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DESCRIPTION: Shown here are reproductions of an early road map of the imperial highways of the Roman world, covering the area roughly from southeast England to present day Sri-Lanka. This Colmar copy was found by Konrad Celtes (1459-1508), a German poet and scholar for the Emperor Maximilian I and later turned over to Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), Chancellor of Augsburg, in 1508 in Augsburg and has since been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or Peutinger Tables or Itineraries. In its design, the Peutinger Table makes no pretense of showing the whole world or even its major parts in correct proportion. The proportions of the Peutinger Map are such that distances east-west are represented at a much larger scale than distances north-south; for example, Rome looks as though it were nearer to Carthage than Naples is to Pompeii. In the Jansoon edition of the Peutinger Table (1652), the first sheet shows a section of southeastern England protruding from the title cartouche, with the roads and harbors marked.
The Colmar manuscript of the Peutinger Tables, also known as Codex Vindobonensis 324, is presently in the National Bibliothek, Vienna and has been divided into sections for preservation.
The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman miles (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees).
Around the personification of Rome - a female figure on a throne holding a globe, a spear, and a shield - are twelve main roads, each with its name attached, a practice not adopted elsewhere. Ostia is shown with a harbor occupying about one-third of a circle, in a fashion similar to that of miniatures in the early manuscripts of Virgila€™s Aeneid. The road network is thought to have been based (at least within the empire) on information held by the cursus publicus, responsible for organizing the official transport system set up by Augustus. The part of the British section of the Peutinger Map that survives is so fragmentary that it covers only a limited area of the southeast, not even including London, and an even smaller area around Exeter.
Owing to the shape of the map, the Nile could not be represented as a long river if it were made to flow northward throughout its course. Late antiquity is considered as a relatively autonomous historical period, that according to certain scholars is extended from 200 A.D. These maps were used with a multitude of functions, including the use of maps as cadastral and legal records, as aids to travelers, to commemorate military and religious events, as strategic documents, as political propaganda and for academic and educational purposes.
The object of this study is focused on the cartographic genre of itineraria picta and more specifically on the Tabula Peutingeriana, a road map prepared in order to show the roads of the empire over a total distance of 104,000 km. According to actual cartographic terminology Tabula Peutingeriana is a typical example of a thematic road map preserving mainly the topology of geographic continuity rather than the conventional cartographic representation.
Depicting in topological consistency the road network and offering travel information to its users (by showing the road network, the settlements, the staging posts, the partial distances, the cities of various type, depending on their size and significance etc. As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. The second most important road axis, the Via Egnatia, ran crosswise through the Balkans and provided communications between the Adriatic, the Aegean, and the Propontis, between Rome and Constantinople. The borders of the Roman Empire in his northern regions correspond to the flow of the river Danubius, while the eastern limits correspond to the flow of the Tigris River.
The road network is represented with red distressed (zigzag) line, that denotes the corresponding changes of horses, with distances between stations, expressed in roman miles (milia passus = 1,4815 km) for all the territory. There exist three cities of the First Level, Roma, Constantinopolis and Antiocheia, represented as female incarnations, Tychai of the cities, that constitute the three capitals a€“ imperial residences of the Empire.
There exist six Second Level cities, which are represented in the form of fortresses with walls, bastions and deferring number of towers. Most of the pictures represent Third Level cities, provincial capitals (metropoleis) and important commercial centers (Figure 7). The network of settlements is supplemented with the insertion of stations - mansiones and points of change of horses - mutationes that constitutes the intermediary turning-points between the various central places.
A number of settlements are represented according to particular uses and functions of space that are attributed with the particular characteristics of the shells that support the function. There exist in total 33 temples located usually in colonies and points of local adoration, for example in the Balkans (Ad Dianam), in Africa, (Ad Herculem, Temple Jovis, Ad Mercurium, Temple Veneris), while in Egypt can be found three temples of Serapis and three of Isis.
The defensive function is present in all the representations of cities, a fact that is considered in the context of a period after the imperial pax romana. Recreational functions are represented with thermal baths, portrayed with square structures, with a closed facade and in the center a swimming pool.
Lighthouses are found in Alexandria, Egypt, in Chrissopolis [Uskudar] and in Jovisurius in the entry of Euxeinus Pontus. The iconographic system of the Tabula Peutingeriana is based upon a hierarchical structure that represents the settlements network, with a process of symbolic generalizations and personifications, in the period of the successors of Constantine the Great.
The reliability of map has been placed under contestation by many scholars, in regard to the precision of settlements locations and distances that represent.
Albu, Emily, a€?Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp.
Drakoulis, Dr Dimitris, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. Fowden a€“ Athanasiadi P., a€?The successors of Great Constantinea€? (in Greek), Istoria Ellinikou Ethnous. Salway, Benet, a€?The Nature and Genesis of the Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman milesA  (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees). As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis,A  a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. 1492 Sultan Bayezid II welcomes Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; in Istanbul , the Jewish population double and Salonika becomes a major Jewish centre. 1516 - 1517 The Ottoman conquest of Palestine and Egypt leads to the strengthening of Jewish communities in their ancient homeland of Eretz Israel. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.,1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,1942 Wealth tax ( varlyk vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine .
The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques. Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet.
Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest.
From 4th Century BCE Archaelogical findings indicate Jewish settlement in the Aegean region of Anatolia. From 220 BCE There are Jewish settlements in Sardes , Miletus , Prien , Bursa in the southeast and along the Aegean ,Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. 1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. 1453 Following the conquest of Constantinople,Sultan Mehmet II transfers Jewish populations to their new capital .
1556 Sultan Suleyman ' the Magnificent' write a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for immediate release of the Ancona Conversos whom he declared to be Ottoman citizens. 1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion. 1870s The French Jewish school network Alliance Israelite Universelle expands throughout the Ottoman Empire in cities with large Jewish populations with a mission to modernise the Jewish communities of the East.
1881 Despite an official Ottoman policy against the modern migration of Jews to Palestine,Russian Jews are welcomed to migrate to the heartland of Ottoman Anatolia (Asia Minor ) where they set up farming communities lasting until World War I .
1908 The Young Turk revolution is supported by a wide coalition of Muslims,Jews,Armenians and Greek who unite under the French slogan of liberte,egalite and fraternite against Sultan Abdulhamid II. 1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities. 1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews yf Thrace migrate to Istanbul.
1948 Israel declares independence leading to continuous immigration throughtout the following years. 1989 The Quincentennial Foundation made up of Turkish Jews and Muslims is established three years before the 500th anniversary of Sephardi life in Ottoman lands and Turkey. 1990s Relations between Turkey and Israel become stronger when a strategic military bond between the two countries emerges. 1994 A modern Jewish school in Ulus opens its doors replacing the former school located in the old Jewish neighbourhood of Galata..
2001 The Zulfaris Synagogue is turned into the Quincentinal Foundation Museum of Turkish Jews providing space to commemorate Jewish Life in the former Ottoman lands and the modern Turkish state.
2002 Ishak Haleva is pronounced Chief Rabbi when Rabbi David Asseo dies after serving for more than 40 years.
2003 16 November Neve Shalom and Bet Israel synagogues are attacked during Shabbat prayers killing 23 people including six Jews .
2004 The European Day of Jewish Culture opens synagogues for the first time to the general Turkish public offering musical and educational activities.
Second Passover ;Thirty days ago we cleaned our homes and souls of leaven, and matzahed our way through the week-long festival of Passover.
Fast of Tish'a B'Av - July 15 - 16, 2013 ,The 15th of Av ;,Our sages proclaimed the 15th of Av as one of the two greatest festivals of the year, yet they ordained no special observances or celebrations for it .
Tu B’Shevat, the 15th of Shevat on the Jewish calendar, is the day that marks the beginning of a “new year” for trees. Purim celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people from the wicked Haman in the days of Queen Esther of Persia. Thirty days ago we cleaned our homes and souls of leaven, and matzahed our way through the week-long festival of Passover. The “Three Weeks” and Tisha B’Av are designated as a time of mourning over the destruction of the Holy Temple and the galut (exile). Our sages proclaimed the 15th of Av as one of the two greatest festivals of the year, yet they ordained no special observances or celebrations for it . Virtually everything you need to know about Yom Kippur, the holiest day on the Jewish calendar: How-To Guides, Essays and Insights, Prayer Service Overviews, Stories, Multimedia, and much more! Virtually everything you need to know about the holiday of Sukkot: How-To Guides, Sukkah and “Four Kinds” Wizards, Essays and Insights, Recipes, Stories, Multimedia, and much more!
Virtually everything you need to know about the holidays of Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah: How-To Guides, Essays and Insights, Recipes, Stories, Multimedia, and much more! Chanukah commemorates the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem after a group of Jewish warriors defeated the occupying mighty Greek armies.
Description: The Lenox Globe is often referred to as the oldest extant post-Columbian globe.
What is known about the provenance and acquision of this special globe by the New York Public Library was assembled by Robert W.
Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions.
Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. There was no good indication as to when the little globe was made, but three prominent scholars in the late 19th century - Benjamin De Costa, Henry Harrisse and Justin Winsor a€“ addressed this perplexing issue before Joseph Fisher made his discovery of the WaldseemA?ller map in July 1901. Harrisse in his landmark work The Discovery of North America (1892) concluded that the most likely date for the Lenox Globe was 1511.
Prior to Harrisse, Justin Winsor in the mid-1880s was equally perplexed concerning what to make of and how to date the Lenox Globe. The scholar who provided the first and to this day still the most in-depth analysis of the Lenox Globe was Benjamin De Costa (1831-1904). What makes De Costaa€™s scholarship in his 1879 essay so outstanding is that he is open and candid about the profound implications of dating any globe or map depicting the entire continent of South America so many years before Magellana€™s voyage of 1519-1522. This is an astonishing pattern of cartographical evidence concerning South America prior to Magellana€™s voyage in 1519.
We should also observe that even before De Costa, the world famous scholar Alexander de Humboldt took seriously the proposition that there may have been more extensive exploration of South America (Portuguese in his and our view) than the conventional wisdom allowed due to the tradition, surrounding Magellana€™s famous voyage.
For his part, De Costa was well aware of Cosmographiae Introductio and the small WaldseemA?ller globe gores (#310) found in the passage in the south. It is evident that the Lenox Globe must have been constructed subsequent to the discovery of the coast of South America, in 1500, by Cabral, who gave it the name Vera Cruz, which was soon changed to Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, as on this globe.
On the other hand, the almost complete lack of information betrayed by the maker of the globe concerning the east coast of North America, and the absence of the name America on South America would indicate that it antedates the map of Martin WaldseemA?ller of 1507 (#310). Because the date of this globe could be deduced mainly from its representations of America, let us give a brief resume of the condition of geographical knowledge respecting the New World for several years subsequent to 1510.
In the year 1500, Juan de la Cosa, the Pilot of Columbus, drew a map of the New World (#305), but North America does not appear, Newfoundland being represented as a part of Asia. What has been said thus far applies only to North America, but, upon turning to South America, the representation has the appearance of belonging to a period later than 1511.
In order to present the subject with clearness, it will be useful to state first, that the La Cosa map of 1500 (#305) exhibited the northern coast of South America, together with the eastern coast down to about 25A° S.
On this point it may be observed that such a termination to South America was doubtless rendered probable by the argument from analogy.
Sometimes the information thus derived was of great value, and it would appear that the maker of the Lenox Globe had received information of this kind. The uncertainty of the globe-maker respecting Madagascar may be explained by the fact that it was not until 1508 that Da€™Acuhna made his exploration of the island, though it was known to Marco Polo.
The SchA¶ner Globe of 1520 (#328) has an island similar in form and situation to the nameless island of the Lenox Globe, but in a reversed position, and called Madagascar.
In support of the suggestion that the Madagascar and Certina of the globe are simply Sumatra and Java misplaced, we may cite the fact that the well-known islands of Sumatra and Java do not appear in their places, while the Malayan peninsula, labeled on the globe as Loac, is extended so far south as to confuse the geography of the whole region. It is true that one of the first references to the southern coast of Australia in the 17th century was that of 1627, when a Dutch ship sailed along the shore for a distance of a thousand miles, while one of the earliest maps of that century which showed the outlines of Australia was the Montanus map of 1572.
Attention has already been called to the fact that the great nameless island, with its attendant islands, is placed westward instead of southeast of the Malayan peninsula; but Sylvanus, in his Ptolemy map of 1511 (#318), moves the whole group into its proper position to the southeast, thus giving a somewhat correct view of the geography of that region.
Thus far nothing has been said of the general appearance of the globe, though, if it were necessary, many details could be pointed out which indicate its ancient origin. In Asia the Himalayan range, anciently known as Imaus, had its influence upon the globe-maker's geography, who indicates Schite extraianivm for Scythia extra Imaum. Moabio appears to be the Maabar of Marco Polo, who says that in this entire Province there is never a Tailor to cut a coat or stitch it, for the very good reason that everybody goes naked. Beyond Newfoundland is a sinking ship, with the figure of a human being in the water, possibly an allusion to the loss of the Portuguese Cortereal. When, however, the maker of the Lenox Globe looked away toward the region now occupied by North America, he saw only a watery waste, in the midst of which the island of Bacaleos or Newfoundland, rode like some ship at anchor. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], being close to Yucatan, whose well-known bay, first explored in 1518, has a conjectural coast line trending towards the south instead of the west. The name America does not appear upon the Lenox Globe, which fact, so far as it possesses any significance, favors the belief that the early date of 1504 assigned to the instrument is correct. Hylocomilus, while admitting the priority of the voyage of Columbus, felt no necessity for naming the New World after one who, in the most pronounced manner, declared that there was no New World to be named. Humboldt maintains that Vespucci, equally with Columbus, believed that the land discovered formed a part of Asia. The Viscount Santarem (Researches respecting Vespucci) has taken the ground, as well as some others, that the map of Hylocomilus, in the Ptolemy of 1513, was the work of Columbus.
The southern coasts of Asia are drawn less correctly than on the map of Ruysch and on the TabulA¦ NovA¦ of Asia inserted into the Ptolemy edition of 1513.
In the New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names: Mundus Novus, Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, and Terra de Brazil.
In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], and one in the far north, but unnamed, clearly resembles the Cortereal region, as it appears on the Cantino and Caveri maps (#306, #307).
Most of the inscriptions on the globe reference back to the medieval picture of Asia, combining antique sources, travel accounts, and fabulous legends.
From the standpoint of 2012, with our greater appreciation of the WaldseemA?ller world map, we can see how De Costaa€™s suspicions of a pre-Magellan discovery of the strait point to the broader cartographic issue. Either the Lenox Globe really was a post-1507 creation, which in view of its shortcomings oddly failed to take into account the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was reportedly issued in 1000 copies for sale, along with the essay Cosmographiae Introductio.
De Costa did not explicitly renege on his estimation of the 1510 date for the Lenox Globe as the most probable but he waffles. Given these facts, one has to give serious consideration to the possibility that the creator of the Lenox Globe made it before April 1507 or at least not to long after that date if one is to explain ignorance of this widely published essay. De Costa originally prepared his analysis in 1879 without benefit of any knowledge of the large WaldseemA?ller world map discovered 22 years later. For his part, NordenskiA¶ld in his Facsimile Atlas (1889) cited De Costaa€™s a€?estimate of 1508-1511a€? and concluded that this a€?seemed to be about righta€?.
In his later work entitled Periplus published in 1897, NordenskiA¶ld dramatically asserted that knowledge of the Pacific, the isthmus and a water passage to the south a€?must have reached Europe prior to Balboaa€™s journeya€?.
Ultimately, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their 1926 work A Book of Old Maps argued that the Lenox Globe was made sometime in the 1503-1507 period. One reason why they came to this conclusion was that the Lenox Globe lacks the sophistication of the Ruysch world map (1507-1508) with its more accurate depiction of features associated with the region of the Indian Ocean, something which troubled both De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld. The bottom line is that the maker of this globe seems to be unaware of not only the WaldseemA?ller 1507 map, the Ruysch map of 1508, but also ignorant of others such as the Juan de la Cosa, Cantino and Caveri maps from the 1500-1504 period which do show substantial parts of the North American mainland including Florida and the Gulf coastline and also in the Caveri map the Central American coastline from Mexico to roughly Honduras. This discontinuity in cartographical conception makes it hard to know where to place the Lenox Globe on the family tree of maps and globes made during the first decade of the 16th century.
This analysis, if correct, would suggest that Lenox Globe was not likely to have been based on tightly held information in the possession of Spanish navigators.
Furthermore, given that Balboa did not cross the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean until 1513, it is extremely hard to imagine the maker of the Lenox Globe getting his a€?island-likea€? conception or vision of the new southern continent from Spanish sources. There is other evidence that strongly points to the source of the Lenox Globe being Portuguese rather than Spanish. This geographical distortion seems far too neat or convenient in political terms to have been a mere coincidence as we can see when we superimpose the Line of Demarcation established by this treaty onto the Lenox Globe. Despite this obvious manipulation of nautical data, Fite and Freeman, like De Costa before them, observed that the Lenox Globe still accurately places the southern edge of of this continent at 55 degrees south of the equator.
What is amazing is that Fite and Freeman made such a bold statement based merely on their assessment of the Lenox Globe of uncertain date with no consideration of the WaldseemA?ller globe gores of 1507 which also clearly shows a southern water passage. We would argue further that if this analysis is correct, then the Lenox Globe would represent a stepping-stone or interim intellectual stage in the evolution of geographical knowledge that made possible the more impressive and comprehensive cartographic synthesis articulated by Mathias Ringmann in Cosmographiae Introductio and shown visually in the world map and globe made by Martin WaldseemA?ller at the Gymnasium at Saint-Die. Note the same land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere as in the Jagiellonian Globe, but unlike on that globe, unnamed. The Jagiellonian Globe, dating from around 1510, held by the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, depicts a continent in the Indian Ocean to the east of Africa and south of India, but labeled America. The appearance in the mid-16th century of Jave la Grande in a series of mappemondes drawn by a school of cartographers centred on the French port of Dieppe, suggesting an early Portuguese or Spanish discovery of the eastern coast of Australia, has been called a€?one of the puzzles of European historya€?.
An ancient Map of the World has been discovered in the British Museum, which lays down the coasts of New-Holland, as described by Cooke and Bougainville. In all the subsequent discussion of the Dieppe maps and Spanish or Portuguese discovery of the East coast of Australia in the early 16th century, it is noteworthy that there has been no consideration of the Jagiellonian Globe and the bearing it might have on the matter. The Sydney Morning Herald of 19 January 1911 carried an article with the arresting title, a€?Australiaa€™s Discoverer: was it Amerigo Vespucci?a€?. Professor Estreicher drew attention to a globe of similar date held by the New York Public Library, known as the Lenox Globe.
Ein solches Land is nur Sudamerica allein, und wir mussen annehmen, dass jene Insel Sudamerica vorstellen soll, freilich an einer ganz falschem Stelle. Estreicher proposed Louis Boulengier of Albi as having been the cartographer responsible for the Jagiellonian Globe, on the basis of similarity between it and the Tross Gores, dating from 1514-1518 (#324), of which Boulengier is known to have been the author.
An armillary clock, similar to the Jagiellonian, made by Jean Naze of Lyons in 1560 is held at the Orangerie Planetarium of the Staatliche Museen Kassel (formerly the Hessisches Landesmuseum). But the most revealing feature of this globe is that its maker was aware of Cosmographiae Introductio, because he refers to America.
If it was impossible that the maker of the Jagellonian Globe with the benefit of access to Cosmographiae Introductio which invented the name America could have been that confused, why the gross mistake? Edward Stevenson, discussing Estreichera€™s work in 1921, commented that he seemed not to have noticed that the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA possibly indicated not only an acquaintance on the part of the Jagiellonian cartographer with WaldseemA?llera€™s suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that America was actually located in this particular region. In the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, and Seula [Ceylon], and the fourth part of the Earth, which, because Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to speak, or America. In his 1911 interview, Petherick pointed out that Thomas Morea€™s Utopia (published in Louvain in 1516) reflected this concept of the eartha€™s geography.
The representations of the east coast of a€?Jave Ie Granda€™ [sic] (Australia) delineated in those maps are, I assert, very rough representations and repetitions of the east coast of South America when that continent and our Australia were supposed to be one, before the Pacific Ocean was known. From this perspective, one might speculate that the bizarre attachment of the name America to a mythical or hypothetical island in the southern Indian Ocean was an expression of strong contempt for the Florentine navigator and an attempt to delink his name from the South American continent, which had been made by WaldseemA?llera€™s team at Saint-Die in 1507. Catigara was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. In claiming that Amerigo Vespucci discovered Australia Petherick may simply have been intending to make the point hyperbolically that the coastline of the Dieppe maps, taken by some to represent Australia, was the coast of the land discovered by Amerigo, misplaced into the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Jagiellonian Globe demonstrates that it was possible for early 16th century geographers to depict the same coastline, that of eastern South America, in two different places on the same map. The Jagiellonian Globe reminds us that we must try to look at the early maps through the eyes and with the knowledge of their makers, free of the preconceptions arising from our current geographical knowledge. Another four decades were to pass before another scholar addressed the question of the date for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Why did Pohl see the creation of the Lenox Globe being linked so closely to the publication of Vespuccia€™s letters in Italy in 1505? Levilliera€™s analysis in an essay in Imago Mundi entitled a€?New Light on Vespuccia€™s third voyagea€? was stunning in this regard. We should observe at this juncture that even prior to the so-called Italian-Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters, the famous Cantino map (#306), which is also of Portuguese-origin and which dates to no later than November 1502, also shows the eastern coastline bending abruptly (and falsely) to the southeast.
Thus, in his essay for the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in 1963 Pohl was on solid ground when he pointed to the similar or parallel tampering with the text of Vespuccia€™s original letter for the Italian-Soderini edition as grounds for suspecting that the Lenox Globe dates to a period before the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507.
Nevertheless, Pohl deliberately dodged the question of the uncanny depiction of the new southern continent in his 1963 essay. Pohl went to considerable lengths in this long footnote in 1944 to dismiss any evidence -- the account in the Newen Zeytung journal, the SchA¶ner globes and Valentine Fernandesa€™ remarks in a deposition in a Portuguese court in 1503 -- that supports Magellana€™s assertion that Portuguese navigators had discovered the strait much earlier, and no later than 1506. Pohla€™s rigid position concerning the a€?accidentala€? or a€?imaginarya€? features of the Lenox and Jagellonian Globes remains baffling given that he was prone to accept highly dubious claims of evidence for the presence of Europeans and Asians in America -- such as the stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island which has been reliably dated to after 1492. In the more than forty years since Pohla€™s essay was published there has been little attention paid to the Lenox Globe. Meridians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its surface at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the island Ferro. We believe that when all the evidence and analysis of the historical context are taken into consideration, Fite, Freeman, and Pohl presented a compelling, convincing argument that places the creation of the Lenox Globe prior to the WaldseemA?ller map and globe gores. Furthermore, it seems more probable that the Lenox Globe was based on sensitive information that was improperly acquired directly from someone in Lisbon than it was based on information leaked from the Gymnasium at Saint-Die while the work on Cosmographiae Introductio, the world map and globe gores was still underway in 1505-1506.
Thus, there is some basis for concluding that the maker of the Lenox Globe had learned about a water passage and thus knew a lot more than Vespucci conveyed, at least more than the Florentine navigator revealed openly in Mundus Novus which entered into circulation in 1503-1504. In conclusion, we can summarize what appear to be five solid facts concerning the creation of the Lenox Globe. Second, the maker of this globe also knew from sensitive Portuguese sources a lot more about the overall shape of the entire southern continent than Vespucci conveyed (at least openly) in Mundus Novus that entered into widespread circulation beginning in 1503- 1504. When one considers all this chronological evidence, analysis of the most probable historical context points to the creation of the Lenox Globe between the publication of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus in 1503-1504 and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the large world map were printed. Whatever the truth, the Lenox-Jagellonian Globes add to a large body of cartographic evidence that points to a Portuguese discovery of the strait before 1519 which is what Magellan had always insisted, and to a clandestine exploration of the west coast of this new fourth continent as far north as what we know as Acapulco no later than 1507. Magellana€™s odd decision was illogical or counter-intuitive if he and his contemporaries believed that this new land mass was an extension of Asia. It is a reasonable conclusion that Magellan understood from extensive discussions with Spanish officials and navigators that this land mass was connected to the land region we know as Central America with which the Spanish were quite familiar by 1518- 1519. Chauncey, Henry, a letter written on January 21,1902 to Willberforce Eames, official at the Lenox Library. Lingren, Uta, a€?Trial and Error in the Mapping of America in the Early Modern Period,a€? in America: Early Maps of the New World, editor, Hans Wolff, New York, 1992, pp. Nordenskiold, Adolf, Periplus - An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing-Directions, Stockholm, 1897, p. Pohl, Frederick, a€?The Fourth Continent on the Lenox Globea€?, Bulletin of The New York Public Library, Volume 67, Number 9 (September 1963), pp. Stevenson, Edward Luther, a€?Martin WaldseemA?ller and Early Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World,a€? Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Volume XXXVI, Number 4, 1904, pp. Winsor, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America, Houghton-Mifflin & Company, 1884-1889, Volume III, pp.
Zakrzewska, Maria N., Catalogue of globes in the Jagellonian University Museum, translated by Franciszek Buhl, Kracow, 1965. A A A  Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. A A A  Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. DESCRIPTION: During the late Middle Ages a Venetian by the name of Giovanni Leardo compiled a series of wall-maps that were based, in their general arrangements, upon earlier cartographic designs. The oldest, as well as the crudest and simplest, of these four Leardo maps is preserved in the Biblioteca Communale Library at Verona, Italy and carries the date 1442. Commentaria in somnium Scipionis, 20:20, a treatise by Macrobius, gives the diameter of the earth as 80,000 stades, which might, if converted into Arabic miles, be approximately 6,857 miles of Leardo, other figures are even more at odds. The astronomical details are followed in the third paragraph by the explanation of the calendar.
The second circle shows the names of the months, beginning with March, which was officially reckoned the first month of the year in the Republic of Venice until as late as 1797; it also tells the day, hour, and minute when the sun enters each of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The seventh circle gives the dominical, or Sunday, letters; these are indicated opposite the days of the month (fourth circle) on which Sunday falls in the years designated by the first letters (seven) of the alphabet. The four figures in the spaces between the calendar and the outer edge of the parchment represent the four evangelists: the lion for St. Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water. In its orientation, with East and the Terrestrial Paradise at the top and with Jerusalem at the center, the map follows the Christian tradition of the earlier Middle Ages, hence the long axis of the Mediterranean runs vertically up the southern half of the disk.
Later medieval contacts between Europe and remote lands are revealed in names derived from Western travelers such as Marco Polo who had visited the Far East, as well as in the Arabic names in Asia and Africa. In contrast to the earlier medieval cartography, such as the T-O maps (Book II, #205) that were symbolically drawn, in the Leardo map the contours of the Mediterranean and of Western Europe are surprisingly well drawn and easily recognizable, obviously being based upon sea-charts known as portolanos. This Leardo map, which was painted on parchment, displays the seas as a uniform blue color, with of course the exception of the Red Sea that is appropriately colored. Winds blowing from the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass are shown by eight faces around the edge of the disk. Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps.
Among the existing maps dating from the 14th and early 15th centuries this Leardo map of 1452 is very closely related to the group of maps drawn by the famous Catalan cartographers of Majorca in the Balearic Islands.
A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K. ASIA: In the extreme north (left-hand side) there is a large structure that looks like an Italian church with its campanile (#13). South of the sepulcher can be seen the River Volga (items #6, #7) flowing into the northwestern corner of the Caspian (item #250). Farther east, beyond a row of six castles representing towns on the borderlands of China (#35-40), we come to a gulf of the encircling ocean and to a great system of mountains.
Immediately west of the statues appears Mount Tanacomedo (item #48), apparently Leardo copied Montana Comedorum from a Ptolemaic map, combining the last part of the first word with the first part of the last.
In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118).
The Tigris and Euphrates (#165, #166) join, reaching the Persian Gulf (#267) as a single stream flowing between two large edifices that represent Susiana (#172) and Babylonia (#173). The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.
AFRICA: On Leardoa€™s map, this continent, like that of the Catalan-Estense map, has a very unusual shape (see outline map comparisons below). THE MEDITERRANEAN: The outlines of the Mediterranean (#433) and Black Seas (#431) are more correct than any other features which Leardo draws.
Leardoa€™s place-names along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts are all derived from the portolan charts, although Leardo wrote names only where it was easy to do so without crowding. The maps vary among themselves, but all are oriented with East and Paradise at the top and Jerusalem in the center.
The computus and theological framework of the Leardo maps show their purpose: to illustrate the totality of Goda€™s creation in both space and time. Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievale e sistenti a Verona (Firenze: B.
Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievaleesistenti a Verona (Firenze: B.
Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo Map of the World, 1452 or 1453, in the Collections of the American Geographical Society (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928). NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897).
NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp. Uzielli, Gustavo and Amat di Filippo, Pietro, Mappamondi, carte nautiche, portolani ed altre monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XVII, 2nd ed. American Geographical Society 1928 (colored, original size) The World Encompassed: an exhibition of the history of maps, Plate V. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), Plate 56. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), 56. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Descriptions of early maps, originals and facsilimes (1452-1611) (New York, 1921), 1, no. Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo map of the world, 1452 or 1453, in the collections of the American Geographical Society (New York, 1928). Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water.A  One cannot, however, question his belief in the sphericity of the earth, for otherwise he would hardly have held the views expressed in the panel below the calendar. Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps.A  With the exception of the eight wind faces and the symbolic figures of the evangelists no living creatures, whether animals or men, are graphically represented. A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas,A  Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K. In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118).A  The Lake of Aral, in which these great streams actually have their outlet, seems to have been wholly unknown to the geographers both of antiquity and of medieval Europe.
The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.A  Several corrupted Turkish place-names, along with classical names appear in Asia Minor. The Indian Ocean is filled with yellow and red islands.A A  A legend asserting that pepper and spice are found in these islands (#275) comes from Marco Poloa€™s description of the East Indian archipelago. Like most medieval cartographers, Leardo makes the Nile (#312) rise in West Africa (#338).A A  In this he follows Herodotus, Pliny, Mela and other ancient authorities.
250 the original tables were, themselves, copied from a larger original map of the first century A.D.
After Peutingera€™s death, two of the twelve sections of the Colmar manuscript were engraved and published in 1591 with annotated text and place-names taken from the sections reproduced. It is merely a graphic compendium of mileages or basically an itinerary route map with the roads delineated predominantly by straight lines, often with curious jogs. The archetype may well have been on a papyrus roll, designed for carrying around in a capsa [tool box].
France, Spain, and North Africa with roads, cities and some prominent buildings are also depicted, along with major Mediterranean islands being Corsica and Sardinia. Its date of transcription is 12th or early 13th century, but it has long been recognized as a copy of an ancient map. It is not a military map, though it could have been used for military purposes but the words of Vegetius give an indication of its possible function.


Constantinople is represented by a helmeted female figure seated on a throne and holding in her left hand a spear and a shield.
This system, extended under the late empire to troop movements, relied very largely on staging posts at more or less regular intervals; couriers traveled an average of fifty Roman miles (74 km) a day. This can be well illustrated by a name in Italy otherwise recorded only (in corrupt form) in the Ravenna cosmography.
Instead it is made to rise in the mountains of Cyrenaica and to flow a€?eastwarda€? to a point just above the delta. According to the military manual of Vegetius (383a€“395), military commanders possessed itineraria that not only were written (scripta) but also contained drawings in color (picta). Also, the display of world maps was part of an ideology of extended rule, used both by the emperor Theodosius II at Constantinople, in the fifth century, and later by Pope Zachary II in the Lateran Palace at Rome, in the eighth. It contains the network the main roads (about 100,000 km), the network of settlements, of overnight stations (mansiones) and stations of horse changing that were found in the routes that crossed the late empire. The strongly deformed shape, mainly in terms of latitude, does not preserve any rational cartographic scale or orientation in any of Tabulaa€™s twelve sheets. In fragment XI, westwards the Euphrates River we find the text Areae fines Romanorum [end of roman limits] that is followed by representations of Mesopotamia, Persia and India.
Exception constitute the regions of Galatia, measured in galloroman leyges (leugae = 2,222 km), the regions of the Persian empire in parasangas, (6 km) and India expressed where the distance are in Indian miles (2 km).
These are: Aquila (with 7 towers and a big residential complex), Ravenna (5 towers), Thessalonica (5 towers), Nikomedeia (8 towers), Nicaea (6 towers and a temple or basilica) and Ankara (7 towers) (Figure 6).
The basic functional uses, which incorporate corresponding social practices and are drawn with their shells are: 1) religious, 2) political, 3) defensive, 4) recreational and 5) remaining uses.
In Italy 15 structures are found, in the Balkans five, in the Asia Minor and in Syria one each, while in Africa there are eight such thermal complexes (Figure 13).
At the top are found three first level cities (Rome, Constantinople, Antiocheia) and then follow six second level cities (Aquilla, Ravenna, Thessalonica, Nicomedeia, Nicaea, Ancara). The administrative organization and the provinces of late empire are not present and one would have to seek information in other texts of late antiquity (Laterculus Veronensis, Notitia Dignitatum and Hierocles Synekdimos) in order to have a picture of bigger administrative divisions.
A., Romea€™s World, the Puetinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 357pp. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. They find a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.The Jews greet the Ottomans as saviours. Some Jews and other non-Muslims are forced to work in labour camps to pay off debts to the Government. Louis Fishman is assistant professor of Middle East history at Brooklyn College City University of New York.
It is the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve, and a day of judgement and coronation of God as king. Its historical significance arises from the fact that it is the oldest surviving globe from the post-1492 period and the oldest surviving globe to illustrate any portion of the New World. Thus, in this respect, the small globe does not convey the awareness that there had to be a distinct second ocean (the Pacific) as the WaldseemA?ller map (#310) clearly does.
Harrisse believed that the Lenox Globe was made in France derived from a€?an Italian modela€? and he detected what he thought were some features or nomenclature reminiscent of a sketch map allegedly from the hand of Leonardo Da Vinci (#327) now kept in the Library at Windsor Castle. He was one of the first scholars to make the astute observation about how quickly and how inevitably it was that the Europeans would connect the dots, would grasp the continuous unbroken coastline from Labrador to Argentina as seen in the Stobnicza map of 1512 (#319).
He remarked in his Narrative and Critica1 History of America that a€?its date is fixed at 1510-1512, but by some as early as 1506-1507.a€? Curiously Winsor, who died in 1897, never identified which scholars favored the earlier date that would place the creation of the Lenox Globe before the WaldseemA?ller map. When he published his critical assessment in a long article for The Magazine of American History in September 1879, he was ahead of his time. There in fact are several other maps, globes, or globe gores - associated with the names Boulengier (#324), Green (#342.1), Hauslab-Leichtenstein (#310), Nordenskiold (#311), Stobnicza (#319), and the well-known globes and maps of Johannes SchA¶ner (#328) from the 1515-1520 period - which show this continent having a strait or cape like the African continent and also having a distinctive a€?ice cream-conea€? shape quite unlike Africa. And this evidence should raise doubts and did in fact raise doubts among some late-19th century scholars such as De Costa, Nordenskiold, Varnhagen and Winsor concerning the conventional wisdom that everyone in Europe was in the dark prior to Magellana€™s famous expedition. And Humboldt based his conclusion in the 1830s, on the fact that the little essay Cosmographiae Introductio published to accompany WaldseemA?llera€™s world map in 1507 and which names for the first time the New World as America in Vespuccia€™s honor, also describes the new continent in the southern hemisphere as being like an a€?enormous island in it that it is found to be surrounded on all sides by watera€?. Therefore, unlike Harrisse who curiously was not willing to date the globe before 1511, De Costa was firm in his conclusion that the Portuguese must have found the strait no later than 1510. It seems probable that it was made after the publication, in 1503, of Vespuciusa€™ letter to Lorenzo de Medici, in which he gave an account of his third voyage, when he followed the Brazilian coast 34A° south latitude. De Costa, Justin Winsor and Henry Harrisse have assigned a date of 1510-11, for the reason, amongst others, that, while several of its representations are in advance of the published knowledge of 1508, they are behind that of 1511-12.
In 1508, on the map of John Ruysch (#313), Newfoundland also appears as a part of Asia, being marked Terra Nova. In its New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names, Mundus Novus, Terra Sanctae Crucis, and Terra de Brazil.
The ordinary observer must have perceived that the great bodies of land on the globe terminated towards the south in points.
The principle in accordance with which the age of this globe is to be deduced is now therefore quite clear. The globe shows very distinctly a large island, without any name, lying in the Indian Ocean. This excuse, however, cannot be offered for those who later represented Zanzibar as a great island out in the ocean.
Acting, however, in accordance with the suggestion offered, it would prove an easy task to bring order out of the confusion. Nevertheless it is probable that Australia was known centuries before, when the Chinese, with the marinersa€™ compass, navigated those seas. Amongst these might be mentioned the peculiar configuration of the Asiatic coasts, the style of the lettering, the drawing of the ships, and the aspect of the marine monsters.
He also puts Simarum Situs on the border of the Gulf of the Ganges, where Sinarum Situs is put by Ruysch, Sinarum, like Serica, or silk, being a name applied to China, which on the globe is called East India. The globe-maker, however, should have placed the province where Polo and the Nancy Globe (#363) place it, on the Coromandel coast.
Below South Africa is a grotesque monster, intended for a whale, the creature being delineated with much care. He may have heard of the Vinland of the Northmen, but the story of the Cabots had already been locked up in depositories where it was destined to lie too long; while Martyra€™s map of Beimeni, or Florida, together with the publications of 1512, 1513, 1515, had not come from the press.
The word Getulia and Zamor point to the influence of the Goths and Moors in Africa, while Paludes Nile show that, in common with the geographers of that period, the globe-maker had anticipated the discoveries of Livingstone and Stanley.
Cuba, on the other hand, is correctly laid down as an island, being called Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabella.
The name America was first proposed in 1507 by Martin WaldseemA?ller, known under the Greek pseudonym of a€?Hylacomilus.a€? It appears in his Cosmographiae Introductio, where, having called attention to the fact that the old continents were named after women, he observes that the new one should be called after a man. Hylacomilus was entirely friendly to Columbus, as was the case with Vespucci in his relations to the Genoese; nevertheless the geographer of St.
He says that three times in his second voyage Vespucci calls the country terra del Asia, but in the third voyage calls it una€™ altro mondo and Mondo nuovo.
This map shows the separation of America from Asia, but we believe that the Lenox Globe is earlier. Or the Lenox Globe indeed was made prior to 1507 that would or could mean that its amazing depiction of the new southern continent was derived from highly valued geographical knowledge that also made possible the brilliant synthesis that we see in the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507.
The main reason for De Costaa€™s waffling is that he remained intrigued with the notion that there was a€?some connectiona€? between the Lenox Globe that refers to the New World as Mundus Novus, and Vespuccia€™s 1501-1502 voyage.
Curiously, for some reason, even though De Costa lived until 1904, there is no record of what he thought after the discovery of this map in 1901, which might well have prompted him to date the Lenox Globe prior to 1507.
The Baron had no doubt that the globe was made well before Magellan since its depiction of Asia was more primitive than what one sees on the Ruysch map included the 1507-1508 Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia. The Ruysch map was inserted in the widely available Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia which published in 1507-1508, the first such edition of this work since 1490. Instead, in sharp contrast, the Lenox Globe shows what the Cantino and Caveri maps do not show: namely, the coastline from Venezuela around Panama then upward to Honduras with no hint of a strait in the region of Panama. Ita€™s amazing depiction of the southern continent, essentially in its entirety as a land mass totally separate from Asia and surrounded like an island virtually on all sides by water makes the Lenox Globe a strange hybrid. In Spanish maritime circles, knowledge of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, and even much of the coast north of Florida (all of which fell within the Spanish maritime zone) was fairly complete by 1502-1504.
At the same time, we know that in the Spring of 1501, after Cabral had found the east coast of Brazil the previous year, the Portuguese focused intensely on exploring the eastern coastline of South America in order to determine if there was a cape and if it fell within Lisbona€™s maritime zone. The globe reflects a pro-Portuguese political bias and here we come to what is perhaps the most astonishing and revealing feature of the globe. We can also see this same eastward twist of the coastline in the Cantino (#306) and Contarini (#308) maps both of which date to before the WaldseemA?ller map.
Based on this evidence, Fite and Freeman felt compelled to conclude (again like De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld) that this a€?suggests a water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519a€?.
In any case, the preponderance of evidence and the historical contextualization seems to validate the Fite-Freeman argument that the Lenox Globe dates to sometime between late 1503 when the first editions of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novos were published and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller world map and globe gores appeared. The globe illustrates how geographers of that time struggled to reconcile the discoveries of new lands with orthodox Ptolomaic cosmography.
The discussion over this puzzle may be dated from 1786, when Alexander Dalrymple first drew attention to the resemblance between the shape of Jave la Grande on the Dauphin, or Harleian map (#378) and the shape of the coastline of New South Wales as it had been charted by James Cook in HMS Endeavour in 1770. This map, which is on parchment, appears from the characters, and other circumstances, to have been made about the beginning of the 16th century. This had been described in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and discussed in an article by Benjamin Franklin De Costa in the Magazine of American History. Estreicher pointed out that the western coasts of both this continent and the MUNDUS NOVUS in the Western Hemisphere are schematic and without detail, in contrast to the eastern coasts which show bays, rivers and promontories, indicating that they are the result of actual discovery by voyagers. Diese Annahme wird zur Gewissheit, als wir auf dem Jagellonischen Globus finden, dass die Insel die Inschrift tragt: AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Tross Gores also bear the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA, but in this case placed over South America (WaldseemA?llera€™s America), and there is no continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. The depiction of the continents on the globe in this clock is similar to the globe or gores made by Louis Boulengier in 1514, indicating how globe makers could persist in using cosmographical concepts that were decades out of date.
Unlike the Lenox Globe, the Jagellonian Globe has engraved on it the lines of latitude and longitude with the prime meridian passing through the island of Ferro. However, as mentioned above, he oddly applies this name, not to the new fourth continent in the Western Hemisphere but instead to an unsubstantiated mythical island in the southern portion of the Indian Ocean. For his part, Estreicher drew the sensible and logical conclusion that the use of the name America clearly indicates that the Jagellonian Globe was made after the spring of 1507.
One distinct possibility consistent with the other indication of a pro-Portuguese political bias, is that the Jagellonian Globe was made by someone with that same bias and who was furious that Amerigo Vespucci had revealed far too much in Mundus Novus for Lisbona€™s liking and who may well have been dismissed in late 1504 from further service for Portugal for that reason.
Hythlodaeus, the narrator, whose name perhaps recalls Hylacomylus (WaldseemA?llera€™s name in latinized form), is said to have accompanied Amerigo Vespucci on what, according to the perhaps apocryphal but widely read Soderini letter, was his fourth voyage (1503-1504).
This analysis would suggest that the Jagellonian version of the Lenox Globe might have been a hostile reaction to what the mapmakers had done at St.
The maker of the Jagellonian Globe who inserted this erroneous inscription with regard to Americaa€™s location on a globe was dependent on a prior cartographic projection that had to have originated elsewhere. Writing of his 1499 voyage, Amerigo Vespucci said he had hoped to reach India by sailing westward from Spain across the Atlantic around the Cape of Catigara into the Sinus Magnus, the Great Gulf that lay to the East of the Chersonese Aureus [Malay Peninsula]. Johannes SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1515 (#328), like Boulengiera€™s of 1514 (#324), depicted America but, like the Jagiellonian and Lenox, showed another continent to the South West, labeled BRASILLIE REGIA.
This was a cosmographical concept, not based on actual surveys, but as Stevenson pointed out, assumed because the geographers of the time such as WaldseemA?ller, ignorant of the reality of the Pacific Ocean or of North America, thought Amerigo Vespuccia€™s newly discovered land was located in the Southern Hemisphere to the eastward of Africa. As an authentic document from the early sixteenth century incorporating and demonstrating the cosmographic concepts of that time, it deserves consideration in any discussion of how the Dieppe maps came into existence.
Frederick Pohl (1889-1991) accepted the Fite-Freeman position in an essay published in the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in September 1963.
Pohl drew this conclusion in part because after he published a biography of Vespucci in 1944, Pohl seems to have become aware of the observations of German Arciniegas and Robert Levillier that the Portuguese map makers were in the habit of twisting the southern coastline of South America toward the southeast so that the cape or strait would fall on Lisbona€™s side of the Line of Demarcation established by treaty in 1494. Although Pohl in his 1963 essay curiously did not mention Levilliera€™s essay or Arciniegasa€™ well-known Vespucci biography, he had already argued in 1944 that someone must have tampered with Vespuccia€™s letters to Soderini in various passages, especially that conspicuous alteration from a€?southwesta€? to a€?southeasta€? to give the false impression that the eastern coastline shifted abruptly in that direction a€“ as we can see illustrated in the Lenox Globe in a quite dramatic fashion. This exaggerated geographical feature strongly suggests that officials in Lisbon were quite eager as early as 1502 to spread misinformation or disinformation about the true direction of the coastline below the Tropic of Capricorn at 23 degrees latitude south. We can say this because he buried a discussion of this specific issue in a long footnote on pages 225-226 at the back of his biography of Vespucci published in London in 1944.
However, the most telling observation is that if there was no European knowledge of a cape or a strait with regard to the new southern continent prior to Magellan, why do these globes a€?twista€? the southern portion of the continent to make people believe that a cape and water fall so far to the east, in the direction of, and therefore within the Portuguese maritime zone?
Hans Wolff who edited and also contributed to America: Early Maps of the New World (1992) made a passing remark about how the Lenox Globe a€?is slightly older than the Brixen-Hauslab globe of 1523a€? but his suggestion that the globe dates to around 1520 is not credible.
While it is neither signed nor dated, there is scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox globe; indeed, the geographical features of the two globes are so similar that they appear to be the work of the same globe maker, or copies of a common original, yet it is note-worthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is somewhat richer. At the same time, the maker of the globe evidently and curiously was still not aware of the decision at Saint-Die to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci. First, the maker of this globe accepted or echoed Portuguese cartographic propaganda after 1502 concerning the configuration of the eastern coastline which was depicted as shifting or twisting in a highly exaggerated fashion in a southeasterly direction into the Atlantic.
Third, despite all the evidence that the maker of the Lenox Globe was working almost exclusively with Portuguese sources, he oddly fails to provide the more accurate depiction of South Asia that we find in the Cantino, Caveri and Ruysch maps all of which were completed in the 1502-1507 time period. Pohla€™s suspicion that this globe appeared around the time of the publication of the questionable Italian or Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters in 1505 or 1506 is a compelling argument.
Magellana€™s strange decision to turn and sail due west across the Pacific after having sailed northward to a considerable extent up the Chilean coast remains an intriguing fact. Instead, Magellan seems to have been acting on the assumption or belief that this new southern land, though quite huge, was either an enormous island or a new continent totally separate from Asia, which is precisely what both the Lenox Globe and WaldseemA?ller maps clearly suggest. And surely at that time the Spanish had abandoned any hope in a strait in that region, otherwise they would not have backed Magellana€™s expedition to reach the Moluccas.
In this letter, Chauncey conveys what he was able to learn about Hunta€™s discovery of the Lenox Globe and its later acquisition by Lenox from conversations with Hunta€™s widow who was Chaunceya€™s sister-in-law. In der Jagellonischen Bibliotek, Bulletin lnternational de la€™Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, Comptes Rendus des Seances (March 1900), a€?Resumesa€?, pp. All of the four world maps attributed to Leardo have characteristic features of both the T-O diagrams of Isidore (Book II, #205), and the zonal maps of Macrobius (Book II, #201).
This map does share a special feature with the others, namely the exceptional addition of a series of rings surrounding the circular map-disk, which constitute an elaborate calendar. In the third circle the first nineteen letters of the alphabet represent, in order, the years of the Metonic Luni-solar cycle. From this we see that the vernal equinox fell on March 11, inasmuch as the calendar was constructed before the Gregorian reform.
Other features reflecting the religious or scriptural influence are Noaha€™s Ark resting on top of Mt.
In most cases the names have been written upon the vignettes themselves; since the latter are also colored pink or green, the letters are frequently obscured and quite illegible.
Those to the north, northwest and northeast are blue, suggesting cold blasts from these quarters; the other faces are ruddy.
In its general outlines it is so similar to the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246) that we may assume a common cartographic ancestor of recent vintage. The gulf (item #11), which contains three islands, appears in almost the same position and form on the Estense map, where there is a legend explaining that on the islands griffons and falcons are found and that the natives are not allowed to kill them without the permission of the Grand Khan of the Tatars. In the 12th century, reports spread through Europe of the vast realm of a fabulous Christian monarch in the heart of Asia. The least successful portion of Leardoa€™s Mediterranean coast is that of Spain: the shore here is unduly elongated as compared with that of the Catalan-Estense map, Barcelona (#475) and Ampurias (#476) being placed too far northeast on what ought to be the French shore line. The Red Sea is red, Gog and Magog are confined in the northeast, along with griffins and cannibals, and Noaha€™s Ark and Mt. Modern features are included where that can be done without violating the integrity of the model, but the basic format is the traditional one.
However, Leardo does not specify the years to which the dominical letters in his calendar refer. Furthermore, his two legends relating to the fiery and frozen deserts echo a theory that was propounded in classical times and based upon the hypothesis of a spherical earth. Wrighta€™s analysis).A  For a more detailed account of all of the numbered features of this outline map see Wrighta€™s monograph.
A  Marco Polo adds that at the time of the funeral of Mongol Khan 20,000 persons were thus slain.
This mis-location error is also to be found on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) and the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246). Many of the place-names in India correspond with those of the Catalan maps and in turn were derived from Marco Polo.A  The scene of St.
Moslem scholars, however, were aware of its existence.A  Leardo places the castles of Organa and of Organzia [Urganj] (items #120, #121) at the mouth of the Jaxartes and his place-name Orcania (item #132) on the Oxus.
The largest of these islands, lying off the coast of India, is marked Taprobana (#269) and probably represents Sumatra. Ptolemy, however, seems to have had a more correct view, placing the sources of the river in the Mountains of the Moon in eastern Africa. This is probably because of failure on the part of the makers of the original portolan charts to take into consideration the declination of the compass.
There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically).
A second edition by Abraham Ortelius was published in Antwerp in 1598 as part of his Theatri Orbis Terrarum Parergon which contained eight of the twelve sections of the Table. Such dating is suggested by the three personifications placed on Rome, Constantinople (labeled Constantinoplis, not Byzantium) and Antioch; and it fits in well enough with biblical references on the map. The second page, comprising Segments III and IV, shows Italy with surrounding islands and landforms bordering adjacent seas. In his will of 1508, the humanist Konrad Celtes of Vienna left to Konrad Peutinger (in whose hands it had been since the previous year) what he called Itinerarium Antonini. They suggest that, whether or not the term itinerarium pictum [painted itinerary] was in current use, it is a convenient phrase for this unique map.
But owing to the personification the city surround is formally shown as a circle, enlarged in proportion to the very narrow width of the Italian peninsula. Nearby is a high column (rather than a lighthouse) surmounted by the statue of a warrior, presumably Constantine the Great. Apart from the personifications, cartographic signs include representations of harbors, altars, granaries, spas, and settlements.
The most northerly place extant in Britain appears as Ad Taum; but it is very far removed from the river Tay. On the Gulf of Naples, marked as being six Roman miles from Herculaneum and three miles each from Pompeii and Stabiae [Castellammare di Stabia], is shown a large building with the name Oplont[i]s. The delta itself is shown in less compressed form from south to north than most parts of the Peutinger Map. A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.
Despite its overall deformation, the distances, at least between the main cities, are defined with sufficient accuracy.
The deformations of the coastline course and of the geo-shapes in Tabula makes today its reading unfamiliar and complicated for the non-experts, but the thematic information contained is considered of great significance, mostly for the depiction and the semantics of the ancient road net- works in late roman antiquity. From that port, travelers crossed by sea to Dyrrachion and Apollonia and then on to Clodiana, passing various stations on the way around Lake Ohrid to the north, entering Macedonia toward Thessalonike.
A number of natural characteristics are represented also in graphic form, for example, mountain ranges (Monte Taurus), rivers (fl.
We have to note the absence of Alexandria which is represented with the use of a big lighthouse as symbol, but without a name, fact that is considered a copyista€™s error.
The first, exterior harbor that later was used only as space of reception of boats they were separated from the interior with a peninsula with the imperial Palatium, the theatre, the baths and the Forum.
Petrum, close to Rome, a reference to the Basilica that was built in the Vatican hill (Mons Vaticanus), by Constantine the Great and his mother Helen in the place of Circus Neronianus, inaugurated in the 326 A.D. Third level cities are numerous and constitute the provincial capitals, followed by groups of settlements with military, commercial, administrative, religious and recreational functions (walled cities, commercial centers, public administrative buildings, temples, thermal installations), while at the bottom of the hierarchy belong the towns (mansio) and villages (mutatio).
However, at the settlements level, we consider that the map represents symbolically, but with precision, the hierarchy of network, fact that is particularly useful for the study of regional and urban organization of late antiquity.
There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically).A  No copies of the original have survived but a copy of it, now in Vienna, was purportedly made in 1265 by a monk at Colmar who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and who seems to have omitted nothing important that appeared in the original. A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.A  The digital copy of the Biblioteca Augustana emanates from 1888 Konrad Millera€™s publication. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.,1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital.
A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey". (3)When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul.
Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters. Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.
A Turkish militant Islamic group claims responsibility for the attacks but the level of sophistication suggest involvement of international terror organizations. The globe was first discovered in an antiques shop on the Quai Voltaire in Paris around 1854 by a New York architect named Richard Morris Hunt. Despite this fact, what makes the Lenox globe extremely important, indeed revolutionary, is that it depicts the continent of South America as a separate island-like continent. He argued that this globe was not part of the a€?cartographical familya€? with roots in Portuguese sources a€“ such as the Cantino (#306) and Caveri (#307) maps However, closer examination requires a major reassessment of that conclusion because the historical context and other cartogcaphic evidence imbedded in the Lenox Globe suggest that it is indeed of Portuguese origin, or inspiration, or was made to convey Lisbona€™s political perspective on discoveries in the New World. Harrisse correctly predicted in 1892 that the Stobnicza map was a derivative of the WaldseemA?ller world map of 1507 and argued that if and when it could be found, it also would show this same continuous unbroken coastline.
However, it is probable that among the unnamed scholars was the agent Henry Stevens himself who stated that he favored the date of 1506-1507 in an undated letter in the possession of The New York Public Library. For example, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their folio-sized work entitled A Book of Old Maps published in 1921 by Harvard University Press essentially repeated much of what De Costa had said more than forty years earlier.
These scholars were not entirely convinced that these maps and globes (including especially the Lenox Globe) were a€?provocative geographical cartoonsa€? as Lawrence Bergreen claims in his book on Magellana€™s famous voyage. He suggested that the Lenox Globe had a€?some connectiona€? with the voyage of Vespucci in 1501-1502 to South America in the service of the Portuguese King Manuel.
The western coast of South America is drawn here, as in other maps that were constructed before the news of Magellana€™s circumnavigation had arrived in Europe, laid down not by direct observation but by estimation.
Of course the simple fact that an instrument of this kind represents the condition of geographical knowledge at a certain period does not infallibly prove that it was produced at that particular period. On the Lenox Globe, however, Newfoundland appears as an island, though without any name, and at the same time no part of continental North America is laid down.
In fact, the entire continent is laid down, though apart from the Lenox Globe, no analogous representation is found before that of the SchA¶ner Globe, 1520 (#328). Nevertheless the Lenox Globe gives all of South America, the drawing alone rendering it probable that the draughtsman was not unacquainted with the configuration of Terra del Fuego. Good reasons also exist for believing that Africa was accepted as the a€?modela€? for South America. To the northward of this island is another, called Madagascar, though the true Madagascar is laid down in its proper place without any name. This may be done by moving the great nameless island into the position occupied by Australia on the modern maps, carrying with it Certina, the so-called Madagascar, and the three islands without name. From Lelewela€™s sketch of map of Idrisi (#219) it is evident that the region including Java was perfectly well known in 1154. In fact he made too long and too sudden a stride towards the truth to be followed, though Lelewel, while severely criticizing his work, admits that some of his delineations were not equaled for many years after.
The delineation of the Asian coast using the a€?Tiger Lega€? configuration carries on the tradition also employed by the Behaim Globe, and the Marlellus, King Hamy, WaldseemA?ller, Roselli, and Contarini maps.
In this region, near the equatorial line, is seen Hc Svnt Dracones, or here are the Dagroians, described by Marco Polo as living in the Kingdom of Dagroian.
In the work entitled Globus Mundus, printed at Strasburg, 1509, the suggestion occurs again, Hylacomilas, evidently repeating himself.
To break the force of this, Humboldt refers to the fact that Cadamosto calls the west coast of Africa Altro mondo. The separation, however, on the map in question proves that it could not have been the work of Columbus, as it has been shown repeatedly that Columbus died in the belief that there was no separation. Third: It is the oldest instrument of any kind showing the entire continent of South America. And this connection, if correct, would suggest that a 1510-1511 date might be too conservative, especially when De Costa himself drew attention to one crucial fact. As far as direct European knowledge of the west coast of South America which was implicit in the Lenox Globe, NordenskiA¶ld hesitated, even though in 1884 he had on his own discovered a fabulous set of globe gores very similar to the WaldseemA?ller globe gores that conveys the continenta€™s the distinctive ice cream- cone shape. The main reason that he shifted was that he was heavily influenced by the discovery in the 1890s of four copies of the WaldseemA?ller 1507 world map made by Heinrich Loritti (Glareanus). By the time the Ruysch map appeared, the Portuguese had established a presence in South Asia (India), which this map reflects.
It conveys or mixes the sophistication of the 1507 WaldseemA?ller map with respect to the southern continent, with a retarded perception of the new lands in the northern hemisphere that lay within the Spanish maritime zone.
The Maggiolo world map (#316), which dates to January 1511, is the last known map to contain this curious geographical feature. According to Robert King it offers a clue as to where Thomas More located his Utopia, and may provide a cosmographic explanation for the Jave la Grande of the Dieppe school of maps.
The names are in French, and it is adorned with Fleur de Lis, but most probably has been translated from the work of some Spanish Navigator, whose discovery being forgotten, left room for the new discoveries of the English and French Navigators. Petherick, Commonwealth Parliamentary Archivist, historian, collector of Australiana and bibliographer, whose name is commemorated in the Petherick Reading Room of the National Library of Australia.
It is five inches in diameter and made of copperplate, manufactured probably in France to form the central feature of an astronomical clock or armillary sphere, like the Jagiellonian Globe. WaldseemA?llera€™s America referred to what later became known as South America, as the continental extent of the lands later known as North America was not understood in 1507.
The formula AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA would indicate a common authorship, and therefore a French origin, for the Tross Gores and the Jagiellonian Globe. The relevant phrase on the Jagellonian globe is America novitert reperta [America, land newly discovered]. However, there is no way such a mistaken attribution to a island in the Indian Ocean could have been made if the maker of the Jagellonian Globe had in his possession the world map or globe gores made at St.
Amerigo set out from Lisbon in May 1503 in an unsuccessful attempt to reach Malacca (Melaka) by sailing westwards.
In sum, the Jagellonian borrowed directly from the Lenox Globe which does not refer to America. On the earliest of the Dieppe maps, that of Jean Mallard of c.1536-1540, La Catigare is located on that part of the Terre Australe occupied on later Dieppe maps by Jave la Grande. SchA¶ner said that his source of geographical information was the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt [New Tidings from the Brazilish Land], printed in Augsburg, probably in 1514 and compiled from reports on the recent discoveries sent back to the Fugger banking house in Augsburg from their agents in Madeira. Pohl went further and also argued that the globe in all probability was made in the immediate wake of the publication in Italy in 1505 of Vespuccia€™s letters concerning his four voyages ostensibly addressed to the Florentine leader, Piero Soderini. Despite his personal fascination with European, especially Norse or Viking expeditions to the New World prior to 1492, Pohl declared in that footnote that while he was impressed by the accurate placement of the endpoint of South America at about 56 degrees latitude south in both the Lenox and Jagellonian globes, he concluded that this was a€?accidentala€? and that the depiction of a west coast was a€?imaginarya€?. Another contributor to this volume, Professor Uta Lingren (University of Bayreuth) preferred the 1511-1512 date.
We do know that Lenox Globe reflects the island-like conception or model for the new continent that in fact was articulated in Cosmographiae Introductio, in sharp contrast to Vespuccia€™s remarks in Mundus Novus.
Again, when we take all the facts into account, the analysis continues to point to the time period between 1503 and 1507 for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Fourth, the maker of the Lenox Globe was still not aware of the Spanish and also English exploration of significant coastline of the North American continent which we already find reflected in the Cantino and Caveri maps made by 1504 (#306 and #307). We believe that he made that decision based on inside knowledge which suggested to him that if he took the clearly safer route and followed closely this largely barren, mountainous coastline further northward, then he was not going to reach Asia and the Moluccas.
The knowledge that the region associated with the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean was a vast a€?cul-de-saca€? or a gulf - il grand golfo as both Peter Martyr and Vespucci described it - supplied the prime motivation behind Magellana€™s attempt to reach Asia in the alternative fashion that he proposed.
A copy of this letter is in the possession of the Rare Book Division (Reserve Room) of The New York Public Library. It is now a prized possession of the New York Public Library, of which the Lenox Library now forms a part.
However, Leardoa€™s use of a more precise delineation of the Mediterranean area based upon contemporary nautical or portolano charts and place names culled from the accounts of medieval travelers to the Far East, combine to make these maps significant improvements over many of the more stylized mappaemundi of the period.
The third, from 1448, is somewhat more elaborate in design and belongs to the Museo Civico at Vicenza. The description and explanation of these rings or circles is found as part of a broader text in the frame or panel located below the map itself. He mis-quotes the Nicene Creed and runs the Trinity and the person of Christ together as if they were the same thing. These years were usually designated by the golden numbers, but before the Gregorian reform letters were frequently employed in place of the numbers. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland. There are certain legends and place names that are found on one and not the other, however, their real similarity lies in their coastal outlines. This is also from Marco Polo, who writes that a€?the islands where these birds are bred lie so far north that the North Star is left behind you in the southa€?. Briefly, this theory, ascribed to Crates of Mallos (#113, Book I), states that around the equatorial circumference of the globe is a fiery zone so intensely hot that no man can cross it. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland.A  The only other natural features depicted are mountains, rivers and lakes, although certain deserts are mentioned in legends. The actual place of burial of the Mongol Khans was in Cathay, far away from northern Russia where Leardo, following the model of Catalan maps, draws it.A  European cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries seem to have known and cared little about the relative positions of places in Asia; as Italian merchants by this time had established contacts with the Mongols in southern Russia, what was more natural than to place the Mongol overlorda€™s tomb in the hinterland of the Black Sea?
Thomasa€™ mission and of the early introduction of Christianity into India is indicated by the inscription: Here preached St. Numerous other engraved reproductions were made until 1753 when it was finally reproduced in its entirety.
The map does not conform to the rules of any projection, nor is it possible to apply a constant scale to determine distances from place to place; for these measurements we have to refer to the figures written in by the author. In the extant map a north-south road tends to appear at only a slightly different angle from an east-west one, and distances are calculated not by the mapa€™s scale but by adding up the mileages of successive staging posts. This was not justified as a title: it is indeed a road map, but not connected with the Antonine emperors and different from the Antonine Itineraries.
The distances are normally recorded in Roman miles, but for Gaul they are in leagues, for Persian lands in parasangs, and for India evidently in Indian miles. The Via Triumphalis is indicated as leading to a church of Saint Peter; the words ad scm [sanctum] Petrum are given in large minuscules on the medieval copy. Antioch has a similar female personification, perhaps originating in a statue of the Tyche [fortune] of the city, together with arches of an aqueduct or possibly of a bridge. This name, however, really consists of the ends of [Ven]ta [Icenor]um (Caistor Saint Edmund, Norwich), and the only unusual feature is ad, which may have belonged to an adjacent name.
The distributaries of the Nile are shown to have many islands, three of them marked with temples of Serapis, three with temples of Isis, while the roads are somewhat discontinuous. The corpus of late antique cartography comprises two categories of sources: sources in written form (itineraria scripta) and depicted documents (itineraria picta).
The map depicts the road network in the Roman Empire, almost 70,000 roman miles long which equals roughly 104,000 km of roads length and sea routes. This road was the continuation of the great military highway that began on the shores of the North Sea, ascended the valley of the Rhine, passed through Milan and Aquileia and then descended the valley of the Drava to cross the Sava River at Sirmium [Mitrovica].
It passed through Lychnidos and Herakleia Lynkestis (Bitola) and continued passing Lake Vegoritis and descending the upper valley of the Aliakmon to Pella.


The interior harbor was delimited by the deposits of unloading of boats and a gallery (porticus), which were renovated by Constantine the Great. The presence of Jerusalem in the map is of small importance, as the text next to her, that a€?first was called Jerusalem, but now Aelia Capitolinaa€?, makes reference to the emperor Adrian who gave this name to the city.
Developing further the information it contains, scholars generally think that the Tabula Peutingeriana, despite the inaccuracy of the design, despite the fact that it does not obey to any type of projectional system, still constitutes an epitome of geographic knowledge of late antiquity, knowledge that is precious for the study of the historical geography of the Roman Empire. Historisch-geographischer AbriAY ihres mittelalterlichen Staates im A¶stlichen Mittelmeerraum (Byz.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.,1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
Over time Judeo-Spanish would be phased out and Turkish takes hold as the Jewish communities mother tongue.1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.
In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank?? Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews.
Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
In the late 1860s Henry Stevens, an agent for James Lenox and other collectors of rare books and other historical artifacts, became aware of this special globe and recognized its historical significance. We can even detect the suggestion of a cone-shape in the lower latitudes below the equator and a cape or water passage at the far southern end. Given his perspicacity, it remains odd that the Lenox Globe with its distinct image of the South America as a real a€?islanda€? - totally disconnected from other landmasses - and with no depiction of North America at all a€“ was still not enough to persuade Harrisse to date the globe prior to 1507. Stevens must have taken this position by the late 1870s, because an entry under a€?Globesa€? in the Encyclopedia Britannica edition of 1879 quotes him as assigning the date of 1506-1507 to the Lenox Globe. This total separation from Asia is exactly the cartographic projection we find on the Lenox Globe. And De Costa astutely pointed to Vespuccia€™s repeated assertion in Mundus Novus that he had reached 50 degrees below the equator which means the Italian navigator would have fallen just short of the strait by only two degrees on this voyage.
Under peculiar circumstances, it would be possible for an instrument like this to possess many of the marks which indicate an early origin, simply through the failure of the designer to incorporate the results of the latest explorations, concerning which he might have been ignorant; but this suggestion, in order to have any weight in the present case, should be supported by some proof of such ignorance. In Peter Martyra€™s work (Legatio Babylonicd) of the following year, Florida appears as Beimeni, while the Stobnicza map in the Ptolemy of 1512 (#319), gives a rough view of North America, similar to that found in the Ptolemy of 1513 (#320). This circumstance might, therefore, lead some to conclude that the globe originated at a late period. How, then, could the globe-maker have known that South America terminated in such a form near latitude 55A° S.?
But it is by no means unreasonable to suppose that the termination of South America was known in 1510, even though its circumnavigation had apparently not been accomplished. Perhaps it is not too much to believe that this globe has some connection with the third voyage of Vespucci, which brought him to the latitude of the Straits of Magellan. When this is done, the student will have before him a tolerable indication of the geography of that region. In the 13th century Marco Polo traveled with a map of the world in his hand, by the aid of which he appears to have described Madagascar.
The a€?Tiger Lega€? is Catigara which was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator.
These people, as once charged against the Irish, feasted upon the dead and picked their bones. That country is called TERRA SANCTO CRVCIS, as upon the Ruysch map, and MVNDVS Novvs, a name given by Sandacourt, a Canon of St. The name occurs in SchA¶nera€™s Luculentissima, etc., 1515, but the idea that it was generally used is a mistake. It is probable that he had resolved upon this course before Columbus died, while there is nothing whatever to indicate that Vespucci took any action to secure the honor awarded to him, or even that, any more than Columbus, he was solicitous upon the subject. This, however, he confesses is a mere adaptation of the old classic use, the alter orbis of Pomponius, Mela and Strabo. The Genoese, at the end of Cuba, on his second voyage, required his companions to declare on oath that Cuba was not an island the person maintaining the contrary being liable to a fine of ten thousand maravedis, and to have his tongue cut out. Fourth: It is the oldest instrument showing that the discoveries of Columbus formed no part of the Asiatic Continent, and that America was absolutely Mvndvs Novvs, or the New World. That fact is the absence of America on the globe as a name for the new continent - a name which caught on quickly at least in Italy and northern Europe after Cosmographiae Introductio was published in many editions following the first edition in St Die in eastern France in April, 1507.
Glareanus states that he had followed the projections of WaldseemA?ller whose large map still had not been found but whose globe gores were well known since the early 1870s.
The other crucial factor that Fite and Freeman cite as in favor of an earlier date prior to 1508 is the fact that the Lenox Globe does not show any portion of the North American mainland - meaning, as observed earlier, that the maker of the little globe was still wedded to the Ptolemaic concept of only one ocean separating Europe and Asia. Although there is in fact a curl in that direction, it is quite exaggerated on the globe which is a strong hint that someone wanted to be sure that others would conclude that the cape or strait fell inside the Portuguese maritime zone as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. In the interview, Petherick referred to the work of Tadeusz Estreicher, a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. On both globes South America is shown, bearing the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL. This conclusion becomes a certainty when we find that on the Jagiellonian Globe the island bears the inscription: AMERICA-NEWLY-DISCOVERED].
The fact remains, the Lenox Globe and the Jagiellonian Globe are evidence that there was an authoritative map made around 1507-1508 that showed, albeit mistakenly, a continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere.
Having gone with Amerigo as far as the farthest point he reached (ad fines postremae navigationis) on the coast of the new continent, Hythlodaeus left the expedition and after passing through unknown lands proceeded on to the Portuguese base at Calicut in India by way of Taprobana (Ceylon, present day Sri Lanka) discovering the fabulous island of Utopia on the way.
The reverse sequence - the notion that a€“ the Lenox Globe could appear after the Jagellonian Globe, the WaldseemA?ller map and also the many editions of Cosmographiae Introductio a€“ and deliberately drop the name America - makes no sense whatsoever.
On the Harleian mappemonde, CATIGARA is not to be found on the western coast of IAVE LA GRANDE but, as noted by Petherick, is located on the western coast of LA TERRE:DVBRESILL, indicating a pre-Magellanic lack of knowledge of the existence of the Pacific Ocean and the notional character of IAVE LA GRANDE.
And last but not least, he refused to follow or more likely did not know of the decision at St. All the foregoing analysis means that Magellana€™s main claim to fame as a navigator rests not with the discovery of the strait - an achievement which he disavowed - but to his bold decision like that of Columbus in 1492 to cross an ocean whose real breadth was unknown.
The small globe is composed of two copper-engraved hemispheric sections closely fitted along the equator, as in the case of the Ulpius Globe (#367), and pierced for an axis. The inscription on this particular Leardo map is somewhat awkwardly phrased in the Venetian dialect of the 15th century; but, although the beginning of each line is missing, the meaning is fairly clear, especially when certain of the missing lines are reconstructed from the corresponding inscription on the map in Vicenza of 1448.
This passage is followed by a statement that the map shows how the land and islands stand in relation to the seas and how the many provinces and mountains and principal rivers are distributed on the land. Leardo explains that C (golden number 10) stands for 1453, D for 1454, and so on until T is reached, after which we begin over again at A.
Sinai, the exaggerated length of the River Jordan and an inscription in the far northeast referring to Gog and Magog.
The mountains southeast of the gulf make an enclosure shaped something like a A? (items #42-47).
Within this conventional structure, however, Leardo has found it possible to incorporate some modern material. Here there was more available space than in the Far East, and here also, on the Leardo map, the Grand Khana€™s tomb could be made symmetrically to provide balance for Prester Johna€™s palace on the other side of the map in Africa (item #299). The latter stream represents, perhaps, a combination of the Niger and Senegal, of which some faint knowledge may have been gained through traders who had crossed the Sahara. Also the Table was not apparently designed for military use, but instead gives prominence to trading centers, mineral springs, places of pilgrimage, mountain chains (in profile) and in three great cities (Rome, Constantinople and Antioch) set three rulers, believed to represent the sons of Constantine enthroned as symbols of a tripartite empire. 330 as a new Rome on the site of Byzantium, Antioch was recognized as the important bastion against the Parthians.
A royal figure, probably a Pope, or perhaps an allegory of Christ the King is portrayed as representative of the city along with a building which resembles St. It was first published in 1591 by Markus Welser, a relative of the Peutingersa€™ and since 1618 n has generally been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or translations of that phase. Nearby is the park of Daphne, dedicated to Apollo and other gods and famous for its natural beauty and as a leisure center. But since 1964 a large palace, which probably belonged to Neroa€™s empress PoppA¦a, has been excavated at Torre Annunziata, and it seems to authenticate the detail on the map. On the Sinai desert we find the words desertum ubi quadraginta annis erraverunt filii Israelis ducente Moyse [the desert where the children of Israel who wandered for forty years guided by Moses], and there are other biblical references. The itineraria scripta, compiled in Latin, were works designed to provide assistance for travelers.
From there it crossed the Axios and the Echedoros (Gallikos) River before arriving at Thessalonica. With simpler representations are portrayed the passages between Europe and Asia, in present day Istanbul: Sycas in Europe), Chrisoppolis, in the Asiatic side (Figure 10). It becomes comprehensible that in the period of mapa€™s creation, Christianity, even if present, is not found in the center of interest, in the context of later roman empire.
The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews?? In 1869, he persuaded Hunt to permit the Coast Survey Bureau in Washington DC to make an accurate facsimile projection which has been used by many subsequent scholars. Unfortunately, we have not been able to find any explanation from Stevens as to why he chose this date.
For all these reasons, De Costa at several points in his essay conveyed his strong suspicion that the Portuguese learned a great deal more about the continenta€™s configuration in the years that followed and well before Magellana€™s expedition. Respecting the points on which the globe gives no light, information was, nevertheless, so wide-spread in 1511 as to render it difficult to believe that any globe or map maker of the period could have failed to know of its existence. The very early map attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (#327) shows Florida as an island, but since the map was not published, no inference can be drawn from it.
If, however, it were to be argued that the Lenox Globe belongs to a period subsequent to SchA¶ner, it might be necessary to assign its date to the 16th century. How, in fact, could he have known that it terminated at all, especially since sketches later than 1515, with one or two unimportant exceptions, represented Terra del Fuego as joined to a great continent, supposed to cover the entire region around the south pole? Peter Martyr, writing to the Pope in 1514, seems to have a definite view of the shape of South America quite in advance of published maps. Since, however, this part of the Indian Ocean contains no such vast island, and since Australia does not appear in its proper place, it has been suggested by De Costa that, though we do so with extreme diffidence, that Australia is represented by the great island in question, which was misplaced; while the so-called Madagascar and Certina are simply Sumatra and Java.
Borneo and Celebes (called Java Minor by Ramusio), having their proper place, New Guiana, without any name, also appearing.
At that period the great island of Australia, lying close to well-known islands, could hardly have remained unknown to geographers. At the same time the maker of the globe, in common with Sylvanus, in forming the outline of what we venture to offer as Australia, appear to have made a certain use of those outlines characteristic of the Java Major of the Fra Mauro map and the Behaim Globe (#249 and #258), which lay on the east coast of Asia. Loac is the Locac of Marco Polo, and Seilan is the Borneo of our day, the former name having been taken from its proper place near India to make room for Taprobana, which was often applied to Sumatra.
568), believes it necessary to refute what Sebastian Munster said in his Cosmography, to the effect that it sometimes falleth out that Mariners, thinking the Whales to be Islands, and casting out ankers vpon their backs, are often in danger of drowning.
Die, when he framed the title of the Latin version of Vespuccia€™s letter, which described Brasil. The name was first published on a map made by WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (#310) and later by Appianus, 1520 (#331), in the work of Gamers, but the Ptolemy of 1513, in a legend on the map made by Hylocomilus himself (#320), attributes the discovery of the new world to Columbus. He then shifts the argument, and shows that Peter Martyr in 1493-4, while speaking of the novis orbis, did not recognize its separation from Asia, and that this use was long continued.
And the date of April 1510 on one of these Glareanus copies made it impossible for the Baron to support von Wiesera€™s attempt to push these maps to the 1520s. This strange level of ignorance on both points seems puzzling for any map or globe made as late as 1510- 1512, and defies a good explanation. Professor Estreicher described a globe which he dated to between 1509 and 1511 held in the Library of the University.
De Costa noted a large land mass depicted in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere, unnamed on the Lenox Globe and suggested, a€?with extreme diffidencea€?, that this land represented Australia, misplaced to this location. The Jagiellonian Globe shows that its maker believed this continent to have been the New World discovered by Amerigo. Is it possible that this globe-maker was simply confused because he did not have the benefit of the world map and only had a copy of Cosmographiae Introductio in front of him? This placed the land discovered by Amerigo and the island of Utopia which lay contiguous to it to the south of Taprobana and India.
When we also note that the Lenox Globe was made by someone who amazingly still seems to be in the total dark about basic geographical knowledge concerning North America a€“ well-known by 1507 to many scholars, not just those involved with WaldseemA?ller - then this would lend considerable weight to the conclusion that the Lenox Globe should date to a time period prior to or no later than Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller map - namely, to the 1503-1507 period as Fite and Freeman argued in 1926. In other words, the Brazilish Land, Presillg Landt, was differentiated from Brazil proper, otherwise known as America. Given her exclusively technical approach to this globe, she complained about the bending of the tip of the continent towards the east, but it never occurred to her than this feature might have been part of an attempt to deceive, an effort to spread disinformation to make persons think that a cape would fall on the Portuguese side of the maritime demarcation line established in 1494. Die that became widely known after April 1507 to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci who had re-entered Spanish service in early 1505. Then, on the asserted authority of Macrobius, a very excellent astrologer and geometrician, figures are given for the dimensions of the earth and various heavenly bodies. Nothing daunted, most of the 15th century cartographers who used the writings of Ptolemy boldly transferred the Mountains of the Moon to West Africa to suit their theory of the rivera€™s course. The Mediterranean and Black Seas are drawn according to the model of the sea chart, though the mapa€™s small size does not allow for many place-names, and the winds are eight, in seaman fashion, rather than the classical twelve.
The Iron Gate was built by Alexander in the wall enclosing Gog and Magog, and the statues represent trumpeters set up to keep guard over these unclean hordes. The lower Nile is joined by the River Stapus (#313), doubtless the Astapus of Ptolemy or the modern Blue Nile. Put the suggestion that this fourth century archetype was based on a much earlier map would account for the inclusion of Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Pompeii, which had been destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D.
Peters Basilica (or the personage could be that of one of Constantinea€™s sons as previously mentioned). Even though the temple of Apollo was burned down in 362, there were many other temples, so that this is not necessarily a guide to the dating. The sign for a spa is an ideogram of a roughly square building with an internal courtyard, often with a gabled tower at each end of the near side. Or again, a much earlier discovery near Aquileia in 1830 appears to correspond to an entry on the Peutinger Map.
There is also an area in central Asia labeled Hic Alexander responsum accepit usq[ue] quo Alexander [Here Alexander was given the oracular reply: a€?How far, Alexander?a€?]. They recorded a network of itineraries over a vast area and listed the cities and stations on the routes that crisscrossed the empire, together with the distances between them. Then it followed the Lakes Koroneia and Volve before continuing to Apollonia and Amphipolis.
The fact that Britannia, Spain and the western part of Africa are missing, leads scholars to suppose that part of the Tabula has been lost.
The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the "Super Power" of those days.
As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire.
At the time, Stevens hoped to conclude a purchase for the British Museum and was prepared to pay Hunt the handsome sum of A?2,000, according to Hunt's widow.
To get some clue as to why that date might have made sense to Stevens we need to turn to a contemporary scholar who pondered more deeply and put his thoughts in writing as to when this globe might have been made. The maps of 1511, 1512 and 1513 nevertheless must have been known to every intelligent person engaged in globe making, and if the Lenox Globe had been made during those years, or later, it would have reflected information published to the world. On his map is found a Latin legend, translated as follows: Portuguese mariners discovered this part of this territory, and proceeded as high as the fiftieth degree of South latitude, but without reaching its southern extremity. Being secretly together in a chamber with the Bishop of Burgos, Martyr says that they examined many sea charts, one of which Vespucci was said to have set his hand, while another had been influenced by both Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus. In accordance with this view, it would be necessary to conclude that, though misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, even Australia was known to the geographers of that early period. It would appear that the Java Minor of Marco Polo, a term applied by him to Sumatra, came eventually to include the entire region. The maker of the Lenox Globe may have misunderstood his instructions, and thus pushed Australia into the Indian Ocean.
In Northern India is Sacha- vvm Regno, the sugar region described in the Ptolemy of Patavino (1596). It would appear as though Milton found his own Leviathan on the page of Hakluyt, in whose works he had read the treatise signed Arngrimus Ionus.
This has been alluded to as very curious, though the course pursued by Hylacomilus was altogether consistent.
The Lenox Globe appears to have been made at a time when geographers regarded the matter with unconcern, as neither Columbus nor Vespucci have any honor awarded. He forgets, however, that Martyr describes South America as land never known by the ancients. 145.) Pinzon on the first voyage understood Cuba to be a city, and that the land here was a continent of great size, which extended far to the north (First Voyage of Columbus, Boston, 1827). That said, NordenskiA¶ld was still content in Periplus to give the Lenox Globe a date of about 1510 that just happened to be the same year for the Glareanus copies of WaldseemA?llera€™s work.
Fortunately, it has survived the vicissitudes of the 20th century and is still held in the Treasury of the Jagiellonian Library, now the Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius. If so, a€?it would be necessary to conclude that, although misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, Australia was known to the geographers of that early perioda€?. Not likely because Vespuccia€™s detailed letters concerning all his voyages were attached to Cosmographiae Introductio.
This is just where Amerigoa€™s newly discovered land is shown on the Jagiellonian Globe, indicating that Sir Thomas More probably had such a globe before him when he wrote Utopia.
The Zeytung described the voyagers passing through a strait, like the Strait of Gibraltar, between the southernmost point of America or Brazil, and a land to the South West, referred to as vndtere Presill (in Latin, Brasilia inferior). In sharp contrast, Rudolf Schmidt in the 1991 reprint of Konrad Kretschmera€™s famous 1892 atlas of facsimile maps underscored the crucial question in his brief commentary where he remarked: a€?How does the unknown author of the Lenox Globe arrive at a quite good representation of South America, if we disregard the eastward kink, which after all persisted for a long time in drawings of Africa as well?a€? Schmidt at the time was the President of the International Coronelli Society that promotes the study of globes. These estimates are quite fanciful, bearing little relation to the corresponding figures actually cited by Macrobius.
Ptolemaic names appear, especially in Africa, where the Nile flows from the Mountains of the Moon, located in West Africa. On the Catalan-Estense map this tributary rises in the Terrestrial Paradise, there placed in East Africa. At the turn of the fifth - sixth centuries the world ocean was added and improvements were made to the seas; at about the same time, the influence of this map appears in a work by an anonymous cosmographer of Ravenna (#203), who made use of some new material recently added to his source. Further south is the city of Naples drawn inland, next to it is a dark mound which might represent the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Inexplicably the word tabula has been translated a€?tablea€? rather than a€?picturea€? or a€?mapa€? in popular usage. There are fifty-two such buildings represented, of which twenty-eight are at places specifically called Aquae; in some other cases there is reason to think that a place so denoted had prominent baths.
A large bathing establishment, mentioned also by the elder Pliny, was discovered on the lower reaches of the river Isonzo.
Perhaps these ample descriptions, whether Christian or pagan, were added on otherwise empty space about the fifth or sixth century A.D. The Itinerarium of Antoninus deals with the land and sea routes from western into Eastern Europe, from Gadeira (Cadiz, SW Spain) to Caesarea in Palestine and from the Crimea to Alexandria. After that it crossed the lower course of the Strymon River and the north slopes of Mount Pangaion on its way to Philippoi, after which it headed south toward the sea again, reaching it at Neapolis (Kavala). Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman, 7-9 April 1997 (SBF Collectio Maior 40), Jerusalem 1999, p. 79 and not rebuilt, except for parts of Pompeii.A  It is also perhaps easier, on this supposition, to see why certain roads are omitted, such as the major routes through the Parthian empire mentioned in the Mansiones ParthicA¦ [Parthian Stations] of Isidorus of Charax. But before Stevens could make this offer, Hunt already had already decided to give the globe as a gift to Lenox out of admiration for him. This was the case with many of the early geographical works; but in every such instance it is easy to show that the map is not in accordance with the text, and that the map was introduced by the publisher in lieu of something better. According to this argument, this globe, therefore, takes its place in the year 1510, or the beginning of 1511. But this question is one that may be disembarrassed, for it will not prove a difficult task to show how the globe- maker may have obtained, in 1610, the knowledge which he exhibits. Speaking of South America, he says it reaches forth into the sea even as Italy doth, although not like the leg of a man, as it does. That this was so appears from the fact that names belonging to Java and the neighboring islands are given on maps of a later period.
The attention of the designer of the globe may have been directed to the subject by the voyage of Gonnville, who sailed from Honfleur in June 1503, for the East, and fell upon a great country, not far from the direct route to the Indies, which they called Southern India. Near Persia is Carmenis, the Kermann of Marco Polo, who does not refer to the neighboring Calicut, or Calcutta. The history of this name, however, is not quite so clear as the others, though Navarrete calls attention to Muratoria€™s notice of the fact that brazil, signifying a red dye-wood, was an excisable article at Ferrara and Modena in 1193 and 1306.
The really curious thing remains to be stated, and for the special consideration of those writers who have had so much to say about the ingratitude shown to Columbus by early geographers. Certainly Vespucci never gave the impression in these letters or in the earlier publication known as Mundus Novus that he was sailing in the Indian Ocean. A very similar globe, belonging to an astronomical clock and apparently of about the same age as the Lenox Globe, is in the library of the Jagiellon University at Cracow in Poland. To the mountain range of North Africa, the Carena of the Catalan maps, Leardo has added Ptolemaic names. Since the Ravenna cosmographer names a certain Castorius as the author of his source in connection with material also found in the Tabula Peutingeriana, it has been inferred by early historians that this was the makera€™s name for the original. Segments V and VI illustrate the eastern Mediterranean by prominently showing the Grecian archipelago and present-day Turkey and Crete. It is now time to call it the a€?Peutinger Mapa€? to avoid any misconception that the original image was somehow carved on a table or was like a statistical table. 365-66 all three personified cities were important, since the pretender Procopius had his seat of power in Constantinople, Valentinian I in Rome and his brother Valens in Antioch. There are also in the Peutinger Map places with cartographic signs for granaries, denoted as rectangular roofed buildings. This is probably the place given the cartographic sign for a spa, with the words Fonte Timavi [spring of the river Timavus]. In several areas research is in progress combining fieldwork with study of the Peutinger Map and of the history of place-names.
It must have taken its final form between 280 and 290 and is thought to be based on the figures provided by the department responsible for the cursus publicus, the roman imperial road office.
After Neapolis, the Via Egnatia headed northeast, through Akontisma (3 km from modern Nea Karvali) and turned inland to Topeiros, where the Nestos River was crossed. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students. Hunt had a close relationship with Lenox because Lenox had hired him to design a large mansion in Manhattan to house his private collection. After passing this year, and reaching 1520, the newly found lands are so well known as to be celebrated in an English poem, entitled the Four Elements.
7) calls attention to the fact that in the fourteenth chapter of the work, in which the map of Ruysch appears, there is a separate statement, to the effect that the Portuguese had surveyed the coast of South America as far as 37A° S., and that it was known as far as 50A° S. The Globe of Ulpius (#367) illustrates this phase of the question, Java Minor appearing as a very large island, and the true Java not being laid down at all. He also quotes from Capmanya€™s Memorias sobra la antiqua marina, commercio, y artes de Barcelona, which contains references to this wood connected with the years 1221, 1243, 1252 and 1271. The point is this, that though Ferdinand, the son of Columbus, lived until 1539, and for many years was an owner and diligent reader of the Cosmographise Introductio, which he annotated and rebound, he is not known to have written or spoken a syllable, or to have caused any one else to write so much as a word, expressive of any sense of injustice done to his father by the naming of the New World after Vespucci. It has invariably been used by mapmakers to represent the coast of North America, whatever may have been its origin.
Winsor, neither of who had seen the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was only discovered in 1901, fixed the date at 1508-11 and 1510-12, respectively. The globe consists of two gilded copperplate calottes, inscribed with the Eartha€™s principal features as understood at that time, including a continent inscribed AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Zeytung said that Malacca was only six hundred miles from the western point of this Brazil.
The southern region is described as uninhabitable due to the heat and is colored red on all three maps.
The overall form of the Colmar edition, which is the basic form of the Tabula as it has reached us today, must have been fixed at this period, about A.D. The seventh Segment shows Cyprus, present-day Saudi Arabia, a large allegorical representation of the Holy City, and the area southeast to Mesopotamia. The alternative naming of the Peutinger Map as the a€?world map of Castoriusa€? has met with very little support. But in fact, although Valens set out for Antioch, he was diverted to fight Procopius and he cannot be correctly associated with the last-named city.
Its fresh waters by the sea were regarded as an unusual phenomenon and obviously worth mapping. Then continued eastward along the coast to Traianopolis and through Heraclea arrived to Constantinople (Figure 3).
To the political and economic incentives was now added the desire of the pilgrims of the new Christian world to travel east to the Holy Land. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor. The offering of the globe as a gift was evidently timed with the completion of the construction of this mansion in 1870.
The scholar Henry Harrisse, in his Life of Fernand Colomb, also calls attention to the fact that the partisan Life of the Admiral, which has been attributed to his son, while exceedingly severe upon those who detracted from the fame of Columbus, does not mention either Hylacomilus or his book. It is the earliest surviving globe on which the name America appears, a name invented by Martin WaldseemA?ller and published in his Cosmographiae Introductio, St.
In SchA¶nera€™s 1520 globe, AMERICA had evolved into TERRA NOVA, AMERICA vel BRASILIA sive PAPAGALLI TERRA [Land of Parrots], while BRASILLIE REGIO had become BRASILIA INFERIOR (a translation of vndtere Presill).
Africa is indented by a deep gulf on either side, while the southern part of the continent is fanned out as it is on the Catalan Modena map (#246), producing an Indian Ocean with an opening to the east. 500; although a few local corrections were made subsequently, for example, in the eighth and ninth centuries. Variants of a two-gabled building were used to depict some settlements, but most were distinguished by no more than a name. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. Thus in 1508 there existed at Rome a general understanding of the coast to within about two degrees of the entrance to the Straits of Magellan. Major discusses four maps with similar characteristics, belonging to same period, in the Hakluyt Societya€™s work on Australia, and the matter is also touched upon in his Prince Henry. It would appear, therefore, that the indignation referred to is, upon the whole, a modern thing, of which the immediate friends of the famous Genoese had no experience. The Lenox Globe, though giving no lines of latitude, represents the coast as far south as about 55A° south latitude, the correct latitude of Cape Horn. SchA¶nera€™s 1533 globe showed the BRASILIAE REGIO as part of the TERRA AVSTRALIS, with an enormous peninsula, the REGIO PATALIS, attached to its southeastern part. The original roll at the time of its transcription in the early Middle Ages was of eleven sheets, but as such it was incomplete, since much of Britain, Spain, and the western part of North Africa were already missing at the time of copying; there may also have been an introductory sheet forming part of an earlier prototype version.
Attempts to differentiate between types of settlements on the map and to establish criteria for the attribution of signs have not been entirely successful.
During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish.
With such facts before him, Humboldt came to the conclusion that between the years 1500 and 1508 a succession of attempts were made by the Portuguese along the coast of South America, beginning at Porto Seguro in latitude 16A° S. Some of the geographers endeavored to set off Java, reduced to proper proportions, SchA¶ner, 1520, being amongst the number; but in the attempt Australia in some cases disappeared altogether. Moreover, it places open water to the south of this new continent and thus suggests that the water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519. Oronce Finea€™s 1531 map exhibits this cosmography, and the Dieppe maps show its further evolution, even though it was out of date by the time they were made in the 1540s and 1550s.
The Persian Gulf runs from east to west, cutting off the Arabian peninsula on the north, while the Red Sea has a right-angle bend in it, oriented north-south in Egypt and turning to run into the Indian Ocean from the west. It was evidently not, as was once thought, the work of the Dominican monk Konrad of Colmar, who in 1265 quite independently produced a mappamundi that he says he copied onto twelve parchment pages; the paleography suggests an earlier date. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure.
Brazil appears on a map of the 15th century, but the Catalan map of 1375 (#235) also shows an island in the Atlantic bearing the name. The SchA¶ner globes of 1515 and 1520 (#328), on which South America is separated from an Antarctic continent by a strait connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, give further evidence of this fact. A large Scandinavian peninsula lies along the northwestern section of the map, taking up so much room that the British Isles are pushed down to a location off the western coast of France. The second sheet of the Peutinger Map was treated as if it had been the first, with spellings of truncated names containing false initial capitals (for example, Ridumo for what was originally Moriduno). Still the student is not justified, with such data, in declaring precisely how far the navigators knew the region by actual observation. Perhaps, therefore, the Lenox Globe may be regarded as showing one of the earliest attempts to correct a misunderstanding. There are several references to the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, and in the Sahara are some of the towns that began appearing on Catalan maps in the previous century.
Hence a total of twelve sheets extant at the time of copying can be accounted for only by assuming that, when the copyist mentioned this number, he was including a title sheet. It is interesting to see that, just as there is one personification in the West and two in the East, so two cities of the second rank, symbolically given walls, are in the West and four in the East.
The inference is that the navigators who passed along that region viewed the strait afterwards discovered by Magellan as an inlet, and that they learned from the natives the configuration of Terra del Fuego. It is reasonable, however, to conclude that the name was applied to South America, because the first navigator found there an abundance of desirable dye-wood.
Important cities like Carthage, Ephesus, and Alexandria are not shown with a distinctive sign. Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc.
Our Passover megasite has tools, guides, insights, stories, inspiration—and just about everything you need to celebrate Passover (but bring your own wine). The Hudsona€™s Bay Company possess at their House important sketches made by the Indians; while Balboa, called the a€?Discoverer of the Pacifica€? had the Pacific discovered for him by the Cacique of Zumaco, who, upon the arrival of the Spaniard in the Bay of Panama, figured for him the coasts of Quito, and described the riches of Peru.
There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi. This was all that the Spanish and Portuguese navigators needed to have done for them by the natives of Terra del Fuego.



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