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MelAus PartnersSELF HELP GROUPS LOGOFinancial intermediary usuallythe addisons disease self help groups facebook groups icon, . Women empowerment program has enabled members of the Self help groups mobility, financial stability and social empowerment.
The persevering intervention of the organization with women led these same women come together through 112 Self help groups and further forming a democratically elected Federation ‘Jagrit Nari’. The organization went to the rural area in the year 1996, knowing that women needed visibility.
Exposure Trip to RUCHI (Rural Centre for Human Interests): The SHG team from the Rural Training Management Institutewent for an exposure trip to the Rural Centre for HumanInterests, located in Solan. Earlier confined to household, Babita now owns a shop and is an earning member of her family.
Navjyoti India Foundation is a not-for-profit society, registered on January 5, 1988 by then 16 serving police officers of Delhi Police and conceived by Dr Kiran Bedi, first woman IPS, and her team of North district police, with the main objective of crime prevention through welfare policing. However, Ajay Tankha and other official chroniclers would record the birth of SHGs on the historic day of 26 February, 1992, when the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard) issued a landmark circular (page 22). Tankha’s book is constructed on the review of the SHG movement, and its performance in the past two decades. Before this book, Tankha has worked and written on diverse issues pertaining to SHGs—his particular contribution was in estimating the cost of promoting SHGs and SHG Federations. Tankha fails to recognize the conceptual triggers behind the growth of the movement in a particular direction. The unfortunate part of Tankha’s approach in this rather well-researched and detailed book is that he does not question the status quo. Without undermining his remarkable work, we need to recognize one significant gap in the book. But for my reservations about the approach of the book, this is an important resource book for anybody interested in the field of SHG-based financial inclusion programmes in India. They are an amazing success story in the form of entrepreneurship, community leadership and social coalitions, all made possible through right opportunities easily accessible to them.


However, SHGs in the arena of financial intermediation have been there for about 25 years, starting with the early credit management groups set up by Myrada, a non-governmental organization (NGO) based in Bangalore. The construction of history has placed much emphasis on official recognition of an experiment that was in the making for five years. We can see that the overall approach of this book is towards evaluating the movement on financial terms.
The natural excitement for this innovation should have come from the commercial world—particularly the banks who should have engaged with this segment commercially. While Tankha locates SHGs in the world of financial inclusion, he fails to look at some emerging trends that question the fabric of groups. This persistent effort consolidated into formation of Self help groups in 2003 and subsequently into formation of a federation ‘Jagrit Nari’ in 2007.
Therefore, 2012, instead of being celebrated as the silver jubilee of the SHG movement, was celebrated as the 20th anniversary of the issuance of a circular. But at the end of twenty (five) years, we should look at whether the concept is relevant, the reasons for limited regional success and what it means to be taken over by the state.
While it looks natural that as the movement grows, we need consolidation and federations are a natural outcome, that is the line of argument he takes. It would have been delightful if he had looked at each of the landmark events to build a story on how these events changed the course of history. However, the excitement came from the state in the paradigm of empowerment, inclusion and development.
By this process, his time marker is an official recognition, a day when SHGs entered into the statistical reportage of the nation.
When we look at the future directions as Tankha attempts to do, it is important to go back to see if the base principles are intact. However, if we examine it from an intermediation perspective it does not make sense to add another layer of costs between the bank and the ultimate customer. If he had done that, he would have re-narrated our story of innovation that is so Indian in nature.


While it made sense for the SHG movement to seek the patronage of the state during the initial phases to sell the concepts to the banking world, going forward the basic commerce and the commercial exchanges were compromised because of the state. The Aadhaar-enabled payments, the direct benefit transfers or payment of MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) wages are sought to be loaded on to the individual bank account of the poor customer.
The tragedy of SHGs has been the evangelical obsession with the movement rather than the concept.
Aggregation of SHG transactions at the federation level would make sense if the spread of banking were not deep.
Initially it started with subsidies that provided funding for building the social architecture. The concept of people getting together as a group for doing financial transactions was not new, a fact that Tankha recognizes early on.
But when the subsidies and intervention entered the commercial transactions, the decline of the spirit of SHGs started. Is the state suffering from the schizophrenia of the rural development strategy being at cross purposes with the financial inclusion strategy? But for public sector banks having a physical presence in more than 45,000 rural and semi-urban locations it does not. It only cannibalizes the local business through an aggregation at the regional office level and bypassing the branch network through an alternative federation route. They created a collective identity for the women in the group, and gave transaction aggregation.



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