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DAILY TOURS EPHESUS BY PLANE ,A Daytrip to Ephesus ,This is a daytrip to Ephesus from Istanbul by plane returning back on the same day. History Of Ephesus,According to tradition, Efes (Ephesus), one of the most important cities of antiquity, was founded by Androclos, although it has been established that the Lelegians and Carians inhabited the place earlier. The Vedius Gymnasium was located to the north end of the city, right next to the Byzantine era city ramparts. The cave of the Seven Sleepers is reached through the asphalt road which goes through the east of the Vedius Gymnasium.
The town of Selcuk is dominated by a Byzantine citadel overlooking the Basilica of St.John (presently under restoration).
The Efes Archaeological Museum in Selcuk has been enlarged and diplays now the impressive works of art recovered from and around Efes. Neolithic age,The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BCE), as was revealed by the excavations at the nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici.Bronze age,Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill.
Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BCE on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the center of antique Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s). The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. Archaic period,About 650 BCE, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians, who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a later phase, called the Decelean War, or the Ionian War, with Sparta, which also had received the support of the Persians. In 356 BCE the temple of Artemis was burned down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus.
When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BCE, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated.
As the river Cayster silted up the harbor, the resulting marshes caused malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the Syrian king Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BCE. When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he came in conflict with Rome. When Augustus became emperor in 27 BCE, he made Ephesus instead of Pergamum the capital of proconsular Asia, which covered western Asia Minor.
The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (Diana), who had her chief shrine there, the Library of Celsus, and its theatre, which was capable of holding 25,000 spectators.
Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire in Asia after Constantinople in the 5th and 6th centuries. The importance of the city as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the river (today, KA?A§A?k Menderes) despite repeated dredging during the city's history. Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654-655 by caliph Muawiyah I, and later in 700 and 716 hastened the decline further. The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers. Anatolia was associated with John one of the chief apostles, and the Gospel of John might have been written in Ephesus, c 90-100.
Two decades later, the church at Ephesus there was still important enough to be addressed by a letter written by Bishop Ignatius of Antioch to the Ephesians in the early 2nd century AD, that begins with, "Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father, and predestinated before the beginning of time, that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory" (Letter to the Ephesians). The house of the Virgin Mary, about 7 km (4 mi) from SelA§uk, is believed to have been the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus.
The Church of Mary close to the harbor of Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431, which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius.
The Library of Celsus, the faA§ade of which has been carefully reconstructed from all original pieces, was built ca.
The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is represented only by one inconspicuous column, revealed during an archaeological excavation by the British Museum in the 1870s. The Odeon was a small roofed theate constructed by Vedius Antonius and his wife around 150 CE. The Temple of Hadrian dates from the 2nd century but underwent repairs in the 4th century and has been reerected from the surviving architectural fragments. At an estimated 44,000 seating capacity, the Theater is believed to be the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world.
The history of archaeological research in Ephesus stretches back to 1863, when British architect John Turtle Wood, sponsored by the British Museum, began to search for the Artemision. Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. Felt Making Workshop in Istanbul,elt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres. The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library. Les Arts Turcs Photo Safari Tour,istanbul,turkey,estambul,photo safari tour,Istanbul is an enchanting city of ancient beauty and modern charm . Let the experts and artists of Les Arts Turcs take you on a tour of this diverse city, specially tailored for the photographer or videographer. DAILY CAPPADOCIA GROUP TOUR SOUTH,Explore South Cappadocia Full Day Group Tour ,Discover the spectacular rock formations, magical fairy chimnies and cave churches of Turkey’s South Cappadocia region on this full-day sightseeing trip. Admire volcanic crater Nar Lake,Explore and Enjoy,First visit Derinkuyu to explore the hand-carved tunnels and caves of the ancient Derinkuyu Underground City.
First visit  Derinkuyu to explore the hand-carved tunnels and caves of the ancient Derinkuyu Underground City. Afterward, walk through Ihlara Valley for 4 km, watching very famous and interesting valley with many churches and underground caves. Then drive to Selime who has a breathtakingly beautiful and complex church compound cut into the rock. Bosphorus Bridge, drive on the bridge and enjoy the beautiful view when crossing the bridge from Europe to Asia. Bosphorus Bridge , unique chance to step from one continent (EUROPE) to another (ASIA) in 2 minutes. Camlica Hill , exposing a panoramic view of Istanbul and Bosphorus from the best point of view . Tour of “Sultan Ahmet center” the heart of the “old city” from Where the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires were ruled. Hagia Sophia , one of the greatest marvels of architecture,Constructed as a basilica in the 6th .
Blue mosque , facing Hagia Sophia , famous with its blue iznik tiles And unique with 6 minarets, built in the name of Sultan Ahmet. Hippodrome , center of sportive ( Chariot races , athletics) Events and political activities of the old city. Except Saturday and Sunday !!!! - A ) Advance Reservation Required.B ) Photocopy of your passport picture page is needed in advance for visit permits.
Synagogue Visits In Istanbul.Jewish community have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor for more than 2,400 years. The Ahrida Synagogue ,Located in Balat near the Golden Horn, built by Jews of Ohri (Macedonia) more than 550 years ago and recently renovated during the Quincentennial Celebrations in 1992, the Ahrida Synagogue is known foremost by its boat-shaped bimah. D ) The times are given by the Rabbinate & Times can change According to Them.,Synagogue Visits In Istanbul. Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques.
Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet. Camlica Hill, the highest point in istanbul, exposing a panoramic view of istanbul city and Bosphorus from the best point of view.
Ortakoy, is a cosmopolitan area, bordering waters of the Bosphorus with communites of Turk, Greeks, Armenians and Jews. Dolmabahce Palace, was the first European style palace built by Ottoman Sultans between 1843 and 1846.This is the last residence for Ottoman Sultans with 365 rooms and 22 saloons. The Greek peninsula was originally settled by the Minoan people who originated in Egypt and came to the mainland via the island of Crete on the south, by the Achaeans who settled in the Peloponnese, and by the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians who entered over the mountains from Europe in the north.
The name comes from the ruins at Mycenae where a large palace and many graves were discovered. The values that emerged from Homera€™s epic tales became the basic values of Greek culture and formed the basis for Greek education. Excellence (arete) -- doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others.
Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments.
Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. Glory (kleos) -- glory one achieves for parents, family, and polis through great deeds of excellence, honor, bravery.
Impermanence of human life -- everything in life is impermanent, but glory (kleos) never fades. After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil wars and their defenses became weakened. This period extended from the beginning of the wars with Persia up to the death of Alexander the Great in 336 B.C. The ideal Greek man was considered to be a brave warrior during war time and an excellent athlete in peace time. The olympic site at Olympia still contains the actual fields, large dirt berms where spectators sat, the tunnel through which the contestants ran onto the fields, and remnants of many statues to the gods. Persia, a major power that developed to the northeast of the Fertile Crescent, expanded through military power into present-day Turkey (Anatolia) and into the western areas of the Black Sea, just to the north of Greece.
The Greeks had established colonies in Troy, Ephesus, and other locations along the eastern edge of the Aegean in present day Turkey. Every modern marathon is exactly the same distance, whether it is run in London, Tokyo, or Boston. Xerxes is also well known to Christians and Jews because he was the husband of Queen Esther, a Jewish young woman who lived during the Babylonian Captivity of Judah.
Xerxes took his time -- four years -- to assemble a huge army of 2 million men and 1200 ships to attack Greece. The Persians marched to a point to the north of Athens, burning and pillaging Greek villages along their path.The goal was to conquer Athens and burn it to the ground in retaliation for Dariusa€™ previous defeat at Marathon. The Persians were like a herd of elephants attempting to crawl inside the neck of a Coke bottle. The Athenians meanwhile began evacuating all the citizens of Athens to Salamis, an island south of Athens, which was separated from the mainland by the Bay of Salamis.
Why was the Athenian army not present at Thermopylae if the goal of Xerxes was to destroy Athens?
Why did Leonidas not dismiss the Thespians from the battle, as he did the other Greek troops? What can be learned from the example of how Leonidas chose Thermopylae to fight the superior forces of the Persians?
By the time the Persians entered Athens, the entire city had been evacuated except for some priests and priestesses who were supposedly given the job of defending the sacred temples on the Acropolis. Why did Xerxes not head immediately into the Peloponnese to deal with Sparta, the hometown of Leonidas, who had angered him at Thermopylae? When the Persian ships entered the Bay of Salamis they were quickly surrounded by the more maneuverable Greek ships. The Athenians went on to build the worlda€™s largest navy and a merchant fleet that trading throughout the Mediterranean, while the Spartans developed the worlda€™s most powerful army.
After the Persian wars Athens and Sparta continued to develop two radically different cultures. The Peloponnesian League attacked Athens, but the outmanned Athenians under Pericles gained allies in the Peloponnese, thus damaging Spartaa€™s supply lines, and encouraged the Spartan helots (slaves) to flee to the Athenian allied city-states for safety and freedom. Athens had built large stone walls from the city down the rocky slopes about 8 miles to Piraeus, its port on the Aegean.
Eventually in following years Athens proved to be the city with the most resiliency, vitality, and potential. What two confederations were set up in Greece in view of disputes and bad attitudes between the various city-states? Pericles was the leader of Athens following the Persian Wars and led Athens in its war against Sparta. Socrates lived during the Peloponnesian Wars that racked Greece and brought Athens and Sparta to exhaustion.
Socrates sought through his philosophy to teach a better way, and to do so through the education of the youth of Athens. Socrates was upset by an earlier group of Athenian thinkers, the Sophists, who maintained that there were no universals or absolutes in life.
The elders of Athens were very disturbed by Socrates questioning tradition and teaching his students to do the same. Socrates was held in deep respect by his students, but resented by the leaders of the polis.
In the Apology of Plato (Dialogues 32, 41) when asked how he felt about his soon death, Socrates is reported by Plato to have replied that he had no feelings or emotions about death. What does Socrates believe about the soul that leads him to conclude that everything a person needs to know already exists in his mind, and merely needs to be allowed to come out? Since Socrates never wrote any of his teachings down, what is one source of his teachings that we can consult to discover what Socrates believed and taught? Early in life Plato wandered around the Mediterranean and was at one point captured by pirates.
In The Cave, Plato describes several people chained inside a cave who have never viewed what lies on the outside of the cave.
But if there are real Forms of chairs and trees and red apples, then there are real Forms of humans, also. It was Platoa€™s emphasis on the upper story that appealed to people in Northern Europe during the Renaissance and during the Protestant Reformation, as opposed to the man-centered humanism of Aristotle which was favored in the Italian Renaissance. How is this expressed in the statement by Plato to his teacher: a€?a€?And what, Socrates, is the food of the soul? Aristotle was the son of a physician who had served the grandfather of Alexander the Great. An educated mind is able to listen to and entertain a thought without blindly accepting it. Aristotle departed from his teacher, Plato, by maintaining, as did Confucius and Buddha, that there is not enough time in this life to worry about a life to come. Aristotle was a pioneer biologist in observing and classifying the plants, trees, and animals of Greece. Aristotle, in similar fashion to Plato his teacher, saw two energies or components of the soul -- desire and reason. At the close of the middle ages, many Italians began to discard the traditions of the Roman Church. All three of these philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, emphasized human reason as the major force of life.
In Christianity there is the important matter of the necessity of being born again, having our minds made new, of submitting our minds and wills to God, in trusting Him for wisdom and understanding. Some speculate that the gods and goddesses in Greek mythology were heroes from the earliest Mycenaean periods of Greeks history, preceding even Troy and Homer. This speculation comes from a careful study of Greek pottery, art, and sculpture, which gives, in the opinion of some historians, evidence that the gods and goddesses may have been the glorification by the early Greeks of major characters from the line of Cain who lived prior to the flood. For instance, Zeus could possibly be Nimrod, the first of the great warriors and the founder of the first city according to Genesis. Thus Greek mythology, maintains Johnson, is a corrupted version of biblical history, a twisted memory.
To understand the whole story that underlies the stories contained in Greek mythology, one must be aware of the clash between the older Titans and the younger Olympians.
In other pieces of Greek art there is a continuous emphasis on capturing and grasping the tree that contains the fruit of knowledge and mysteries.
If Johnson is correct in his interpretations of the many scenes depicted in Greek pottery, Greek mythology deifies the pre-flood line of Cain and depicts Zeus as triumphant over Noah and his God for rule on the earth. Athena is consistently represented in Greek art as not only the patron of Athens but the goddess who possesses knowledge, wisdom, and access to the mysteries. At the wedding feast celebrating Philipa€™s marriage to Cleopatra, her father made a toast, asking the gods for the birth of a son to become heir to the throne, obviously discounting Alexandera€™s legitimacy. In the melee that followed, one of his bodyguards, a friend of Alexander, stabbed Philip to death.
It is interesting to note that about 700 years later when a Roman general demanded that all of his troops sacrifice to the Emperor to confirm their loyalty, the same Thebian elite unit, now comprising a legion of 6,000 men, refused to sacrifice and the entire legion was put to death. Alexander invaded Anatolia, conquered Syria and Palestine, became the only one in the history of Afghanistan to conquer it, and conquered mighty Egypt. His goal was to unite the entire known world under one leader, speaking one language, and possessing one culture. Before you read the following account, please read the story of Paula€™s visit to Athens as described by Luke, Paula€™s companion, in Acts 17:16-34. The Athenians developed a complex mythology in an attempt to make sense out of human existence. By the time of Christ there were literally several thousand gods and goddesses in the religious system of Athens.
Monuments and altars to the many gods and goddesses lined the highway from Piraeus, the port, to the center of the city of Athens. Paul stopped in Athens on his way to Corinth, waiting for companions to arrive from Thessaloniki. In describing Paula€™s reaction to the Athenian idolatry, Luke, the companion of Paul, uses the Greek word paroxysm from which we get paroxsymal. Epicureans taught that the basis of human life was to a€?eat, drink, and have a good time, because tomorrow we will die.a€? There are no moral absolutes. Sophists were an itinerant group of philosophers who emphasized the intellect as the basis of human success.
Paul was invited to climb up to Mars Hill, a large hill inside Athens about 300 yards from the Acropolis.
Some have suggested that Paul made a mistake by resorting to philosophy and logic in an attempt to be accepted by the Areopagus. They asked the oracle at Delphi, what had they done to cause this plague, and most importantly, what could they do to end it? Further, the Oracle said, the Athenians must travel to the Island of Crete, to Knossos, a traditional enemy of Athens, to seek out the legendary prophet, Epimenides. Upon arriving at Athens, Epimenides noticed the hundreds of altars and monuments dedicated to the scores of Athenian deities. According to Plato, he states in his Laws, since the deity sacrificed to was unknown to the Athenians and unknown to Epimenides, the sites were named in honor of Agnosto Theo, the unknown god who had been appeased and who had lifted the plague.
Plato further noted that Epimenides prophesied that in ten years Persia would again attempt to invade Athens but would be frustrated and turned back.
Within ten years, Persia, under Darius, attempted to invade Athens, just as Epimenides predicted, but was defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon. Lest we become too enamored by Epimenides, however, he also claimed that Zeus was immortal. The refusal of the people of Crete to adore Zeus as the Immortal One caused Epimenides to make that classic statement, a€?All Cretans, liars!a€? This quote is cited by Paul in Titus 1:12. In the book, Peace Child, Don Richardson describes how the Gospel seemed to be a concept beyond the ability of the Asmat tribe in New Guinea to understand. Likewise, in the Ekari tribe of New Guinea the loss was lamented of the knowledge of Ajii, a place where the dead could go after death, where there was the absence of war, illness, sadness. In this same way, Paul used the bridge of the agnosto theo to enable the Athenians to understand the Gospel.
Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were later revered by the rest of the world, they were not well received during their lifetimes in Athens.
What truths did Epimenides declare about the true God when he made his four suggestions about the agnosto theo? What can we learn from this story to help us in talking with other people about the Good News of Jesus? Although Rome conquered Greece, Greece in its religion, philosophy, and language conquered Rome. The Christian faith grew rapidly in Greece, including such famous Christian communities as those in Corinth, Athens, Philippi, and Thessaloniki.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453, most of Greece in 1460 fell to the Ottomans.The Ottoman Turks were mountain people from the north of Persia who invaded and conquered present-day Turkey by the 12th century. Facing Russian troops sent by the Christian tsar of Russia at the walls of Constantinople in 1829, the Sultan of the Ottomans finally recognized Greek independence. In the 20th Century Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II, and a communist government was elected shortly after the war. Greece is important and of interest to Western Christians because it was the birthplace of the Christian Church in Europe. Greece is also the civilization that served as a bottleneck, preventing the domination of Islam in Europe. What is not laudable, is the religious darkness that existed in Greece prior to the arrival of the Gospel. What are the differences between the limited democracy of Athens and democracy as practiced in the United States?
What evidences are there for humane treatment of girls and women in the ancient Greek civilization?
It is said that the Romans capture the Greeks, but in reality the Greeks captured the Romans. The classical civilizations of Greece established institutions and defined values and styles that endured for many centuries and that continue to influence our lives today. Alongside of these religions developed two divinely revealed religions: Judaism and Christianity.
The first Greek civilization was the Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, with Knossos as its main community. The migration into the Greek mainland from the north by the Mycenaean people, and their subsequent invasion of Crete, resulted in a common language. Troy was a city-state strategically located at the Hellespont, where it controlled traffic to and from Europe and Asia Minor. Athens served as one of the models for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but as a direct democracy functioned very differently than the representative democracy established in the United States. While Athens was experimenting with a direct democracy, Israel had received from Jehovah through Moses a form of democratic, representative government. Israel, even though embracing a limited monarchy, considered itself a theocracy, with Jehovah at its center and the temple and sacrificial system centered in Jerusalem. The story of the plague at Athens and the wisdom of Epimenides led to the worship of the a€?Unknown Goda€? and to the eventual entrance of the Gospel to Athens and Greece.
Persia became the feared enemy of the Greek city-states, resulting in three major battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.
Ironically, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia, was Esther, a Jewish woman whose family had been takenA  to Babylon in the Babylonian Captivity of 566 BC.
The refusal of Athens to share its democratic dream with the other city-states, as well as jealousy and rebellion on the part of the other city-states, resulted in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Macedonia under Philip the Great conquered all of Greece and established the Macedonian empire. The values contained in The Iliad and The Odyssey that permeated Greek culture and Western Civilization. The difference between a direct democracy, like that of Athens, and a representative republic, like that of the United States of America. The battles in the Persian-Greek wars at Thermopylae, Marathon, and Salamis, included the reasons why the numerically smaller Greek forces were able to ultimately defeat the vast forces of Persia.
1.Excellence (arete) --A  doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. 2.Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. 3.Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. 4.Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. After lunch you will visit The House of Virgin Mary, where it is believed she spent her last days. The oval shaped stadium was built during the time of Emperor Neron and located to the south of the Vedius Gymnasium. In 1954 a burial ground from the Mycenaean era (1500-1400 BCE) with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St.
The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kadros. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbors as well as the movement of the Kayster River meant that the location never remained the same.
But when taxes continued to be raised under Cambyses II and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BCE), an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. The inhabitants of Ephesus at once set about restoring the temple and even planned a larger and grander one than the original.
The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph.
The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two kilometers further on, when the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers. After the murder of king Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife, pharaoh Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. After a series of battles, he was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE. This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007. The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town to Hagios Theologos.
They added important architectural works such as the A°sa Bey Mosque, caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam).
The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402, and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. From AD 52-54, Paul lived in Ephesus, working with the congregation and apparently organizing missionary activity into the hinterlands. Ephesus was one of the seven cities addressed in Revelation (2:1a€“7), indicating that the church at Ephesus was still strong. The church at Ephesus had given their support for Ignatius, who was taken to Rome for execution. A Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449, but its controversial acts were never approved by the Catholics. John, was built in the 6th century CE, under emperor Justinian I over the supposed site of the apostle's tomb. Some fragments of the frieze (which are insufficient to suggest the form of the original) and other small finds were removed a€“ some to London and some to the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul.
The reliefs in the upper sections are casts, the originals being now exhibited in the SelA§uk Archaeological Museum.
The story of the Seven Sleepers, who are considered saints by Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Muslims, tells that they were persecuted because of their belief in God and that they slept in a cave near Ephesus for centuries. In 1869 he discovered the pavement of the temple, but since further expected discoveries were not made the excavations stopped in 1874. Explore Old Istanbul, from the ancient tradition of the Turkish bath to the mystic Whirling Dervishes, from the Egyptian Spice Market to the trade secrets of the Silk Road linking Europe with China. Calligraphy Lesson in Istanbul,Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. We will transfer to your hotel MINA Hotel ,3 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,Discover Istanbul with us.
The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2,500 in A°zmir and other smaller groups located in the rest of Turkey. We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecture hidden in the maze of city streets, the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbula€™s scenic panoramas. Drive through Derinkuyu to explore the hand-carved tunnels and caves of the ancient Derinkuyu Underground City. In the later Middle Ages, Ashkenazi Jews migrating to the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire supplemented the original Jewish population of Asia Minor. In order to do this we need the passport copies of each guests, hotel adresses & ask our guests to fill our a special form that is given by the Rabbinate. E-mail. Founded by Ashkenazim of Austrian origin in 1900, it is the last remaining synagogue among a total of three built by Ashkenazim.
It can only be visited during weekday mornings.Etz Ahayim Synagogue ,Located in Ortakoy, near the European leg of the Bosphorus Bridge. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire.
Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. Ita€™s most famous ruler was the legendary king Minos who established the capitol city of Knossos. It was a warrior culture mentioned by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, describing the events that took place during the Trojan Wars between the Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece and Troy on the western shoreline of Anatolia (present-day Turkey).
They were carried into Roman culture by Virgil, were embraced by the Byzantines, and were carried into Italy during the Renaissance. Art, pottery, sculpturing, and architecture developed, establishing the foundation for much of the Classical period.
Athenian democracy developed under Pericles and the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis in Athens in worship of Athena. It derived its name from the goddess Athena who in Greek myth competed with Poseidon to be the patron of the city. The Isthmus games were held every two years at the narrow isthmus of Greece, located near Corinth.
He was most angered by Athens and Sparta, because when his father Darius sent messengers to those two cities to offer them the opportunity to surrender prior to the Battle of Marathon, they killed Dariusa€™ emissaries by throwing them down into deep wells.


The Persians arrived at a narrow, rocky pass, Thermopylae, which overlooked the rocky shoreline below -- a 50-foot wide narrow pass which only permitted a limited numbers of troops to squeeze through the pass at a time. King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the pass with 300 Spartans and 400 soldiers from other city-states.
A Greek traitor, however, revealed a hidden pass through the mountains that would by-pass Thermopylae and allow the Persian to attack Leonidas from the rear. He sent a messenger to Xerxes with the message that many of the Greeks were terrified, that they would not fight, and that if Xerxes sent his ships into the Bay of Salamis they could easily wipe out the Athenian navy. This would not bode well for the future of peace between the two city-states, however, and ultimately resulted in the Peloponnesian Wars. During the Peloponnesian War Athens suffered from a plague, which took the life of Pericles.
Pericles led a number of major building projects in Athens including the rebuilding of the Parthenon, constructing a large statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and rebuilt the acropolis. Socrates maintained that the universe and life below here on earth pointed to a different reality. In the dialogue, Meno, Socrates set forth the idea that when a person is born it is a reincarnation of the eternal soul which contains all knowledge.
He argued that the soul is eternal, lives on after the death of the physical body, and existed before the physical body.
Although he disagreed with some of his teachings, Plato memorialized Socrates in his work, the Apology of Plato. In it he describes the ideal form of government and society comprised of three classes of people: producers (craftsmen, farmers, builders), warriors, and guardians (rulers).
The goal is to follow the lead of the rational and spiritual portions of the soul and to make them masters over the appetite.
They can only speculate and guess, based upon the shadows they see moving across the floor and walls of the cave.
Plato seemed to these North European Christians to be saying that reality is above where God is. After his education in Athens, Aristotle was hired by King Philip of Macedonia to be the personal tutor of this son, the future Alexander the Great in Macedonia. Too many good things go unaccomplished because of either a bad beginning or not beginning at all.
During the Reign of Terror in France all Christian symbols were removed from the cathedral in Paris and a statute of the Goddess of Human Reason was placed in the cathedral. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence, some speculate, that many of the Greek gods and goddesses were reminder remnants of Biblical history prior to the Flood of Noah. Eve may be the prototype of Athena, because invariably when depicted in Greek sculpture Athena is pictured with a snake at her one side and a sword at the other.
Access to its snowy peaks was very difficult, it was shrouded in mystery, and was supposed by the Greeks to be the home of the Twelve Olympians. He is the son of Gaea and then became her husband; together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans. Because Atlas led the Titans in the battle, he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and was condemned to hold up for eternity the world on his back. Earth (Gaia) presents the new-born child to Athena, who represents the reborn serpent-friendly Eve after the Flood. In Section One of the Cycle of Rebirths in Buddhism, the gods and demigods are continually engaged, as here with the Greek deities, in a struggle over who will obtain the magic fruit of the tree that dispenses wisdom and eternity.
To depict this, Athena is usually accompanied by one or several snakes -- the symbol to the Greeks of hidden wisdom. As the story goes, Olympia, a mystical follower of the god Dionysus, often slept with a giant snake in her bed as both a pet and a spiritual symbol of Zeus. Olympia immediately feared that Cleopatra would produce a son who would become the legitimate heir to Philipa€™s throne. When he ran from the banquet, two of Alexandera€™s other friends caught him and killed him. When a boy baby was later born to Cleopatra, Alexandera€™s mother Olympia arranged to have Cleopatra and the child killed to prevent a challenger to Alexandera€™s throne. In Egypt he left behind a Greek, General Ptolemy, who became the first of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Wherever he went he left behind Greek soldiers to intermarry with the population and in this way to capture the local culture.
In other words, Paul was a€?deeply shaken.a€? he had a a€?sudden attacka€? or a€?deep disturbance,a€? and felt impelled to make a statement. He informs them about the unknown God, the Creator, who is near to each one of us, the one whom they worship but whose identity is a mystery to them.
The Greeks, whether from Sparta, Athens, or Thebes, would never think of going to war, embarking on a new project, or taking a long trip, without consulting with the Oracle. The Oracle's advice disturbed them -- an Unknown God was the cause of the plague, she said, who intended to punish the Athenians for having violated many years before an ancient Greek code of conduct against another city-state. The grateful citizens wanted to reward Epimenides, but he declined any payment, asking merely for a treaty of peace between Athens and his home city, Knossos. He spent the majority of his time in front of them filling that empty concept of the unknown god with truth about the God they worshipped as the agnosto theo. That is, until he discovered the exchange of little children made between warring clans for the purpose of making peace. The Roman gods, for example, were for the most part simply re named Greek gods from Greek mythology. It impacted the entire culture of Greece and the population were almost entirely Christianized by the middle of the second century. They destroyed most of the ancient Christian communities in Turkey, like Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamum, and other churches listed in the New Testament. The long struggle of Greece to resist Islam and to serve as a guard for the rest of Christian Europe against the Islamic Ottomans was at last over. It is interesting to travel through Greece to see white crosses placed virtually every hilltop to celebrate their independence from Ottoman rule. Churches at Corinth, Ephesus, Thessaloniki, and Philippi all had New Testament letters addressed to them. Many school children in America study Greek mythology in school, thinking of it as some sort of fairy tale, cartoonish system, not realizing its demonic roots and total domination of the Greek culture. Thomas Jefferson seemed to have favored implementing a certain form of limited democracy in the United States.
How might they have been modified and re directed after the Greeks embraced the Christian faith? They drove many of the Mycenaean people to the Ionian coast, and intermarried with the remaining Mycenaeans to form the Greek people. 700 B.C), authored two important epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the oldest known European literature. There is some indication that this mythology was the deification of a€?heroica€? men and women of old, who, before the Flood, composed the line of unrighteous persons. This was in stark contrast to the polytheism and idolatry practiced by its neighbors, including Greece and Rome.
Then you will visit the world famous ancient Greco-Roman City of Ephesus, the most well preserved example in the world. The Gate of Mazaeus and Mithridates has been restored and is the most beautiful entrance to the Agora.
According to legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way").
Pausanius mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus before the arrival of the Ionians. After the Persians defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire. In 479 BCE, the Ionians, together with Athens and Sparta, were able to oust the Persians from Anatolia.
When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished, he proposed to finance it and have his name inscribed on the front. As a result, Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197-133 BCE). It became the seat of the governor, growing into a metropolis and a major center of commerce.
The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. In 406 John Chrysostom, archbishop of Constantinople, ordered the destruction of the Temple of Artemis.[20] Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theatre and the harbour. The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea, which was important for trade. Ayasoluk became an important harbour, from whence the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions. He became embroiled in a dispute with artisans, whose livelihood depended on selling the statuettes of Artemis in the Temple of Artemis (Acts 19:23a€“41). It came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus or Robber Synod of Latrocinium by its opponents. The ruins that are visible give some idea of the city's original splendor, and the names associated with the ruins are evocative of its former life. Designed with an exaggerated entrance a€” so as to enhance its perceived size, speculate many historians a€” the building faces east so that the reading rooms could make best use of the morning light.
A number of figures are depicted in the reliefs, including the emperor Theodosius I with his wife and eldest son.
In 1895 German archaeologist Otto Benndorf, financed by a 10,000 guilder donation made by Austrian Karl Mautner Ritter von Markhof, resumed excavations.
Each of these intimate half-day and full-day tours will immerse you in a unique aspect of Turkish history and culture.Get expert help choosing the best hotels for yor needs and budget for your stay in A°stanbul and Turkey, Fethiye, Antalya, Marmaris, Bodrum, A°zmir, Gaziantep, Canakkale, Cappadocia, Black Sea, Gallipoli, Ephesus, East Turkey. Turkish Music Lesson in Istanbu,The last august 2004 I stayed in Istanbul, during a holiday trip.
Sephardic Jews make up approximately 96% of Turkey's Jewish population, while the rest are primarily Ashkenazic. With your own private guide, you will know where to go, when to go, how to get there and exactly how to get the most out of your visit a€“ from behind the lens. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7.
Walk through Ihlara Valley for 4 km, watching very famous and interesting valley with many churches and underground caves. Visits con be made during weekday mornings and for Shabbat services on Saturday mornings.The Neve Shalom Synagogue ,Built and opened in 1951 and the scene of a tragic terrorist attack in 1986, it is the largest synagogue in Istanbul where most of the religious ceremonies are held.
When the previous synagogue burned down in 1941 with only the marble Aron-ha-Kodesh remaining, the new synagogue was rebuilt on the location of the then midrash. The Ashkenazi Synagogue ,Located near the Galata Tower, it is the only active Ashkenazi Synagogue open to visits and prayers. A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey". (3)When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters.
Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community.
Ataturk lived the final part of his life in the residental part of the palace and died there.
He probably did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey because handwriting was not discovered in Greece until about 400 years after the time Homer was said to have lived.There were Greek colonies all along the Ionian coastline.
The philosophic schools of Socrates and Plato developed.The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was fought between Athens and Sparta and their allied city-states.
Darius and the Persians invaded Greece with over 100,000 troops but were defeated by 20,000 Greek hoplites in the famous battle at Marathon just north of Athens.
Her story is recorded in the Book of Esther and through her efforts a major slaughter of the Jews was averted. When a spy told them that the Persians were so numerous that when they shot their arrows they blocked the sun, Leonidasa€™ response was, a€?Good! Xerxes sent about 400 Persian triremes into the bay where the larger Persian ships, loaded with soldiers who could not swim, were faced by 300 smaller, sleeker Greek ships built to sail from island to island and were much more maneuverable.
These wars involved virtually all of the Greek city-states who allied themselves with either Athens or Sparta. He was so important to the life of Athens that his period of leadership is called the Age of Pericles (5th century).
He is also known for his contribution to the further development of democracy in Athens, which also provided salaries for magistrates and limited eligibility for public office to those who were born to two Athenian-born parents.
Confucius was the result of the Warring States period in Chinese history and he sought employment as a civil servant in order to sell his ideas to the rulers.
Therefore, each child, upon physical birth, is a reincarnation of that eternal soul and hence possesses that ancient knowledge.
When he was ransomed by his friends they purchased a small property for him so that he could settle down.
But we are trapped in our human bodies and cannot conceive of those Forms other than by observing their shadows down here in the lower story where we live.
We only see his reflections down here but one day we will be fully enlightened when we go to heaven to be where he is. For example, it is okay to laugh at a joke during lunch time, but probably is a bad idea in the middle of your grandmothera€™s funeral. They knew nothing about a personal God who lies outside of us, who communicates with us, and who has set out for us ideas and principles that are absolutes by which we are to live. Hera represents the serpenta€™s Eve before the Flood, and Athena represents the rebirth of the serpenta€™s Eve after the Flood.
The ruler of the Titans was Cronus (or Chronos, from which we get the words a€?chronologya€? and a€?chronometera€?).
Gaea seems to have been an earth-mother who was worshipped before the Indo-European invasion into Greece that lead to the Hellenistic civilization.
His rule ended when his son Cronus, encouraged by Uranusa€™ mother-wife,Gaea, castrated him. 190 BC), Nereus, the Greek Noah, standing in the rear to left, is the only one among the many other figures who is not actively engaged in the battle. The figure to the left of Gaia and the child is Hephaistos, the eldest son of Zeus and Hera, the deified Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. Is it possible that Athena, as with the other Greek deities, is a flashback to a pre-flood person -- possibly, Eve? Later she convinced the young Alexander that when she conceived him in her womb, she had become pregnant, not by Philip, but by Zeus, king of the gods. When Philip, drunken from wine, stumbled over a table in his attempt to strike Alexander, Alexander taunted Philip in front of all the guests by exclaiming, a€?Look! The most famous of his descendants was Cleopatra, lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony.
He also created several cities which he named Alexandria, the most famous becoming the capitol of Egypt under the Greek Ptolemaic pharaohs. As each group of invaders swept into Greece, parts of their mythologies and deities of their religions were incorporated into the Greek religion. On the top of the Acropolis in Athens stood the Parthenon, the temple devoted to the worship of Athena. Luke tells us that Paul attracted the attention of the Epicureans and the Stoics, the two main schools of Athenian philosophy at the time. They even founded a debating forum called the Areopagus, a unique Athenian group, at one time the ruling institution of Athens.
Paul was a master at meeting people where they were, moving them in the direction of truth, and then explaining to them the Gospel. Every year a woman from a local village was selected to spend the entire year sitting on a stool at Delphi, next to an open crevasse created by one of the many earthquakes in the region.
All of the known gods either dona€™t hear us or are incapable of helping you with this plague. It was in this condition that the Apostle Paul found the Athenians when he visited them in the first century A. When one of the warring clans wanted peace, they would take one of their own baby boys and, traveling under a truce to the enemy village, would offer the little boy as a peace offering.
Letters in the New Testament were written to Greek churches at Corinth, Thessaloniki, Philippi, and Ephesus. When Constantine built the new Roman capitol at Constantinople, Greece became the host-area for the Byzantine Empire. Christian monasteries in mountainous Greece became the safe havens for the Christian scriptures and other Christian literature. Many buildings in the United States imitate great architecture with their large marble pillars, built during the a€?Greek revivala€? in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. One of the most interesting buildings in Ephesus, the Serapis Temple, is located right to the west of the Agora. This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14th and 13th centuries BCE.
Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder. The city prospered again, producing a number of important historical figures, such as the iambic poet Callinus and the satirist Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus.,About 560 BCE Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus.
In 478 BCE, the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta into the Delian League against the Persians. But the inhabitants of Ephesus demurred, claiming that it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BCE, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic.
In 88 BCE Ephesus welcomed Archelaus, a general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered western Anatolia. The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts. Crusaders passing through were surprised that there was only a small village, called Ayasalouk, where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport.
After a period of unrest, the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1425. He wrote between 53 and 57 AD the letter 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (possibly from the "Paul tower" close to the harbour, where he was imprisoned for a short time). The upper part of the theater was decorated with red granite pillars in the Corinthian style.
In all those areas in Turkey you can find different variations of tour programmes from walking tour to Full package tours according to our all budget guests.
4 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,There is no another city which has 2 contients in the world so are you ready to see this fabulous city ??, Vip Transfer & Rent A Car Service in Istanbul,Expertise in the automotive field, the innovative concept of quality-oriented car rental and chauffeur driven hire service as soon as possible..
Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population.The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library. The Neve Shalom is open to the public for morning visits during the weekdays and for Shabbat prayers every Saturday morning. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire. In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank??
Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. The Iliad and the Odyssey were memorized by the Greeks and became essential components of Greek thought and culture. It is proposed by some that writing developed in Greece shortly after Homer in order to record his epics.
It was in response to the aftermath of this war and the defeat of Athens by Sparta that Socrates (469-399 BC) grew to prominence in an attempt to bring order out of the chaos that developed. Pressure from Greecea€™s traditional enemy, Persia, prevented the idea of limited democracy from developing further and it was forgotten until much later under the leadership of Pericles (c. The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympia, in south-west Greece in the Peloponnese.
Darius, king of Persia, was furious to learn that Athens had aided the Greek colonies in their rebellion. A bad taste was left in the mouths of the Athenians because the promised military assistance from Sparta never materialized. The troops were recruited (usually by force) from all of the Persian colonies throughout the Middle East. Hearing that the entire army and navy of Athens was on the nearby island of Salamis, Xerxes decided to postpone his march through the isthmus and to first annihilate the Athenians.
Xerxes, who was overlooking the battle from a high cliff, watched in dismay as the Greeks used oars, spears, and heavy clubs to kill the Persians when their triremes were overturned. The job of the teacher is simply to induce it to come out by asking wise, guiding questions. He named the property Academus -- Academy -- because he quickly turned it into the site for a school, following the pattern of his mentor, Socrates.
Each has its own area of specialization and should not intrude into the areas of the other two classes.
It is okay to eat a doughnut, but probably not a good idea to eat a dozen doughnuts, especially just before you go to bed or just before running a race.
For instance, even though every village and town had its own favorite god or goddess and each had its own temple or sacred place, there was one goddess to whom it was permissible to make sacrifice, and none of the other gods and goddesses would be offended. To insure his safety and superior position, when each of his children were born, he ate them!
The sculptors have placed him as a mute witness to the Greek godsa€™ defeat of the Giants (Nereusa€™ Yahweh-believing sons) signifying the end of Greek faith in Noaha€™s God.
Heracles, the Nimrod of Genesis, demands to know something that only the Salt Sea Old Man can tell him. Philip, King of Macedonia, assembled a powerful military and was intent on conquering Persia as payback for Persiaa€™s earlier invasions of Greece and, in his day, its current ongoing threat to the well-being of Greece.
However, he died prior to completing the second step, his planned invasion of Anatolia and Persia. This divine parentage elevated Alexander to be a god in the flesh, on a par with the noblest heroes of Greek mythology. Did Olympia and Alexander assassinate Philip prior to any chance of Philip fathering a son with Cleopatra? Beyond the beauty of the sites visited, however, Paul was deeply disturbed by the rampant idolatry.
While Paul seemed to them to be an ignorant babbler, still, it was new and interesting information he was babbling about! By the time of Paula€™s arrival it had become more like a breakfast club that gathered to hear all the latest ideas, fads, and philosophies.
His approach at Athens was not a new tactic and did not result in a rejection of the Gospel. Assemble also teams of stone masons and have ready a large supply of stones.a€? The next morning 100 goats arrived together with teams of masons and loads of stones. Second, if there is an unknown god, that god must have the ability and the inclination to hear us when we sacrifice to him or her.
The Greeks resisted conversion by the Muslim Ottomans and maintained a strong Christian culture, even in the face of frequent persecutions.
Set on the hillside above the street are the restored Terraced Houses, containing interesting, often well preserved frescoes from the 2nd century A.D. These were constructed near the quay in order to receive with hospitality dignitaries who arrived from the sea. Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa), a Bronze Age-city noted in 14th-century BCE Hittite sources as in the land of Ahhiyawa.Dark age,Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of SelA§uk, near Ephesus.
He was a successful warrior, and as king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League.
He treated the inhabitants with respect, despite ruling harshly, and even became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Ephesus did not contribute ships but gave financial support by offering the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena, protectress of Athens.
After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Ephesus in 290 BCE came under the rule of one of Alexander's generals, Lysimachus. This led to the Asiatic Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia Minor, or any person who spoke with a Latin accent. Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400,000 to 500,000 inhabitants in the year 100, making it the largest city in Roman Asia and of the day.
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Nurdogan, who kindly explained and showed me what he works on in his establishment "Les Arts Turcs". It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under SA?leyman I the Magnificent.
A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. Located at one end of lhlara Valley, visit Selime who has an incredibly beautiful and complex church compound cut into the rock. Visits con be made during weekday mornings and for Shabbat services on Saturday mornings.,The Neve Shalom Synagogue ,uilt and opened in 1951 and the scene of a tragic terrorist attack in 1986, it is the largest synagogue in Istanbul where most of the religiou,s ceremonies are held. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews??
There were two early forms, one a derivative of hieroglyphics in Egypt, and the other from the Phoenicians. Famed military heroes and kings of the polis from the Mycenaean Age were included as gods in the growing mythology of the Greek religion. A two-tiered class system developed based upon onea€™s personal wealth, with the greatest power going to those at the top of the ladder; the lowest classes, however, were free from taxation. When they arrived at the Hellespont, Xerxes filled the channel with ships and built bridges over the decks of the ships so that the men and supplies could pass over into Greece. He did not dismiss the Thespians because not trusting their loyalty, he wanted to keep his eye on them.
Furthermore, the Athenians, Corinthians, and other Greek ships were highly motivated because they were fighting for the survival of Greece. Not only could the Persians not swim but their long robes became water-soaked causing most to drown. Athens was viewed by many as the big, bad, prosperous wolf of Greece and potentially dangerous to the other city-states.
His three principle featuring filial piety, he believed, would bring harmony and order to political, economic, and family life. This meant that it was not to the gods or the elders that we should run when seeking answers but through contemplating about onea€™s life, about what produces good, harmony, and happiness in this life. From Socratea€™s death comes the expression, a€?Pick your poison.a€? He chose to drink a beverage made of a lethal poison, hemlock. The rightful goal of every person is to faithfully live out the role assigned to him by nature and should not seek to do any other business or seek another other role. They probably would not believe him because what he saw and then reported to them would not necessarily conform to what they sightlessly imagined it to be. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished in defeat to Tartarus in the underworld. This worked fine until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of the newborn Zeus.
Herakles demands to know from Nereus, who is a living connection to the pre-Flood world, where he can find the enlightenment of the serpent.
He wondered how the Athenians, who had developed their special brand of democracy and produce philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, could fall for such pagan concepts of spirituality. As she sat there on her stool, breathing in those toxic and perhaps hallucinogenic fumes, it was believed that she could predict the future. Rubbing his sleepy eyes, Epimenides said, a€?Now, turn the goats loose and allow them to graze wherever they choose. Third, in order to help us this unknown god or goddess must have the ability and power to actually do something about the plague. In this way the two warring clans were related together in one confederacy by the presence of this one a€?peace child. After the Ottomans failed in their 1683 attempt to conquer Vienna, Austria, Christian troops from Venice and Austria invaded Greece, attacked the Ottomans in Athens, and greatly weakened Ottoman rule in Greece, By the late 1700s, however, Ottoman rule was re established until the Greeks won their independence, region by region from the Ottomans. Paul gave sermons in the Grand Theatre, seating 25,000 - the most spectacular monument of Efes. The Church of the Holy Virgin Mary was constructed in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, and it played an important role in the early expansion of Christianity; this church symbolized one of seven Churches of the Apocalypse. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.
Sufism Speech with Dervish EROL,Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.
It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak. Rav Izak Haleva, is assisted by a religious Council made up of a Rosh Bet Din and three Hahamim. Finally visit Nar Lake ,a volcanic crater lake, about 36 km southeast of Aksaray in Cappadocia.
The Neve Shalom is open to the public for morning visits during the weekdays and for Shabbat prayers every Saturday morning.The Ahrida Synagogue ,Located in Balat near the Golden Horn, built by Jews of Ohri (Macedonia) more than 550 years ago and recently renovated during the Quincentennial Celebrations in 1992, the Ahrida Synagogue is known foremost by its boat-shaped bimah. The Neve Shalom is open to the public for morning visits during the weekdays and for Shabbat prayers every Saturday morning.,,The Ahrida Synagogue ,Located in Balat near the Golden Horn, built by Jews of Ohri (Macedonia) more than 550 years ago and recently renovated during the Quincentennial Celebrations in 1992, the Ahrida Synagogue is known foremost by its boat-shaped bimah. The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the "Super Power" of those days. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. The Mycenaeans were adventurers, traveling to and trading with peoples in Anatolia, Europe, and throughout the Mediterranean. It was a a€?limiteda€? democracy because it only allowed adult males (not women!) (1) to vote and hold office, (2) but only if they were born in the city of Athens, (3) and if they owned land. The teachera€™s role is to encourage that knowledge to come out by use of proper questions.


Therefore, ethics is personal and autonomous (determined by onea€™s own thoughtful insight and not something received from others). We see the shadow of the Real Chair, the Real Tree, the Real Red Apple by looking at their shadows down here on earth. During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets and their names remained attached to the planets when the Romans adopted much of Greek mythology.
Zeus revolted against Cronus and the other Titans, defeated them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld. While on his death bed, lying in a tent in Baghdad, his troops filed past in a huge procession to honor their great leader. Since it is early morning, none of the goats will normally lie down, but will eat their full after a night with no food.
And fourth, this unknown god or goddess will understand that it is in ignorance that we do not know his or her name and will forgive us for our ignorance.a€? With those words, the sacrifices were offered up to the unknown god. Greek honor guards at the presidential palace today in Athens have 450 pleats in their native uniforms, signifying the 450 years that Greece was subjugated to the Ottoman Turks. The ruins remaining are of the city established by Lyssimachos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great in the 3rd century B.C. The Theatre beautifully restored and now serves as a setting for the artistic and folkloric shows of the international Efes Festival, held every year in spring.
Officially sanctioned by the Vatican, it is now popular site of pilgrimage, visited by Christians and Muslims from all over the world. He died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League.[10] Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from the second century. In later times, Pliny the Elder mentioned having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana by Timarata, the daughter of a painter. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by Zenobius, a general of Mithridates, they refused entry to his army. The Order wrote of tolerance, forgiveness, and enlightenment.Istanbul Day Tours, Istanbul city tours, Sultanahmet Tours, Walkig Tours in istanbul, Art Tours in istanbul, walking tours in istanbul, group tours in istanbul, private tours in istanbul, hire a guide in istanbul, off the paths tour in istanbul, excursions in istanbul, ottoman tour, byzantine tour in istanbul, classical sightseeing tours in istanbul Swimming Tour in Istanbul,Kilyos is a small Black Sea village which is surrounded by green forests. She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season.
Thirty-five Lay Counselors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen, the president of which must be elected from among the Lay Counselors, runs the daily affairs.Except Saturday and Sunday !!!! - A ) Advance Reservation Required. It can only be visited during weekday mornings.,Etz Ahayim Synagogue ,Located in Ortakoy, near the European leg of the Bosphorus Bridge. Because of this the Athenians developed a€?overseasa€? colonies in order to grow wheat and other grains. To the women and to those who moved to Athens from other areas, this was hardly a democracy.
A soldier, Pheidippides, was sent running back to Athens, 26 miles to the south, to announce the good news of the victory. Zeus and his wife (first known as Dione and then Hera) are deifications of Adam and his wife Eve.a€? (Johnson, The Parthenon Code 2004, p. The New Testament was not written in Aramaic (the language of Jesus and the apostles) or in Latin (the language of the Roman conquerors) but was written in Greek, the most widely spoken language. Later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo and the poet Kallinos, and the historian Herodotos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. Zenobius was invited into the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monima, the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the overseer of Ephesus. The village is just a forty five minutes drive from Istanbul.Turkish Music Lesson in Istanbul,The last august 2004 I stayed in Istanbul, during a holiday trip.
In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment.
In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students.
They invaded south to Crete where a blending of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures took place. Some historians state that the United States acquired its concept of democracy from Athens. The Arcadian Way was the long main road, paved with marble and lined with columns on both sides, that stretched from the Grand Theatre to the old port, now totally silted. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino).
A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor. The area with its moderate climate was ideal, however, for the development of olive groves, vineyards, almonds, and apples. The Saducees were hellenized Jews, and thus denied the reality of the resurrection of the dead. On this road was the Four Evangelists Monument - four columns upon which stood statues of the four evangelists.
Once numbered amongst the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, it was constructed entirely of marble. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. In his honor and memory (his kleos) the Greeks established the marathon of 26 miles, exactly the distance of the modern marathon race. Kronos (Chronos), the father of time in Greek mythology, a€?could very well be,a€? says Johnson, a€?Greek religiona€™s equivalent of Yahweh, the Lord of Tome.
They constructed gymnasiums and athletic stadiums in Palestine, to the horror of the traditional and legalistic Pharisees. When the Seljuks and later Ottomans claimed the control of the city, it had already lost its commercial and political significance.
The marvelous Hellenistic Fountain stood just across the Theater and next to the eastern end of the Arcadian Way.
The marble road which was connecting the Temple of Artemis to the State Agora through the Magnesia Gate was considered to be the holy road of the city. Yoga Lesson in Istanbul,Yoga is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India.
We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish. Today, a visit to Ephesus is one of the highlights of any visit to Turkey.Visits to the ruins of Efes usually begin in the eastern part of the city through the Magnesia Gate, around the important Upper Agora or also known as the State Agora. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson.
While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure. When Mithridates was defeated in the First Mithridatic War by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Ephesus came back under Roman rule in 86 BCE. Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come. In the later Middle Ages, Ashkenazi Jews migrating to the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire supplemented the original Jewish population of Asia Minor. He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. At the end of the 15th century, a large number of Sephardic Jews fleeing persecution in Spain and Portugal settled in Asia Minor on the invitation of the Ottoman Empire. Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population.
Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc.
He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal.
There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883.
When the previous synagogue burned down in 1941 with only the marble Aron-ha-Kodesh remaining, the new synagogue was rebuilt on the location of the then midrash,.
She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way.
5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college.
She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor.
Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson.
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae.
She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out.
I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets.
By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities. Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf.
Half a century later, 8070 Jewish houses were listed in the city.The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help.
It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication. There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work.
He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt.
13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut.
The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time.
Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet). The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums.
Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier. The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work".
A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator. It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.
I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday.
She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive".
A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom.
In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus.
20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds.
He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion.
One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig.
At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected.
A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered.
The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design. In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose.
A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity.
The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site.
She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth.
That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation. The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance. By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often.
Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier.
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone.
Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone.
She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding.
Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained.
Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high.
The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits. A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard.
There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king.
The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner.
It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court.
The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed. This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple. Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler. The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it.
A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls.
In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken).
Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues.
As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse.
Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.



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