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Studies abound showing how the endogenous estrogens, estradiol mainly, improve memory and other cognitive functions. In a study published in the journal Neurobiology of Aging, researchers investigated what effect premenopausal hysterectomy had on brain iron levels. White matter in the brain consists of the oligodendrocytes – a type of cell that forms what is called the myelin sheath.
Founder, International Adhesions Society (IAS) for introducing me to this exciting new research. Chandler Marrs, PhDChandler Marrs MS, MA, PhD spent the last dozen years in women’s health research with a focus on steroid neuroendocrinology and mental health. Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
No, but recent studies published suggest that removal of the ovaries is detrimental to mitochondrial functioning. CONCRETE SLAB CRACK EVALUATION - home CONTENTS: Types of cracks that occur in concrete slabs, shrinkage cracks, settlement cracks, frost heaves. Settlement cracks in a slab indicate inadequate site preparation, such as failure to compact fill on which a slab was poured. Frost heaves or expansive soil damage can cause substantial damage to basement, crawl space, or garage floor slabs in some conditions. Each type of basement slab, floor slab, or slab on grade crack is discussed and described with photographs below. Before we describe crack, movement, and damage patterns and diagnosis in concrete slabs, we need to introduce three different types of poured concrete floor slabs. We use the three Carson Dunlop Associates Sketches shown here to comment on the occurrence, causes, and significance of cracks and movement in poured concrete slab construction.
The author's first construction job (construction at the Fleet antiaircraft missile training center, Dam Neck, VA) consisted of raking roughly level loose-fill dirt inside of building foundations. Over several summers of this labor we never once saw anyone using a soil compactor and rarely did we see gravel poured inside of the foundation walls before the slab was poured. The bad news about typical floating slab construction (where the soil is not compacted) is that anything that causes the soil to settle risks slab cracking and settlement.
The good news about cracks in floating slab construction is that the damage is to the floor, not to the structure that is supporting the building.
As you can see from the Carson Dunlop Associates sketch above, the supported slab is a lot like the floating slab - it claims to have gravel and claims to have compacted soil below the slab. But the edges of the floor slab rest on a lip built into the poured concrete footing which also supports the building walls.
The good news about a slab with this design is that a little soil settlement below the slab will not cause the floor to tip nor crack provided it has been adequately reinforced. The bad news about a supported slab design is that if there were significant soil settlement below the slab and if it lacked proper reinforcement at the time of construction, it might collapse. Where may this occur: if you inspect a garage built on what was originally a sloping hill, you can expect that the interior of the garage foundation was filled with lots of backfill soil. As you see in the Carson Dunlop Associates sketch above (used with permission), a monolithic slab is poured at the same time as the building footing that is going to support the building's walls. If structural cracks appear in a monolithic slab they might trace to footing settlement which might be a structural concern, depending on the amount of settlement, its origin, and type of building construction. Notice that the sketch shows insulation on the exterior of the slab - unless special methods are used, it can be difficult otherwise to insulate this floor from the surrounding soils, an important factor in cold climates and where heating costs are increasing rapidly. Where exterior foundation insulation is carried up above grade and right under the building exterior siding, there may be a risk of wood destroying insect attack on the wood-framed wall. The articles listed below explain how we recognize and diagnose signs of cracking, damage, movement in these different concrete slab construction methods.
See SINKING BUILDINGS where we include case histories of both building settlement and slab cracking, heaving, settling: diagnosis and repair. See FOUNDATION CRACK DICTIONARY since that article series also assists in distinguishing among types of cracking in concrete foundations (vertical supporting walls and footings). We bought a house two years ago, after it sat empty as a model home for a few years, so now ita€™s about five years old.
We live in Austin, Texas and the drought has been really bad here, and recently we have discovered a few hairline cracks in a few different tiles. There is a lot of limestone and rock in the area, and so we never thought wea€™d ever have a problem here, unlike Houston, where foundation problems are everywhere.
There a few small hairline cracks throughout the house in the sheetrock, but these were there when we moved in and havena€™t gotten worse, and seemed pretty normal to me. Well, mentioning the drought, a few neighbors have said they have a few cracks too, and they had a foundation company come out, and the company told them it was because of the drought, and told them to soak the foundation. I went out and bought soak hoses and are going to set that up, and I also bought a nice laser level and checked the slope of the foundation.
So this leads to my main questiona€”how much slope in a foundation is generally acceptable to build on? I agree that the cracks you describe are more likely due to slab settlement or movement and that considering Austin has been in a drought, soil settlement (rather than rising due to suddenly newly-wet expansive clay soils) is probably at work. I also agree that other crack sources such as concrete slab shrinkage are probably not at fault. It's useful to distinguish between a crack that only affects the floor slab (usually not structural, the building is not threatened) and a crack that includes the foundations and footings (structural, the building might be threatened depending on extent of movement). While building codes expect footings to be poured level, I'm not surprised to read that a foundation and footing slope one inch over 20 feet in new construction. Examine the sloping foundation walls wherever masonry foundation materials and surfaces are visible. Also take a look at the location and pattern of floor cracks, If a crack line is more or less straight, and if it runs towards the foundation walls or more or less at right angle to the foundation wall, then if the foundation wall and footing had settled you'd expect to see wall cracks in the same area. If those clues of actual footing settlement and foundation movement are absent, you are more likely seeing settlement in the concrete slab itself. In that construction settlement of the slab may produce cracks as the floor bends and dirt below it settles.
If the floor slab was poured atop of dirt that covered the footings, or inside of the footings, the entire slab may settle or tip even at its perimeters. In any case, the combination of pouring a slab on soft fill and changes in soil moisture invite soil settlement and slab cracking. See SETTLEMENT IN FOUNDATIONS for a more broad explanation of foundation settlement diagnosis, evaluation, and repair.
Repair of the cracked floor will require removal of the cracked ceramic floor tiles, including enough mastic and crud removal that you can bed replacement tiles smoothly in place.
Watch out: do not lay ceramic tiles across control joints as movement there is likely to cause cracking in the filed finish-floor .

Continue reading at CONTROL JOINT CRACKS in CONCRETE or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060. Quality Standards for the Professional Remodeling Industry, National Association of Home Builders Remodelers Council, NAHB Research Foundation, 1987.
We discuss the recognition and significance of concrete shrinkage cracks in detail at Shrinkage Cracks in Slabs. The photograph of cracks above were taken of shrinkage cracks in a concrete slab floor in a home built in 2006. Depending on the mix and pour conditions as well as the site work preparation significant concrete shrinkage cracks can appear in a basement slab.
Our photographs above show shrinkage cracking and ensuing minor settlement cracks occurring in the same poured concrete basement floor. Happily the building owner at the site where we made the photos above did not report water entry through these openings, though it certainly might be expected as the home ages and its footing drains stop working, particularly if surface runoff and roof runoff are not kept away from the building.
When we see combined slab shrinkage and slab settlement condition we suspect that the concrete pour not only allowed for excessive shrinkage, or perhaps shrinkage without control joints, but also the pour was made on top of poorly prepared soils.
We discuss the recognition and significance of control joints in poured concrete slabs in detail at Cracks at Control Joints in Concrete. We discuss the recognition and significance of settlement cracks in poured concrete slabs in detail at Settlement Cracks in Slabs.
A monolithic concrete slab is one which includes the building footing as part of the slab, created in a single continuous pour of concrete.
A floating concrete slab is one which is poured at a (generally) uniform thickness on the ground without a separate footing.
The photograph above shows a rather straight crack across a garage slab near the garage entry door. What is happening here and why is this particular crack straight if it's a frost or soil heave crack?
In freezing climates building foundations include a footing which extends below the frost line. Readers should also see CONCRETE SLAB CRACK REPAIR and may also want to see SINKING BUILDINGS where we include case histories of both building settlement and slab cracking, heaving, settling: diagnosis and repair.
Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Avec des enfants en bas-age il vaudra mieux eviter les races toys (chihuahua par exemple), ces chiens miniatures et fragiles risqueraient d’etre malmenes. Ensuite si vous sautez le pas, je vous souhaite beaucoup de bonheur et de complicite avec votre nouveau compagnon a 4 pattes et n’oubliez pas de venir consulter ce blog pour glaner des tonnes de conseils !
From a sample (n = 93) of healthy older, male and female volunteers, ages 47-80 years, researchers used a specialized MRI to image brain iron levels.
Women who had hysterectomy before reaching natural menopause had significantly higher iron levels in the white matter of the frontal cortex compared to women who reached menopause naturally.
Myelin is the insulation that protects the axons of the neuron (in the brain) or nerve (in the body) to allow rapid conduction or messaging across the brain or to the body.  Myelin is like the plastic coating around the electrical wiring in your house. These are brain regions responsible for learning, memory, emotion, sensory perception and motor control.
An observed connection between menstrual blood loss and peripheral or brain iron stores though apparent, may not represent the total picture. At a Journal of Light Construction conference (Boston 1985) a lecturer informed us that "Every concrete truck that comes to your job to pour a slab has at least four cracks in it. Flooding, leaks, or simply poor handling of roof and surface runoff can send water under a building where it causes loose soil to settle.
Only if you see a floor slab crack that continues up in the foundation wall where the crack meets the wall would the structure be obviously involved.
If your builder was the same fellow who hired the author (as we described above), all of this fill was left un-compacted. I kinda freaked out and started putting a level to everything in the house, and all the door frames are perfectly level and the countertops are very, very close to being perfectly level. The foundation slopes about 1 inch over about 20 feet towards the left side of the house, which happens to be the downhill side. Because I know brand new foundations wona€™t be perfectly level, but about how much can a new foundation be off-1 inch, 2 inches, 6 inches? A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a foundation, slab, or floor cracking problem because someone with experience might see clues that escape even a smart, careful, thorough homeowner performing a DIY investigation. I think that slab shrinkage cracks appear early in building life, are not structural, and are less likely to suddenly telegraph through a ceramic tile floor.
A key diagnostic step will be to convince yourself that this out of slope condition is as-built or that it is the result of settlement. A one-inch change in slope, if it happened after construction, would often be expected to produce vertical or stair-stepped cracks in the foundation wall.
Cracks tend to be away from and sometimes roughly parallel to the foundation walls, or to appear as islands around the Lally columns. Unfortunately there is no magic band-aid that will make the cracks disappear, especially where ceramic floor tiles are installed. Before replacing the tiles that were removed you might want to also install mesh tape over the floor slab cracks to reduce the chances that those cracks telegraph again through the new tiles. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator.
On occasion we may also see vertical dislocation in a floor slab crack, that is, one side has settled or tipped away from the other side of the cracked concrete. Note that these cracks begin at building foundation wall inside projection corners - a condition that probably creates stress points as the slab cures.
For example if a slab is poured on poorly-compacted soil, after shrinkage cracking occurs, we may see uneven settlement among sections of the cracked slab.
In both of these cases we anticipate that significant horizontal dislocation in a poured concrete slab should be small unless steel reinforcement was omitted or was improperly installed.
Proper site work and drainage are important as is proper engineering design of such structures.
Also see How to Diagnose & Evaluate Foundation Cracks since those pages also assist in distinguishing among types of cracking in concrete foundations (vertical supporting walls and footings). Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions.

Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Les chiens moyens (10 a 25 kg), ils necessitent un minimum d’espace (grand appartement, maison avec jardin, promenades frequentes, jeux).
Il y a des chiens calmes (labrador, golden retriever, basset, bobtail, berger allemand) qui conviendront parfaitement pour les familles avec enfants, les personnes agees ou calmes. Il y aura peu de perte de poil chez un chien a poil ras mais leurs petits poils ont tendance a s’enfoncer partout (coussins, tapis, vetements) et sont ensuite difficile a eliminer.
Les races tres dynamiques qui courent beaucoup seront beaucoup mieux dans une maison avec un jardin.
Eviter aussi les chiens trop puissants, les jeunes enfants ne pourraient pas les maitriser et les tenir en laisse. N’hesitez pas a prendre contact avec les clubs des races qui vous interessent pour obtenir des renseignements supplementaires, regarder les sites internet de ces clubs, et surtout demandez leur avis aux personnes qui possedent deja les races en question pour voir si ces races vous correspondraient.
In the developing brain, too little iron causes neurological impairment with significant cognitive and neuromuscular deficits.
The hysterectomy group, also had higher iron levels in the other brain regions tested but those differences were not large enough to reach statistical significance. It is quite likely that hormones associated with reproductive health, altered by the hysterectomy, also play a role in iron regulation.  Initial research connecting the hyperandrogenic and metabolically dysregulated state of women with PCOS is  associated with increased iron stores, as is general and cancer related inflammation, and genetics. As a graduate student, she founded and directed the UNLV Maternal Health Lab, mentoring dozens of students while directing clinical and Internet-based research. At the low end of the garage where the most fill was added, significant soil settlement can occur. One crack is about 4 feet long and runs straight through about 4 different tiles, not following the grout lines.
But with almost everything else level in the house, Ia€™m starting to think it was already like that, and I just never noticed it before.
The result can be future slab settlement and cracking, exacerbated by changes in site conditions (more water, less water, freezing, drying) that may affect the soil below the slab. If radon and water entry are not an issue in your area you might live with the cosmetic defect for a while.
Since some contractors use a fiber-reinforced cement and may omit steel reinforcement in floor slabs, this condition may occur. Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations.
Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level. Les chiens a poil court devront etre brosses tous les jours pendant les periodes de mue tandis que les chiens a poil long doivent etre brosses quotidiennement toute l’annee. De toute maniere il convient de rappeler qu’il ne faut jamais laisser seul une chien avec une jeune enfant. As we age, iron accumulation in the brain is also problematic and linked to neurodegenertive disorders. Brain iron levels in the hysterectomy group were similar to those of men, who have naturally higher iron levels in the brain and who often succumb to the neurodegenerative diseases at a much earlier age. After the dendrite receives and the cell body translates a message, it sends the signal down the myelinated axon to its target.  Iron accumulation, either in the white or grey matter would impact brain function. Nevertheless, this study speaks to the critical need for more research about the long-term consequences of hysterectomy.
Post graduate, she continued at UNLV as an adjunct faculty member, teaching advanced undergraduate psychopharmacology and health psychology (stress endocrinology). Sadly though most in the medical profession choose to dismiss or ignore the harm of female organ removal. If the slab was also not reinforced and if a lot of soil settlement occurs under this floor, it could collapse suddenly, say when your car is parked there. Quoting: BRANZ is an independent and impartial research, testing, consulting and information company providing resources for the building industry.
Professor Wickersheimer specializes in structural failure investigation and repair for wood and masonry construction. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Les chiens dits sportifs se destinent preferablement a des proprietaires eux-memes sportifs (bergers, levriers, border-collie). In part because women menstruate, they have naturally lower levels of peripheral (body) iron than men.
Iron is a critical component of healthy myelin, too much or too little impairs signal conduction – brain messaging. Iron accumulation specifically in the frontal white matter region would impact all higher order cognitive function. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Removing the organs that synthesize these hormones has health consequences far beyond reproduction.
Wickersheimer's engineering consulting service can be contacted at HDC Wickersheimer Engineering Services. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
Le but de nos conseils est de vous guider dans cette reflexion et vous aidez a choisir un chien ! Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.

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