and others placing it on the shores of South America.


Originally, barbaros simply meant a€?babblera€™ and was used to indicate everybody who did not speak Greek. Greece was surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea (with large islands like Sicily, Italy, and Cyprus); the Mediterranean was surrounded by the three continents, and behind the continents was the Ocean, which surrounded the world disk.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. Everything (hardware, operating systems, networking, applications, users, corporate goals, org charts, priorities, and budgets) changes over time and with change comes new performance challenges. It will continue to be useful 100 years from now when todaya€™s technology, if it runs at all, will look as quaint as a mechanical cuckoo clock.
They help you make sense out of the performance meters you do understand and help keep you from making big mistakes.
It shows you how to use the scientific method to decipher what they mean and how to find patterns in the raw data.
This rapidly focuses your companya€™s full and undivided attention on the small part of your computing world (System Z) that is causing the performance problem. Now, the right experts can be consulted and business decisions can be made to fix or work around the problem. I spent about 15 of those years also doing performance work on live systems and critical applications for customers around the world.
Ia€™ve had plenty of practice in my standup teaching as well as when working with customers. Back in the 70a€™s he wrote this wonderful little book about repairing literally any bicycle. It usually includes dealing with immediate performance problems or collecting data that will be used by the other three tools to plan for future peak loads. Without these three things you can only solve the most obvious performance problems and have to rely on tools outside the scientific realm (such as a Ouija Board, or a Magic 8 Ball) to predict the future. If you have a good sense of what is normal for your situation, then any abnormality will jump right out at you in the same way you notice subtle changes in a loved one that a stranger would miss. Your meters should be running all the time (like bank security cameras) so that when weird things happen you have a multitude of clues to look at. Assuming you know how many guests will show up and have a reasonable understanding of what they will consume, everything you checked should be fine.
Almost any day will do, as long as the system load is high enough to clearly differentiate it from the idle system load. In most situations, people tend to value application stability more than the money they will spend to solve the problem with more hardware.
This gives you a clear picture where the usual daily peaks are and if there are things going on at odd times that you have to factor into any changes you propose. Even if you had perfect metering, doing the math would be a staggering challenge and, even, then youa€™d be gambling the business on reams of calculations. These resources take a little more work and creativity to capacity plan for, but this is completely doable. It can be done in a few days, presented in a few slides and prepared with few additional costs or risks. The overall load starts off low and then increases in stages to the point where you achieved your goal or you fail because some resource has hit a limit and has become a bottleneck. For any test you need to know how much work you are sending into the system, the throughput and response time for the completed work, and how the system resources are responding under that load.
If your product is your website then you need to test from where your users are: all the way in and all the way back to where they live. If you only got half way to your goal before you hit a bottleneck, then every measured resource is going to be doing twice the work once you fix the current bottleneck.
Imagine your workload is an even mix of Red and Blue transactions, but it is the Blue transactions that really exercise some key component of your computing world. To use a metaphor, running a race tells you about your current aerobic capacity, not the capacity you will have after six more months of training. To model, you are going to need the data you collected with performance monitoring and maybe some data from load tests.
Everyday, in companies all over the world, regular people build simple models that answer important business questions. If circumstances change so much that you lack confidence in that prediction, then try modeling. Either you can directly measure the performance of a live system under load, or you have to guess about a theoretical future situation. It doesna€™t take a genius to understand that your model could be off by a lot and the server would still have plenty of CPU power left. This chapter gives you the keys to understanding all computer performance problems and provides an important foundation for the next four chapters.
With it, and some work on your part, youa€™ll be able to solve performance problems and to walk into the CIOa€™s office with confidence. There are utilization meters that tell you how busy a resource is, there are count meters that count interesting events (some good, some bad), and there are duration meters that tell you how long something took. A useful answer is: accurate enough to answer your question with a reasonable margin of safety.
Of course, the world of the ancient Greeks centered in the Mediterranean and the Americas were yet to be discovered. Beyond Oceanus in the north, are the Cimmerii, an ancient people of the far north of Europe, described by Homer as the people living in perpetual darkness.
The three important seas, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Black Sea divide the three continents and the Caspian Sea is noted.
He determined latitudes and longitudes based on astronomical observations and developed trigonometry. His map of the World in about AD 160, as well as his two maps of Asia and Europe may be somewhat difficult to understand at first glance, but upon closer examination, correspond to many actual locations and yield some of their secrets. Be as it may, the Ptolemaic model retained a great deal of influence well into the 16th century until Portuguese and Dutch navigators more fully explored the region.
While there is not a detailed description extant of the maps he is reputed to have made, we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that the earth has the form of a circular disc, and is surrounded by the Ocean Stream, an idea generally approved by the Ionic School of Philosophers.
After the Greek victory in the Persian wars (492-479), the word became pejorative: a barbarian was not only unable to speak Greek, but was inferior as well. Here, one could encounter strange monsters: Homera€™s Odyssey mentions a great variety of them.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material.
There are always things to do, things to learn, things to prepare for, and experiments to run. These patterns can tell you useful things about whata€™s going on inside the giant black box that is your computing world. I had three majors (Wildlife Biology, Botany and Computer Science) but I have no degree as I left college when I ran out of money and got my first job in the computer industry.
Mostly Ia€™ve learned from other performance wizards, programmers, system administrators and a few generally smart people Ia€™ve known. Clarity is essential when explaining to senior management that they need to spend large amounts of money.
There are many other parts that you dona€™t control, cana€™t meter, and have no clue how they do their work. Expected problems are no fun, but they can be foreseen and, depending on the situation, your response might be to endure them, because money is tight or because the fix might introduce too much risk. This could be a simple case of them not caring about doing a good job, but my more charitable assessment is that he had no idea what a€?normala€? was, so everything the register told him had to be taken at face value. This can save your bacon because if you spot the unexpected utilization before the peak occurs, then you have time to find and fix the problem before the system comes under a peak load. You will want to search this data by time (What happened at 10:30?), so be sure to include timestamps.
However, even if you miss something, you are still better off having planned for reasonable amounts of the key resources.
Ia€™m very sure the CIO looking at all this complex math would feel very uneasy betting his or her job on these calculations. If you need more confidence in your plan, or you need to hold the response time down to a reasonable level, or if the future you are planning for includes significant changes to the transaction mix or vital systems, then you need to do either Load Testing or Modeling.
When that happens, throughput stops increasing, response times climb to an unacceptably painful place and things break. If you (and your boss) only have responsibility for a small subset of the entire transaction path then thata€™s all you really need to test.


So take all the peak measurements and double them to get a good idea of what you are likely to run out of as you push the test to the goal load. Create a load test that sends in all Blue transactions and you can collect the data you need without the interference of the Red transactions.
Examples of big changes that preclude simple capacity planning might be things like, large application or middleware changes or a big change in the incoming workload. The closer to the utilization limit (or the projected storm track), the more precise you have to make your model. As the commemorative plate infomercial says: a€?Collect them all!a€?A  Please dona€™t wait for perfection. Europe Asia and Africa (Libya) however were known, leading prominent geographers of the ancient world to adopt the three-part world model a€“ a system that would remain in use until the era of Martin WaldseemA?ller in the early 16th century (Book IV, #310).
It is not improbable that we have an allusion to the work of Anaximander in the History of Herodotus (484-400?
At that moment, the two ideas had already been combined: the center of the world was inhabited by civilized Greeks, the periphery by barbarians.
The edges of the continents were inhabited by savage, monstrous barbarians, the opposites of the civilized Greeks in the middle of the earth.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation. I would arrive knowing almost nothing about their business and their problems and leave having given them a clear path to follow.
An engaging style is essential when teaching multi-day classes, especially just after lunch.
Furthermore, there are limits placed on you due to politics, time, budget, legal restrictions, and the tools you have available. Modeling is the only way to project the performance of an application in the design stage where there is no performance data to scale.
Start somewhere, collect something and, as you explore and discover, add this to your collection.
C.), was the first to attempt a representation of the curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with geometrical rules.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions.
I like people and if I couldna€™t make my classes useful, interesting, and relevant, then I would have stopped teaching a long time ago.
As the commemorative plate infomercial says: a€?Collect them all!a€? Please dona€™t wait for perfection. This mapa€™s most intriguing element is the southward extension of land running along the eastern edge of the map and extending beyond the border.
Sherman, for issued as plate 26 in Sheldon and Companya€™s An Atlas of Classical Geography in 1867. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world. There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world.
This landmass reflects speculation, inspired by Ptolemy, that the Indian Ocean was landlocked. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. Eratosthenes also calculated the circumference of the Earth using simple geometric relationships. It was believed that this landmass extended far southwards before turning westward and connecting with eastern Africa. In a few words I shall declare the size of each division and of what nature it is as regards outline.a€? It is, however, interesting to observe that the father of historical geography and of history nowhere records his idea of a properly constructed map, and further that the circular form, which he condemned, is one that found wide acceptance even to the close of the middle ages. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Though the exploits of Vasco de Gama and Magellan had proven that the Indian Ocean was not fully land locked, it was believed that a large tract of land, possibly even America, attached to Asia west of Malaya. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Thus the Great Promontory or Dragona€™s Tail that appeared on many maps of this region well into the 16th century. OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. Strabo based his map on the knowledge of the Roman expeditions in many parts of the known world. ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900. ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL. FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO. THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER. AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES.
AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL.
AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT. The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time. OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience.
It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street.
It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street. Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique. Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time. A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums.
While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content. Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images.
While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26.
Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio. One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives.
The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T.




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