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Presentations can be an extremely effective way to communicate a point or pitch but it also has the opportunity to be the death of you or be an utter diaster. B = the lower limit of anthropogenic modification to the bisona€™s caudal groove, which doubles as the right hip of a womana€™s pelvis. H = the 1st and 2nd shifts in contour that cause the area above to be read as a bas-relief of a bison. The main art panel, which was largely discovered by one of GERSARa€™s founders, Christian Wagneur, in 1981, consists of two walls, divided from the ceiling by deep creases, that meet in a corner. The only problem was that the bilaterally symmetrical composition had another type of engraving, which was in no way suggested by the cavea€™s topography a€“ a finely incised horse on the right a€?thigha€? - with nothing, as far as we knew from the Museuma€™s photograph, to echo it on the left. Racing from one speculation to another, I also wondered why such a symmetrical composition had been left lop-sided a€“ with an engraved animal on one a€?thigha€? but nothing on the other. I mentioned my concern about the compositiona€™s lack of balance to Laurent, the author of a GERSAR monograph on another important cave 1, and suggested that we should be looking for the remnants of a second animal on the left. I immediately retrieved my friends and showed them the remains of the horsea€™s head and neck.
Another photo, in white diode light, showing the relationship between the cavea€™s identified art panel and the deep, sinuous, nearly vertical incision on the right.
In fact, the second horse was almost certainly found by Wagneur shortly after he noticed the complete one. But that does not affect the storya€™s point, which sets the stage for the proposal of another image by showing how the recognition of compositional gaps or inconsistencies can lead to the rediscovery of an obscured element.
Once the deeply incised groove and flaking were seen as the bisona€™s rear, truly completing it, it also became obvious how lifelike the bison would have appeared if it had been draped with a pelt or painted with pigments that were abraded away on this ridge of the cave floor.
Even though Ia€™ve been to the site many times since and tried to find some other reading that can account for the deep incision, flaking, pecking and polishing, nothing seems quite as reasonable to me as this new interpretation, meaning that there could truly be a vulva with hips and a nearly life-size sculpture of a bison - composed of natural relief, a partially chipped contour, pecked and polished musculature, and a deeply chiseled and smoothed rear incision - sprawled in a cave in the Massif de Fontainebleau.
In the first of two planned articles about aspects of this paper, Andrew Howley of National Geographic reported on the papera€™s revelation of one of the worlda€™s oldest known optical illusions: a sculpture from Canecaude, which has eyes on either side of a crescent.
Please click on the following thumbnail photos, which Ia€™ve used as icons, to see the web pages or PDFs described in the captions. The deep incision that forms the outline of the right hip and rear of the postulated bison. Traces of anthropogenic modification in and around the groove include the removal of large flakes around its summit (FN), creating the artificial platform where the top of the deep incision starts, as well as signs of incising (IN) and chipping (Ch) within the groove itself, giving it a stepped morphology with a double bevel and saw-toothed right edge. PDF: An historic sign, possible Mesolithic menhir, DStretch, and problems in dating rock art to the Sauveterrian in the Massif de Fontainebleau. Please download the latest version of the Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or Windows Internet Explorer browser. The center of the proposed bisona€™s back is also marked by a series of light parallel incisions, but they are not as clearly anthropogenic as the two motifs marking the dorsal line (E) or the 4 incisions over the ribcage. During a visit to the cave with my friend, Laurent Valois, a member of GERSAR - the association dedicated to studying the regiona€™s rock art a€“ we examined all the elements that we knew of from a photograph on display at the Regional Museum of Prehistory in Nemours, France. These natural fissures originally tapered downwards into the corner, creating the impression of a vulva between thighs. But the panel also includes a deep incision on the right that has been dismissed until now as a mere framing device.
Even though this animal was faint, eroded, and just 32.5 cm long from muzzle to tail, one could just make out its mouth, nostril, eye, mane, graceful back and belly lines, and four legs.


Parts of it had exfoliated, destroying the original surface, while the rest was so stippled and pocked from weathering that it was hard to distinguish the rounded trace of a washed-out incision. Although the incision and flaked zone above it have been previously dismissed as a framing device, as we look to the right, wea€™ll see that they are actually the caudal groove and sculpted contour of a largely a€?readymadea€? sculpture of a 190 cm long reclining bison, which appears to be life-size in the small chamber. In 1984, Georges Nelh recorded that one could a€?distinguish another, very effaced curvilinear line belonging to the head of a second equinea€? a€?to the left of the fissuresa€? (Nehl 1984 p. The same approach that led me to re-find the horse head applies to a third, much bigger animal that I missed that very same day a€“ even though one of its elements - a long sinuous line to the right of the clearer horse - also bothered me from the start. If the same artist had also produced the vulva, which used the same method and technique, then the image a€“ quite possibly of an animal - that would be suggested by the adjacent contours would be captured with the same succinctness a€“ a concision typical of Upper Paleolithic art. The furrowa€™s stepped cross-section and saw-tooth right edge indicate that the groove was incised on two occasions, giving it a double bevel, and finally scraped along the right edge, knocking off a succession of chips. First, it was obvious that the sinuous line was the mirror image of the edge of the left wall, so that the two formed the naturalistic contours of a womana€™s two hips. Oddly enough, the much later prehistoric art in a cavity just two meters away is unusual in having representations of 2 quadrupeds on a similarly raised section of the floor. Jean Clottes for publication and presentation at the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) Congress on Pleistocene art in the World, which was held in France from September 6-11, 2010. The one above the curve turns it into a mammotha€™s tusk while the eye below the crescent turns it into a bisona€™s horn. The central zone of the above photograph shows these changes for the section under the a€?abdomena€?.
Supernatural Pregnancies: Common features and new ideas concerning Upper Paleolithic feminine imagery. The dark rivulet formed by water dripping through the ceiling of this more elevated tunnel can be seen here flowing from the right into the hollow at center left, where the water sinks a€?mysteriouslya€? into a porous or fissured section of the floor, from which the water reappears on the opposite side of the partition on the left, through the vulvar incisions. Jean Clottes for publication and presentation at the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) Congress on Pleistocene art in the World, which was held in France fromA  September 6-11, 2010.
The dark rivulet formed by water dripping through the ceiling of this more elevated tunnel can be seen here flowing from the right into the hollow at center left, where the water sinks a€?mysteriouslya€? into aA  porous or fissured section of the floor, from which the water reappears on the opposite side of the partition on the left, through the vulvar incisions. There was even a vertical gully eroded down the center, creating the impression of a vaginal slit.
In one of its two figurative readings, it is a kind of frame, since its curve forms a right hip, which mirrors the line formed by the visual limit of the wall to the left of the vulva, which naturally becomes the left hip, with the vulva in the middle. Like the rest of the elongated animal, the legs were so naturalistic, despite their spindly stylization, that they had fine details like hocks and were even shown in perspective.
The empty a€?thigha€? was so eroded, though, because of its greater proximity to the closest entrance and elements, that a lightly incised motif might have been largely erased.
The line, which took the path of another existing crack, is just as deeply incised as the ones forming the vulva, making it an important compositional element in a figurative ensemble. The hammered and flaked zone at the top of the incision was done to remove stone that reached the ceiling, breaking the desired contour of a bisona€™s rump. The bestial odalisque was naturalistic down to a bearded chin, hump in the right place behind the head, perfect sway in the back, concave ventral line, and, of course, the deeply incised groove that now made sense either as the back of the rear leg or as the bisona€™s tail.
The ventral line of the proposed bison is similar, since it is suggested by a concretionary line and change in relief rather than the a€?overkilla€? of an additional incision. The contour of the proposed back that is highlighted in red does not require any highlighting on-site because the rock seen above the contour in a photo is actually 2 to 3 meters farther away, a fact picked up in the cave by our stereoscopic vision.


This feature, which is reported here for the first time and reminds one of a€?miraculousa€? statues of our own period that seem to sweat or bleed, may link the vulva thematically to water despite the cavea€™s distance from the nearest stream or river. The vulva was a a€?readymadea€? with such a suggestive mineral concretion over the incised triangle that there had been no need to illustrate pubic hair. Another notable feature is the fact that water dripping from the ceiling in the tunnel beyond the engraved wall forms a rivulet that runs two meters down into a small hollow, where it disappears oddly instead of forming a pool. I couldna€™t help but wonder whether some Upper Paleolithic women had such elegant horses tattooed on the inside of their legs. On close inspection, the area one third of the way down the picture on the right shows signs of pecking and polishing to make the haunch curve in the manner of a living bisona€™s. The top of its rump had been enhanced by the removal of a visually disruptive extension to the ceiling (see the detail) that had broken the otherwise perfect line of its back. There are many cases where it can be shown that the addition of an artificial line where a feature was already suggested by a natural contour was avoided by the makers of Paleolithic imagery, apparently because they felt that the artifice was superfluous and wanted their works to grow from and merge with the surrounding rock. Furthermore, when the dorsal line was traced onto a clear plastic sheet laid directly over the rock from the perspective a person in front of the vulva, it was noted by an observer in the upper chamber, beyond the a€?backa€?, that the person marking the backa€™s ridge had placed it unknowingly directly at the tip of an incised line and adjacent to an incised a€?Xa€? that are out-of-sight behind the a€?backa€?, suggesting that these abstract marks just outside the a€?bisona€? mark its contour or are otherwise related to it. The engraver only had to reinforce the cavea€™s features to mark the fact that he had seen a being a€?incarnatea€? in the cavea€™s natural forms - and did so by incising the central and righthand cracks to make them more regular.
This natural drain is directly behind and connected to the vulva by a flaw in the rock, causing the vulvar slits to a€?sweata€? profusely.
So the cavea€™s inventory description written by Laurent will have to be revised to cite the horsea€™s original discoverer. This turns out to be true, but perhaps not in the way he thought, since Paleolithic art is rarely if ever framed by artificial borders. Finally, note the sudden color change from pale gray on the incisiona€™s left to brown on its right.
Below the flaked rump, a concave zone showed signs of pecking and polishing to improve the swale between the bisona€™s back and haunch. Finally, a tight fan of lines is incised into the ceiling directly above the possible bisona€™s abdomen. Finally, note the sudden color change from pale gray on the incisiona€™s left to brown on its right.A  Although possibly natural, the color change may have influenced the positioning of the incision or be the last remnant of pigment applied to the bison.
Needless-to-say, this trait, which probably accounts for the pubic concretion as well, may have made the panel more suggestive and life-like.
More troubling still, the long sinuous groove had the organic flow usually associated with Paleolithic portrayals of humans and animals. Just as Ia€™d reasoned, the rest of the image was largely a€“ if not entirely - composed of natural relief that almost perfectly reflected the mounds and hollows of a sleeping or dead bisona€™s bones and musculature.
The author is participating in the description of the assemblage from the Upper Paleolithic site near Cambrai, which has only been reported in a cursory fashion until now, most notably in Archeologia (March 1992).



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