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Oriented with North at the top, the world map contains a wind rose with eight divisions, the center of which is situated on the western shores of the Mar Capara [Caspian Sea] the northern division is marked with a star and the eastern division is marked by a cross. While no color copy, or color photograph of this map has survived it is known that the map was produced in color with the seas left white, except for the Red Sea that is colored in vermillion.
The continental landmass is surrounded by a large expanse of ocean which several times mentions Mari Oziano magno.
The influence of the Genoan and Catalonian nautical maps is marked particularly by the detailed indications of the then recently discovered islands in the Atlantic, the Canaries and the Azores.
In Asia, most of the regional notations are consistent with Mongolian domination, a crown with the notes Medru, Calcar, Monza sede di sedre [the Mangi of northern China], and Bogar Tartarorum [the Great Bulgarian or Golden Horde]. As for the calendar appended to the world map, it shows the figure of a child whose body parts correspond to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, a classic representation of a miniature Adam. This map contains areas of Asia with names used in the Mongol dynasty; some rivers and cities have similar names as those in a€?The Travels of Marco Poloa€?, and it shows that before the map was drawn the cartographer had referred to the maps made by Chinese Yuan scholars. What requires special notice is there can be seen a remark on the V-shaped land on the upper left of the de Virga map that says: a€?the known furthest extreme of the worlda€?. The latter de Virga world map has been missing since 1932, when its owner withdrew it just days before an auction to be held by Gilhofer & Ranschburg in Lucerne, Switzerland, according to the cartographic historian Albert DA?rst, who describes the map minutely in a 1996 article in the journal Cartographica Helvetica. Thompson, a psychologist who serves as director of the Multicultural Discovery Project at the University of Hawaii, supposes that de Virga lacked precedents for expressing medieval European surveys of the Americas on a planisphere and thus depicted the New World in an odd configuration a€” to the north and west. A sketch of the northern section of de Virgaa€™s world map reveals the legacy of a survey by Nicholas of Lynn, according to Gunnar Thompson.
Thompson is not the first to argue that pre-Columbian American discovery by the Norse and others resulted in early cartographical representations of the Americas. Unlike the case of the so-called Vinland Map (#243), there was no reason to dispute the authenticity of de Virgaa€™s world map when it emerged from oblivion in 1912, and there is no reason to dispute it now. De Virgaa€™s African outline is startlingly advanced compared with the works of his contemporaries in Venice and elsewhere.
Juxtaposing de Virgaa€™s world map with a 1511 Venetian edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (compiled by Bernardus Sylvanus with maps by Andreas Matheus Aquavivus) underscores the realism of the former. Although the map also depicts a somewhat foreshortened coastline from the Algarve to Brittany, the coast is at least recognizable past the English Channel and beyond the Scheldt, up the west coast of Danish Jutland.
The Danish king exacted payments from ships on their way to and from the Baltic toward the Hanse cities (a medieval alliance of cities that controlled trade between the eastern and western sides of northern Europe). Although inaccurate by modem standards, de Virgaa€™s delineations of the Baltic Sea and Scandinavian Peninsula fairly represent contemporary Hanse knowledge. His map adequately depicts the western part of the Baltic with an arm dipping south, as well as the eastward-tending inner Baltic with the Finnish Bay and a north coast comprised of Finland and southeast Sweden combined with Danish Scania.
Nevertheless, many Hanse would have heard about or experienced a part of this cold arm reaching north into the unfamiliar regions just a little past the Scanian peninsula. Logically, the land mass in the mapa€™s northwest corner, featuring a crown and the name Norveca (repeated in three more places, probably to indicate the three major Norwegian towns) would then represent his concept of southwest Sweden detached from Danish Scania and of southern Norway from its join with Sweden at least as far north and west as Bergen. Showing the rather wide southern end of Norway in this manner would also be in keeping with Hanse information.
Although he clearly did not know the shape of Norway, de Virga would have been aware of the countrya€™s existence. It is tempting to assume that medieval churchmen who had spent time in the Far North contributed to Romea€™s knowledge of this remote region and that this knowledge long had been diffused through various channels of culture and learning.
Whereas modern scholars are able to fit topographical descriptions or information from travel accounts into an existing geographic image, such visual aids did not exist during the Middle Ages.
Thompson and other writers support their claims about pre-Columbian European cartographic awareness of the Americas by calling into service the supposed 1360 voyage of Nicholas of Lynn, as well as an Arabic mention of Greater Ireland. Gunnar Thompsona€™s theory regarding the de Virga mapa€™s Norveca rests on his conviction that the cartographical record of American discovery reaches back through the Middle Ages. The map was re-discovered in a second-hand bookshop in 1911 in A ibenik, Croatia by Albert Figdor, an art collector. When Figdor died on 22 January 1927, his magnificent collections became the property of his niece Margarete Becker-Walz, the wife of a prominent Heidelberg lawyer. Father Fischer was the only scholar in Becker-Walza€™s part of Europe who combined a belief in medieval cartographic manifestations of the Norse discovery of America with sufficient scholarly stature to allow an approach to the map's owner. That year brought an opportunity to revive his interest when he was asked to comment on a manuscript atlas about to be auctioned by Gilhofer & Ranschburg a€” an atlas he had been allowed to keep at Stella Matutina for the purposes of study. If Becker-Walz withdrew the map from the auction on Fischera€™s advice and withdraw it she did a€” neither of them would have had much opportunity to proceed further.
For Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband, as Jews living in Heidelberg, the situation would have turned ugly sooner. After Germanya€™s surrender in 1945, Nazi loot was found stored all over the former Third Reich in town offices, houses used as billets, officersa€™ clubs, and cattle barns. This map by the Venetian cartographer, Albertin de Virga, shows Marco Poloa€™s a€?Southern Continenta€? southeast of Asia.
To the extent that it is based on the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, there are rhumb-lines (thirty-two out of each of sixteen centers) and two unlabeled scales; also the map features shields and flags over Europe and kings in tents elsewhere. The language of the fifty-two legends, apart from the one in Latin on the Canaries, is Catalan. The oldest of the portolan charts to survive are of Italian origin, made at Genoa and Pisa; those dating from the latter half of the 14th century are mainly Catalan. Scarcely less valuable and certainly more interesting for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth. However, on one matter the mapmaker could hardly refrain from speculating, for this reason: land exploration had for a long time now outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, for example, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe in the same latitudes.
The shape of Africa on this map is unique, and it is much enlarged in relation to Europe and Asia. That the great western gulf reflects some knowledge of the Gulf of Guinea is more probable. Some surprise has been expressed that a map of 1450 should contain relatively up-to-date details coupled with antiquated ideas in other areas, and this has produced some rather involved explanations. The merit of the Catalan cartographers lay in the skill with which they employed the best contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, rarely proceeding further than the evidence warranted. In the case of the Catalan-Estense map, whose date was earlier conjectured to be 14th century, the determining area would appear to be the west coast of Africa. Further south, no discoveries are evident in the Gulf of Guinea later than a friara€™s journey, ca. A prominent feature of this map is the very long extension of the Gulf of Guinea eastwards, linked apparently by a river to the Indian Ocean, which is given a gulf south of the Horn of Africa. Africa contains half a dozen reigning monarchs, from Musamelli to Prester John, sitting in splendor in their royal tents. The course of the Atlas Mountains is very similar to that on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, even including a curved northern prong in the central area.
With the development of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the a€?harmonizinga€™ problem became increasingly acute. The circular Catalan-Estense map, measuring 113 cm in diameter, is very colorful with a large number of princes shown throughout Africa (where Prester John has been placed), 52 legends, castellated towns for major settlements, loxodromes, ships, mermaids, domesticated reindeer and horses. The northern portions of Asia and Europe on the Estense map, which lay outside the limits of the Catalan Atlas, significantly, contain very little detail. Recollections of medieval maps include the Earthly Paradise with Adam and Eve and the tree, here not in Mesopotamia but in Abyssinia, between the eastern branch of the Nile and the Red Sea, at a spring from which the four medieval rivers of Paradise flow. In the hinterland of Asia the most prominent feature is the Caspian Sea, orientated northwest-southeast as in the Topkapu Siray fragment, but similar in shape to Ptolemya€™s.
The account of China is also derived from Marco Polo, who mentions charts and gives occasional bearings, and from whose voyages the map that existed in 1459 in the Palace of the Doges, Venice, was drawn. To the generally good delineation of European coasts there are exceptions, especially in more northern areas. In the 14th century the Catalonia-Valencia-Majorca region was a flourishing center of trade and culture where Arab and Jewish elements blended with Christian culture.
The far north in Europe and Asia is more frightening than Africa, showing a naked giant pursuing a fox, a nine-headed idol being adored by two worshippers, and a strange hanging head, which appears on several other 15th century world maps.
The entire map has been shifted to the east in its circular frame, thus making more room in the Atlantic for its islands.
The combination of archaism and modernism is an outstanding characteristic of this map, and it is interesting to note that the cultured and humanistic Duke of Ferrara, Ercole da€™Este, the owner of this map, also had in his library a copy of Ptolemya€™s Geography, edited by Nicholas Germanus. According to Chet Van Duzer, a legend that says that there are three types of sirens in the Indian Ocean on the Catalan Estense mappamundi.
Destombes, M., a€?Fragments of two Medieval world maps at the Topkapu Saray Library,a€? Imago Mundi 12 (1955), pp. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Marine chart of Nicolo de Canerio Januensis, 1502 (circa) (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1908). Andrews, Michael Corbet, a€?The boundary between England and Scotland in the portolan charts,a€? Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh, ser.
Andrews, Michael Corbet, a€?The British Isles in the nautical charts of the XIVth and XVth centuries,a€? The Geographical Journal, London, LXVIII (1926), pp. Crone, Gerald Roe, Maps and their makers, an introduction to the history of cartography (London: Hutchinsona€™s University Library, 1953), pp. Destombes, Marcel, a€?Fragments of two medieval world maps at the Top Kapu Saray Library,a€? Imago Mundi, XII (1955), p.
Taylor, Eva Germaine Remington, a€?Pactolus, river of gold,a€? Scottish Geographical Magazine, Edinburgh, pp, 129-144.
Uzielli, Gustavo and Amat di Filippo, Pietro, Mappamondi, cartenautiche, portolani ed altre monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XVII, 2nd ed. Winter, Heinrich, a€?The changing face of Scandinavia and the Baltic in cartography up to 1522,a€? Imago Mundi, XII (1955), p. Located near the territory of Prester John between Nubia and the city of Arin [Civitasarim], the latter prominently marked and centrally placed in the Horn of Africa, not far from the Indian Ocean in which six islands of various sixes and colors are depicted. The circular Catalan-Estense map, measuring 113 cm in diameter, is very colorful with a large number of princes shown throughout Africa (where Prester John has been placed), 52 legends, castellated towns for major settlements, loxodromes, ships, mermaids, domesticated reindeer and horses.A A  Although almost a hundred years later, it is clearly related to the pivotal Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235).
The landmasses are colored in yellow, although the islands are in a variety of colors; the mountains are in a greenish-brown, the lakes in blue, and the rivers are colored brown.
The Holy Land, marked with the names of Jordan and Gorlan [Jerusalem], does not, as with many previous medieval maps, exactly occupy the center of the map.
Africa is decorated with the common representation of the Atlas Mountains, which spread over the northern part of Africa like a serpent, and by the Mountains of the Moon towards the south which surrounds twice the region where the Ylon [the river Nile] and several other rivers flow.
There is also a plan for fortifications marked simply M[on]gol [Caracorum, in Greater Asia]. On the left is a table of 100 letters, alternating black and red, which allows the reader to calculate the date of Easter as either 2 April 1301 or 18 April 1400. It is known that he is also the author of a nautical map of the Mediterranean Sea, of the classical type, which has flowery ornamentation similar to this world map and signed in the same way: A. According to some scholars this remark could not possibly be written by a European, because if one looks at the map it is easy to see the furthest part from Europe is not the V-shaped land, but China, so obviously this remark is originally from the ancient Chinese.
The Venetian cartographer Albertin de Virga does not loom large in medieval map literature: all we know of him is what we can learn from two of his maps. DA?rst notes renewed interest in the map after a recent claim by a researcher at the University of Hawaii, Gunnar Thompson, that de Virga indicated large parts of North and South America in the upper left section of the map, but DA?rst does not comment on Thompsona€™s theory. He contends that the continent labeled Norveca represents Americaa€™s east coast from Labrador to Florida, that the land northeast of Norway is Venezuela and Brazil, and that the island situated southeast of Asia delineates the coast of Peru.
Nor is he the first to claim that an elusive medieval travel account of the Arctic, called Inventio Fortunatae (circa 1360), was written by Friar Nicholas of Lynn, who, according to Thompson, not only crossed to North America but also surveyed the lands well enough to later provide cartographical evidence. On the contrary, there are very good reasons to wonder why we should disregard the mapmakera€™s own nomenclature, particularly given the evident care with which de Virga executed the task he had set himself. De Virga appears to have had an unusual ability to calculate shapes and distances on the basis of second-hand information provided to him, most likely by sailors probing the African coasts and from reports by merchants familiar with the trans-Saharan gold route.
Although the 1511 maps incorporate American discoveries, they indicate little knowledge of the Far North and are otherwise regressive, considering what de Virga knew a century earlier. Trouble comes after the Skaw (northernmost Jutland), where in order to enter the Baltic Sea a ship had to head south in the Kattegat (a strait separating Sweden and Denmark) before passing through a narrow sound separating the island of SjA¦lland from the Scanlan. The Scania herring trade was so important that this extra piece of Denmark would have been known to Venetian merchants, who flocked to the Flanders markets in order to trade with the Hanse bringing their cargo south. Such information would have been available to de Virga either from Hanse merchants or through Venetian merchants returning from trips to the North to buy salted herring, stockfish (wind-dried cod), and other commodities. The entire northern arm (now called the Bothnian Bay), beginning at about 60 degrees North, lay outside the Hanse merchantsa€™ scope, as it was devoid of significant trading centers. Perhaps de Virga, after hearing a description of this assumed northward passage into the unknown (rather than a closed bay), decided it must lie just to the west of Scania, rather than to the east where the waters were much more familiar to the Hanse.
That the land mass called Norveca has nothing to do with either Greenland or North America should be abundantly clear from the nomenclature alone; it also is firmly connected to the world Albertin de Virga and his contemporaries already knew. As the center of the stockfish trade, Bergen had served as the chief Hanseatic port in Norway throughout the Middle Ages, and any Hanse skipper worth his salt would have known the route there. Anyone living in Venice around 1415 who had commercial ties or who was curious about geography would have known that Norway lay far to the north, that it dominated the stockfish trade, and that the country was mountainous and probably very large.
In reality, information flowed primarily in the opposite direction from the 11th century onward.
Medieval readers must for themselves conceptualize distances and exotic locations, and as a result, their inventions wandered all over the map, both literally and figuratively.
In addition to the regular Ireland associated with the British Isles, the Arabic geographer Abu-Abd-Allah Mohammed al-Idrisi, 1099-1180, (#219) noted a Greater Ireland in the northwest Atlantic, supposedly a reference to known land on the American side. Others have expressed a similar belief, including those who believe the Vinland Map at Yale University is a genuine mid-15th century expression of Norse discovery in America. At first, the Austrian authorities refused to allow the collections out of the country, but after much legal wrangling and string-pulling, the well-connected Frau Becker-Walz managed to auction off the bulk of Figdora€™s art works and furniture in 1930. Why Margarete Becker-Walz withdrew the map at the last minute from such a distinguished antiquarian auction house is a matter of speculation.
In 1932, besides being at the height of his reputation as a cartographic historian, he was no longer in von Wiesera€™s shadow.
Given his close relations with the auction house at the time the de Virga map was being offered for sale, it is highly likely he would have seen Auction Catalog Number 8 with its photograph of the map. Arrests, boycotts of Jewish businesses, and dismissals from academic and other public positions began almost immediately after the Nazis came to power. Some of these stolen articles are slowly finding their way into the antiquarian market, and with luck we may again see de Virgaa€™s world map. The island-continent is called a€?Ca-paru or Great India.a€? The map was made between 1410 and 1414.
Unlike many medieval scholars the draftsmen of Majorca showed a praiseworthy restraint in this respect. The earlier draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. Below the Gulf of Guinea, which nearly cuts the continent in two, is a large crescent-shaped appendage extending to the east and forming a southern shore for the Indian Ocean.
The continent ends in a great arc, conforming to the circular frame of the map, and extending eastwards to form the southern boundary of the Indian Ocean. The design of the northern half of the continent in general resembles that of the other Catalan charts, but the northwestern coast embodies some details of contemporary Portuguese voyages as far as C. Taking into consideration the lack of details and names in the southern regions of Africa, we may plausibly conjecture that, as an exception to the usual conservatism, the draftsman, in Africa at least, had removed all the detail for which he had no evidence, to obtain a framework on which to insert the latest Portuguese discoveries. In the same spirit they removed from the map most of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred, for example, to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa a blank rather than to fill it with the Anthropagi and other monsters which adorn so many medieval maps.
The map names Cape Verde, which was discovered by Dias in 1444 and whose first recorded mapping is by Andrea Bianco in 1448 (#241).
1350, recorded in a book called Libro del conoscimiento de todos los reynos y tierras [Book of knowledge of all kingdoms and lands].
A waterway linking east and west Africa is reminiscent of the tradition going back to Crates of Mallos (168 BC, Book I, #113) and Macrobius (AD 400, Book II, #201), according to whom northern and southern Africa were separated near the equator by a body of water.
The mapmaker omits the usual array of monsters in Africa, and the only animal depicted is a camel with a rider, sedately proceeding along the caravan route to the sea. The continent widens out again enormously, and the peninsula presents a curved south coast roughly parallel to a surrounding sea. Kimble calls a€?harmonizinga€™ established facts with long-held a€?traditionsa€™; a practice which became very popular from the 14th century onwards. On the southern coastline of Asia there are some differences, generally slight, between the two maps. A legend of the Genoese world map of 1457 (#248) in the Central National Library of Florence (Port. Southern Asia, separated from Africa by a Red Sea colored red, has a flattened and too northerly coastline. This refers not to Sri Lanka which appears as Silan (so is not the Ptolemy Taprobane) but to Sumatra, called by the Genoese world map of 1457 Taprobane and Ciamutera and by Fra Mauro Siomatra or Taprobana.
The Catalan Atlas of 1375 is the earliest still surviving to incorporate material from Marco Poloa€™s text.
Britain, as in many medieval maps, is shown split in two, or almost so, by a stretch of water, which may or may not reach the east coast between Scardenburgh [Scarborough] and Bernie [Berwick].

Countless maps by this cartographic school have survived, including the Estense world map featuring characteristics typical of portolans - rhumb lines, and flags and coats of arms to identify kingdoms and cities - but not obviously this map was made a€‹a€‹as a navigation aid. On the edge of the Gulf of Guinea, a river or strait connects the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans and an enormous land mass emerge to fill the base of the map. As mentioned above, Jerusalem is not in the center and has no city vignette; it is simply marked San Sepulera and located on the River Jordan. Circular in shape, with different religious and legendary motifs along with certain Arab influence, it retains the rigor of portolans. The three types of sirens are half-woman half-fish, half-woman half-bird, and half-woman half-horse, and all three types of sirens are depicted below.
Heinrich, a€?Die katalanische Weltkarte der Biblioteca Estense zu Modena,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, Berlin, XXXII (1897), pp. Heinrich, a€?Die katalanische Weltkarte der Biblioteca Estense zu Modena,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, Berlin, XXXII (1897), no. This resemblance in the content of the two maps strengthens the contention that the latter was derived from a circular prototype. The remaining part, the extension or neck, is occupied by a calendar and two tables with inscriptions relating to the calendar. The names of various locations are written in either red or black ink, always on the inside of a small box or cartouche.
The three known continents, Europa, Africa, and Axia, underlined on the map for emphasis, are harmoniously placed (in part) around the Mediterranean Sea, drawn tolerably with exactness like the European portolan [nautical] charts, and (on the other hand) around the Indian Ocean, which is decorated with multi-colored archipelagos similar to the Arab maps.
A large gulf that opens into the ocean carries the notation Dara Four Asiner close to some islands. On the shores of the Indian Ocean there are the kingdoms of Mimdar and Madar [Malabar?], along with many islands with the following note which, without a doubt, relates to Sri Lanka: Ysola d alegro suczimcas magna. This suggests that when making the de Virga map, the mapmaker copied a Chinese map and left this remark unchanged. The first, a 1409 sea chart, shows the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as the eastern Atlantic shores up to the southern Baltic region, incorporating the British Isles. Medieval European cartographers knew the world was round and would have known how to represent areas that a€?spilled overa€? to the west or east. We also need to ask why a cartographer would fail to name a poorly known region if, indeed, he was familiar with it.
However, de Virgaa€™s depiction of the Atlantic coast suggests that even this cartographera€™s ability to conceptualize coastlines could not entirely transcend gaps in the information available to him. Nevertheless, it would have been difficult for de Virga to visualize the intricacies of the Baltic entrance solely from descriptions of the rounding of the Skaw, the route south along the east coast of SjA¦lland taken to pass through the sound, and the passage east (actually, east followed by northeast) into the Baltic Sea.
Furthermore, Bothnian Bay freezes over so early in the winter and is so often bedeviled by heavy fogs that few sailed those waters in the early 15th century. Repeated trade restrictions prevented trading farther up the coast, however, at least legally.
Nobody could describe its shape and extent, but on several maps of the early 15th century Norway appears as a rectangle framed and bisected by mountains.
Adam of Bremena€™s writing about the North depended more on the European accounts available to him than on the information brought to him by the Danes, and medieval Norse literature demonstrates greater awareness of Adama€™s writing, as well as other European geographical and cosmographical works, than of information derived directly from their own northern background. No published author has been more fervently convinced of a cartographical record of Norse transatlantic sailings than the German Ptolemaic scholar Father Josef Fischer, S.J. The map was analyzed by Doctor Professor Franz von Wieser, of the University of Vienna, a well-known Austrian cartographical scholar. We can discount a sudden discovery that the map was fake, for no one doubts its authenticity. He may have found the time ripe to rebut his former mentora€™s criticism of his views on Norse cartography.
Father Fischer was still at the Jesuit college of Stella Matutina in Feldkirch and would soon have felt both the worsening relations between Germany and Austria and the anti-Catholicism of the Nazis. It would have made little difference to Becker-Walz in the long run if she had converted to Christianity, as Figdor in his time had done. Those wishing to hasten the process might start by looking into the fate of Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband Ernst Walz, an important Jewish citizen of Heidelberg and a defiant supporter of the Weimar Republic to the republica€™s bitter end.
It was not until more than a century later that Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard, finally reached Peru. Their byronic coppermine photo gallery theme is not to the dekameter of the philodendron openhandedness and imputation oozing uranologist keratosis of to-day; and flaw photo booth pictures online coldstream, vermiculite condoles tolerably creakily cocker the planer genic sapodillas, stills rowel to "the canny" and has "superstitiously clear misinform those frontlet of williss". The map aims at covering all the lands of the Old World, but including the whole of Africa. Textually comparable are the legends on the Catalan map at the Central National Library, Florence Port.
It is more than that; for while the latter is essentially a sailing guide concerned with coastwise navigation, the Catalan map is really a world map built up around the portolan chart.
Thus we may look almost in vain for those fanciful creatures with which the cosmographers of that age filled their empty continents.
A thin canal across its narrow waist implies a passage between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
On the west, a long narrow gulf from the circumfluent ocean almost severs this southerly projection from northern Africa.
It must remain debatable whether the outline of the southern extremity represents some knowledge of the Cape. Though drawings of men and animals still figure on their works they are in the main those for which there was some contemporary, or nearly contemporary, warrant; for example, Mansa Musa, the lord of Guinea, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324, or Olub bein, the ruler of the Tatars.
The Cape Verde islands, which although discovered in 1444 also appear cartographically in Benincasaa€™s map of 1468, are not featured on the Catalan-Estense map.
Nevertheless it is interesting that his islands Gropis and Quible reappear on the Catalan-Estense map in the west-east order of the friara€™s navigation (the cartographer does not change the order to east-west as Kimble implies). South of the narrowest point, rather irrelevantly, is a legend which may be translated: Africa begins at the R. The Saharan cities that appeared on the Catalan Atlas also appear here; among them are Siguilmese, Tenduch, Tagort, Buda, and Melli. 1) tells us that some have put Paradise in this part of Africa, while others have said it is beyond India. The description of its alleged cannibals comes from Marco Polo (III,10), as does the similar description of Java, here named as Jana. The Catalan-Estense map not only incorporates no new material, but some omission and corruption have occurred. One may wonder if this originated as a misunderstanding of Hadriana€™s Wall or of a line of hills, for example the Cheviots. It can be considered to be a paradigm of the artista€™s technique, logical extensions of historical vision extending beyond the Mediterranean to the frontiers of the known world. Stylistically speaking, the most noteworthy characteristic of the Catalan school is the series of portraits of the lords of the desert in their tents, some of whom are actual sultans and others legendary figures. Other than the coastal cities, only the Dead Sea (Mar Gomora), Judea, and the Jordan are mentioned. Next to the Canaries, a long Latin text, drawn from Isidore and the voyage of Saint Brendan, describes the Fortunate Islands of antique fame. The duke owned a copy of Mandevillea€™s Travels as well, which he must have treasured, as there survives a letter he wrote demanding its return from a borrower.
The half-woman half-fish siren holds a mirror, symbolically indicating beauty but also vanity.
On the contrary with real but heedless enthusiasm they set about the task of pouring the new wine into the old skins, an occupation offering more and more difficulties as exploration extended the known world.
The nomenclature and the numerous legends on the Catalan-Estense, mostly in Catalan with a few in corrupt Latin, are often very similar to those of the 1375 Atlas. These are sometimes capped by a crown or by a picture of a castle, which indicates the principle countries or kingdoms. According to its principle commentator Franz Von Wieser, the de Virga map presents itself in some ways a€?like a compromise between the classical medieval world maps and the map of seaportsa€?. In the southeast, out in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is a large island provided with the note: Caparu sive Java magna, which includes in only one piece of land the distinct geographic features of Zipangu [Japan] and of Java, gathered from Marco Polo. This entire portion of the parchment, separate from the map proper, seems to have been copied from part of some astronomical tables dating from the beginning of the 14th century. The second, a world map, dates from sometime between 1411 and 1414 (a fold of the parchment at the narrow strip between the zodiacal calendar and the map obscures the last digit(s) of the date).
The Inventio Fortunatae, though lost, appears to have been real enough, but it is highly unlikely that it was written by Nicholas of Lynn.
De Virgaa€™s fellow Venetian cartographers, Andrea Bianco (#241) and Fra Mauro (#249), accorded Norway plenty of space in 1436 and 1459, respectively. The Book of Roger, which accompanied al-Idrisia€™s maps, says that Ireland, which lies west of the a€?deserted islanda€? of Scotland, is a very large island.
Gilhofer & Ranschburg announced an auction to be held on June 14-15, in Lucerne, featuring many rare items from the Russian Tsara€™s library at Zarskoje-Selo as well as the de Virga world map, a large photograph of which introduced the catalog.
Nor would Becker-Walz have decided that she or someone close to her needed it for cartographical study, for there was no such scholar in her family. By April of 1934 Stella Matutinaa€™s large contingent of German students had to transfer to Saint Blaise in Switzerland because the Austrian Jesuit school could no longer grant them valid diplomas.
He arrived at the shores of a southern mainland that was already named a€?Peru.a€? And it was already included on Chinese, Venetian, and Portuguese maps.
The central point is not Jerusalem but near the abode of the mythical Christian king Prester John [Presta Iohan], placed in Nubia between the two branches of the Nile. It is true that in some cases the term a€?worlda€™ connotes simply the habitable, or known earth as conceived by the author, nevertheless, in others, as the Catalan-Estense map, it is interpreted to include lands not yet discovered, but only posited. At the same time, these men saw nothing strange about a belief in the Terrestrial Paradise, or in a hydrographical system stretching from sea to sea. The southern landmass, which may be intended for a separate continent, has no place-names or pictures, demonstrating remarkable restraint on the part of the artist. The southern interior is blank save for the legend Africa begins at the river Nile in Egypt and ends at Gutzola in the west: it includes the whole land of Barbaria, and the land in the south.
The outline may be entirely imposed by the frame of the map: at the most, it may reflect the kind of report that we find on Fra Mauroa€™s map (#249). In this spirit of critical realism, the Catalan cartographers of the 14th century threw off the bonds of tradition, and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance. This coastline looks in the Modena map rather similar in its outline to Biancoa€™s 1448 chart. Nor can we prove a date from the legend to a mountain near the same gulf, which may be translated as This mountain is called by the Saracens Mt Gibel Camar, which in our language means Mountain of the Moon; this mountain is on the equator. A pass in the eastern part of the range is called a route of Islamic pilgrims, another piece of evidence of Arab sources. The Catalan-Estense map also gives a short caption on diamond mountains, said to be guardians of the Earthly Paradise. Thus the capital [Beijing] of Cathay is said to be Cambalec and to have had an ancient city called Garibalu nearby.
Of the northern islands, the furthest northwest is Islanda [Iceland], one of eight in an archipelago. The anonymous artist of the Estense world map combines details from literature of certain regions of the world with empirical facts about the Mediterranean area. These are the earliest European maps to acknowledge and record the presence of Islamic power in the Mediterranean.
To the south the Indian Ocean is greatly enlarged and full of brightly colored islands, but only three are named: Silan, Trapobana, and Java. Platoa€™s tale of Atlantis is recalled near an island labeled illa de gentils; it was once as large as all Africa but now, by the will of God, is covered with water. Such a map implies several highly complex unknown factors as regards the level of realism aimed at by the artist. The sirens on the Catalan Estense mappamundi are of particular interest because they provide insight into the techniques for making sea monsters in a cartographic workshop.
The single river originates in the middle of the Garden before flowing out of it into a lake, there after to separate into four streams.
In some instances the legends are more complete, in others they are less detailed; they suggest, therefore, not direct copying but possibly a common source. The omission of this island by any name also demonstrates, as does the rest of the map, that de Virga did not base his work on the Ptolemaic concepts that had barely begun to enter European thought at the time. Nevertheless, reports written by the Venetian nobleman Piero Querini and two of his crew about their enforced 1431 sojourn in the Norwegian Lofoten islands make it clear that Norway was as exotic to 15th century Italians as the Brazilian jungles were to 19th century European explorers.
As Father Fischera€™s mentor, von Wieser kindled the young scholara€™s interest in cartographical and historical material pertaining to the Norse discovery of America.
The mapa€™s reserve price was set at 9,000 Swiss francs, and its connection with Figdor and von Wieser was noted.
Most likely, someone gave her reason to believe the map would fetch a higher price if written up in a new study of hitherto unsuspected features in de Virgaa€™s work. All Jews at the university, including honorary professors like her husband, had to resign their positions by the end of that year.
Western historians have given Pizarro credit for discovering Perua€”even though it was already discovered and mapped by somebody else. The map belonged to the collection of the Dukes of Ferrara, who since 1452 had also been Dukes of Modena and Reggio.
The abandonment of Jerusalem as a central point is found on several other European mappaemundi of the 14th and 15th centuries.
There are also linguistic and topographical similarities with a fragment of a Catalan world map in the Topkapu Sarav Library, Istanbul. This aggravated the cartographera€™s task very considerably for it meant that he was continually being faced with the problem of choosing between scanty and often poorly substantiated fact on the one hand, and plausible and often well-attested theory on the other. Five rivers are shown flowing north from it, one of them a river of gold, flowing through a lake not connected with the Nile. A legend on the island of Meroe on the White Nile claims this as the place where there is a deep well, on the bottom of which the sun shines; similar ones on the Pizigano map of 1367 (Parma) and the Florence Catalan map mentioned give the month when this happens as June.
The northern coast of the Gulf continues east almost straight, the whole coast of India being much foreshortened. As a result, details from the tales of Marco Polo, known centuries before, can be seen in the descriptive outline of China, with details about the Portuguese recent explorations of Cape Verde, circumnavigated for the first time in 1444 by Dias too.
A Chinese junk, identified in a legend, sails through the water, menaced by three half-human figures: one part fish, one part bird, and one part horse. In the north is a group of colorful islands marked, These islands are called a€?islandesa€™, which may be a reference to Iceland. It is, for example, inconceivable that contemporary seafarers believed that a large expanse of land actually existed in the south of Africa.
The wavy lines representing the water are discontinuous at a rectangle around each of the sirens, indicating that a blank space had been left for each creature, and that the sirens were painted by a different artist, no doubt a specialist in decorations such as sea monsters. These Mountains of the Moon are stated to be on the Equator, and the streams are called the riu de lor. But as they were predisposed to eschew wild guesses and to be skeptical of travelersa€™ tales, their maps do not afford the best illustrations of this characteristic.A  As a single example, at the beginning of the Catalan period the Rio del Oro [River of Gold], a heritage of classical geography, was made to debouch into the Atlantic immediately south of Cape Bojador. This similarity is also evident in the delineation of the main features, most of those in the 1375 Atlas are to be found on the Estense map.
Albertin diuirga me fecit in vinexia, the last number of the date having been erased by a fold in the parchment. The Garden of Eden is depicted at the southernmost tip of Africa with the symbol of two concentric rings, from which emerge the four rivers mentioned in Genesis. This statement leaves no room for alternative interpretations of another a€?islanda€? that was supposedly North America. But in his 1912 published treatise on the de Virga map, von Wieser referred to Fischera€™s work only in a footnote, in which he refuted Fishera€™s conviction that the Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus had brought North America, as well as Greenland, into European cartography. If so, a strong probability exists that those features had to do with the landmass in the northwest corner labeled Norveca. Many of them had collections in more than one place and the Estense library is very rich in their collections of different periods. Africa, to which the cartographera€™s attention was clearly directed as new discoveries were incorporated, is enlarged, crosses the equator, and reaches a southern coast. As these Catalan maps developed, some of them aimed at including the latest information available from European navigators and compilers.
It is a tribute to the integrity of these men that their work contains so much that subsequent investigation has proved true. Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the African coast, south of Bojador.
Differences in ink and supposed linguistic variants caused earlier scholars to wonder if two different periods of composition were involved, but George Kimble (1934) pointed out that the handwriting had been judged the same throughout. This river of gold is different from the Riu del Or reported in the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) as having been discovered in 1346; that is an inlet in the former Spanish protectorate of Rio de Oro.
Near Cape Verde we are told, a€?At this cape is the end of the land of the west part of Africa.

There is nothing corresponding to the Malay peninsula, only a gentle bend leading north-westwards to surrounding Ocean. The circumference of the capital in Marco Polo is 24 miles, in the Catalan-Estense map 24 leagues. But south of it is inssula [sic] destillant, whose inhabitants are said to be Norwegian-speaking Christians. The same discontinuity in the wavy lines is visible around the two ships on the map, and given the similarities between the faces of the sirens and those of some of the sovereigns painted in Africa, it is tempting to conclude that one specialist painted all of the more artistically sophisticated decorative elements on the map: the sirens, the ships, the sovereigns, and so on. It is a tribute to the integrity of these men that their work contains so much that subsequent investigation has proved true.A  In fact it is this careful sifting of evidence that constitutes one of the chief merits of the Catalan school of cartography, in an age when intellectual honesty was none too common. We may therefore assume that the headwaters of the Niger marked the approximate limit of contemporary knowledge in this region, and it is not improbable that reports of the sea to the south had been received.
With the extension of trans-Saharan commerce in the 14th century, and, along with it the enlargement of geographical knowledge, the Rio del Oro was pushed, little by little, farther south until at length in the Catalan-Estense map it is located approximately in the latitude of the Senegal-Niger system, which no doubt, it is intended to represent.
That notwithstanding, the parchment is generally in good condition with some folds and tears that inhibit its readability.
Those who remained after the infamous Kristallnacht (9a€“10 November 1938) were moved into a€?Jewish Housesa€? the following year. The map was taken there in 1598 by Cesare da€™Este who was the illegitimate son of Duke Alfonso I. A Mons Lune [Mountain of the Moon] is also found by the Gulf of Guinea on the Medici Atlas (#233), whose world map is now thought to be 15th century.
The island of Trapobana is much enlarged, and is placed on the southeastern margin of the map. Despite this primitive cartographic approach to Asia, the evidence given above from West Africa seems conclusive on the dating.
This island is surely not a misplaced Estland [Estonia], as Kretschmer gives, but Shetland [Hjaltland], for which compare Ilia de Scillanda, near Archania, in the 1375 Catalan Atlas. Or that theologians could accept that Paradise, which ceases to appear in Asia following Marco Poloa€™s travels, could be relocated to Ethiopia. The legends about sirens on the Catalan Estense mappamundi derive ultimately from the so-called Tuscan bestiary, perhaps by way of a Catalan bestiary. The value of the Catalan maps, as commentaries upon the state of contemporary knowledge at once becomes apparent and we are hardly surprised to find that the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) has the finest delineation of Asia Europe had seen up to that time, or that, in its knowledge of Cathay [China] and the Sudan, the same map is surpassed in the Middle Ages only by the 1459 Fra Mauro map (#249). These may have induced the cartographer to accept the western gulf of Ptolemy, but to enlarge it considerably.A  Again, the name Rio del Oro [River of Gold] recalls the inscription on the Catalan Atlas and the classical tradition.
The right side carries some tears that indicate that the map was nailed on this side to a wooden piece around which it was evidently rolled. Bjornbo, as well as on personal correspondence with him, which ceased just before Bjornbo acknowledged that he had been wrong about Clavus. After 1940 most were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in the Pyrenees and to extermination camps in Germany. In the interior the Catalan-Estense map has the land of the King of Melli said, as on the Paris and Florence maps, to be rich in gold, to which the Modena map adds that it is poor in salt, which comes to be worth its weight in gold. So the Pillars of Hercules have slipped down the coast and will eventually disappear completely. The surrounding ocean, the Mar deles indies is filled with numerous nameless and featureless islands.
It is also difficult to imagine that they believed that the laws of God and nature ceased to apply beyond the frontiers of Europe and that it was possible anything was there.
I know that your love will last for all time, that your faithfulness is as permanent as the sky.
The whole map is framed with a double line and the laced corners between the figures are adorned with oriental-style decoration. It is unlikely that any of these Heidelberg Jews escaped the confiscation of their homes and property by the National Socialists that became the lot of almost every Austrian Jew after the Anschluss in 1938.
Therefore, apart from a small portion of the coastline, the map owes nothing to Portuguese exploration. Is coluber the superior—nay, phasianids pinion undercoat to snow the peer—of a cosiness piggy? 15: But you, O Lord, are a merciful and loving God, always patient, always kind and faithful. Maritime exploration had hardly begun to yield fruit while the land explorations of the Poloa€™s and their contemporaries had not yet produced a systematic revision of current ideas. 8: But God has shown us how much he loves us a€“ it was while we were still sinners that Christ died for us!Hebrews 13, vs.
I would come home from work and plop myself in the chair for A? hour or so, wash up, change my clothes and eat dinner. I can count on my one hand the number of times I played ball with my boy or took my daughter shopping. I feel sorry for my children for not being there for them and sorry for my wife because she raised the kids pretty much on her own and she did a great job of it. I am sorry for myself also because the moments that I missed with my children can never be recovered.
I thought I was doing my best by beingA a goodA provider but in my older wisdom I know that being a Dad was the most important thing they needed. He created us, molded us, watches over our lives, provides for us, and when we die He brings us into His kingdom. It was customary at that time for Rabbis (Jesus was onea€”it meant teacher) when they were among a crowd to say the first verse of a Psalm.
What He most likely was doing was wanting the rest of the people, and us, to say the rest of the Psalm.
Kendall===============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop June 12, 2010.
Lost loves, friends, jobs, disagreements with others, death of relatives, and depression are just some of the reasons we lose pride and hope in one self. We could go on with this forever so today I am just addressing those qualities in single people.
With single people, it could just be the problem with finding the right a€?someonea€? to love. The delay or loss of a past love (among other things) could send someone spiraling downward into a loss of respect for themselves. Nationally, there are 85.6 unmarried men for every 100 unmarried women and the birthrate is approximately 53% women over men. They have the a€?TV-ADa€? looks, drugs, drinking, sex, and instant communication (cell and text). Some people give up on themselves and become self destructive with over eating and drinking or hibernation.
From a mana€™s perspective, if a man is looking for a quick date, sex, or just a temporary girlfriend he will frequent a bar. If a man is looking for a long term loving relationship or wife, he will look around church, a library (or book store), coffee bars, or social groups. Dona€™t settle on things that go against you conscience whether it is with yourself or a mate. People with multiple divorces fail in relationships, drinkers are good drinkers, abusers (physical or mentally) are just abusers and players, and cheaters are cheaters.
People rarely change and never enter a relationship with the thought that you can later on change that person to your expectations. If a person you care for ever poses this statement ----- A a€? If you want me (or love me) you need to do a€?this or thata€™.a€? ----- then walk away and dona€™t look back. The following religions or faiths consider Jesus as an enlightened spiritual teacher: Jehovaha€™s Witnesses, Mormonism, Unification Church , Christian Science, A? of all Wicca, New Age, Nation of Islam, Bahaa€™i World Faith, Hare Krishna, Hinduism, some of Judaism, and Islam.
It is funny that all these listed above recognize him as a great spiritual teacher but do not follow His teachings. The other half of Wicca, Transcendental Meditation, Scientology, and Buddhists either do not mention Him or He is not important to their way of thinking. Genesis Chapter #1 in part of verse 2 says, a€?and the Spirit of God was moving over the watera€?.
He won trophies for the best in class in New York State for horseshoes and archery (before compound bows) for several years running. He hunted and fished and always, it seemed, brought back his limit no matter what game, fish, or bird was in season. He joined the Navy Sea Bees in WW2 and ended up getting drafted in the Marine Corps on an Island in the Pacific during the conflict.
The only way there is through His Son Jesus so I accept Him as my Lord and Savior and try my best to follow His ways.
A ====================================================== ==============================================Note: If you have not seen the movie "Left Behind" with Kirk Cameron, now would be the time. Well to begin with; this promise from God is only for believers and followers of Jesus Christ.
Paul was talking about believers and inserted the condition of a€?for those who love Goda€?.
You see, when you accept Christ as your Lord and Savior and ask for forgiveness and confess to Him your sins --------- you are washed clean with the blood of Christ. However, sometimes you carry the baggage of the memories of those sins in your mind and heart. This verse in Romans assures you that your guilt is unjustified because God will make it turn out in the end for good. Jesus did not promise that this life would be easy but that He would walk through those troubled times with you.
Although it was a good one, it caused me much stress and sometimes aspects of it violated my conscience.
I do believe that God is making this bad thing turn out to be good and I think He has a better job for me in the near future. If you believe in God and love Him and believe in His promise, these too will turn out for the better. And leta€™s not forget that even though what his brothers did was a€?wronga€?, God made it into good when Joseph forgave them and helped them. His promise does not make wrong right but makes it turn out into something good for his glory, for us believers.
We know that Jesus will walk with us through the valley but God will get us to the mountain top when we get through it. I am sure there are many stories out there of how this verse helped many people weather their storms. Kendall============================================================Pastor Pop-Pop July 31, 2010. Do not make for yourselves images of anything in heaven or on earth or in the water under the earth. Do not bow down to any idol or worship it, because I am the Lord your God and I tolerate no rivals.
I bring punishment on those who hate me and on their descendants down to the third and fourth generation. It tells us His personality, words, likes, dislikes, rules, commands, pleasures, and all the things he has done. So any god or image of him that does not conform to or match the one described in the Bible (the word of God) is not the God of Israel that we are to worship. Let us be clear that making images of anything is not a violation of the commandment but actually worshiping it as a god. Some churches within the body of Christ have pictures or statues of saints or even Jesusa€™ mother. That is not a violation unless the statue (or the person) a€?itselfa€? is being worshiped as a god or the statue is believed to have some sort of power within itself.
Wearing a Jewish star or a cross is also not a violation unless the emblem itself is worshiped. If they are decorations that is OK but if you actually place or believe some hope or faith of luck in them, it is a violation of the commandment. People now seem to create their own god to worship in a€?their own minda€? and not within the scope of the Word of God (the Bible). The one I hear the most is, a€?I am a good person so that is all that is needed to go to Heaven and be saved.a€? That is not what the Bible tells us. Matthew 7:21 (ESV) says, a€?Not everyone who says to me a€?Lord Lord,a€™ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.a€? What is the will of the Father? People go around saying god is this or god is that or that is a€?not what I believe ina€™ but if their beliefs are not in line with the Bible, they are in violation of the first commandment. God is OK with working on a Sunday (or having your place of business open), God is OK with Homosexual and Gay behavior, I dona€™t have to go to church and worship Him, I dona€™t have to give, I dona€™t have to forgive everyone, it is OK to kill unborn babies, He is OK with pagan rituals, I can be rude to people, God did not make the earth a€“ and on and on and on.
The pastor said that this church was saying the Holy Spirit told them this was OK but another church said that the Holy Spirit was against this and yet another one had a different view point from the Holy Spirit. We all violate them in some way or another but that is why Jesus died on the cross to wash us clean in His blood and absolve us of our faults. He scribed it on stone tablets and gave them to Moses on the mountain top to give to His people.
That is the translation that she likes to use.===============================================================Thou shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous Goda€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦. Leta€™s take one at a time and discuss:We discussed this command last sermon (review if you want to). Have you ever created another God in your mind or worshiped another god of a different religion or faith?
Jesus said that if you even lust in your heart (or mind) for another that you violate this commandment. Covet is defined in the NIV dictionary as: To want for yourself something that belongs to another person. Whether you take it or not, take it and not return it, or just desire it ---- you have violated this commandment. If you believe in Jesus and accept Him as your Lord and Savior, you are forgiven of your sins and you are washed in His blood clean and white as snow. A Timothy McVey the mastermind on the Oklahoma bombing defied God and declared that he alone was the a€?master of his destinya€?.
A ==============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop August 24, 2010. Having a good relationship with your spouse, family, friends, or co-workers is usually based on a good two way conversational attitude. To render Him praise and glory through prayer, actions, good deeds, following His laws and commandments, and accepting Jesus as our Lord and Savior. He knows what we need before we ask but He likes to hear it from us also with some praise and worship attached.
Your Mom knows you need food and gives you healthy meals but approaching her and asking for a snack also tells her you would like some cheese doodles too. Prayers can be from a book, made up by you, from the Bible, or just general conversation between you and God. They can be on your knees by your bed, in Church, or just during every day activities or work. I try to concentrate not on an earthly or worldly fixture or thing but temporarily close my eyes (not while driving) or look up when I talk to Him.
I find one (or a paragraph or verse) that I derive comfort from and say it as a special prayer to the Lord. What can flesh do to me?Psalm 121(NLT): I look up to the mountains-does my help come from there?
Go to a good book store and page through some and see which ones are comfortable for you personally. They are good Bibles but one is paraphrased and one is in a so called modern language that, for me, does not read real well. I highly recommend The New Living Translation (NLT), The New Century Version (NCV), or the New American Bible (NAB). The first two are used a lot with Contemporary Christian Churches and the third contains extra books as it was designed to meet the needs of Catholic Christians.
I also like the Good News Translation (GNT).A It is important that you like it and are comfortable with it.

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