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Born in Rome to an Italian artist and German secretary, Anita Pallenberg has enjoyed successful careers as a model, actress and fashion designer.
DESCRIPTION: During the late Middle Ages a Venetian by the name of Giovanni Leardo compiled a series of wall-maps that were based, in their general arrangements, upon earlier cartographic designs. The oldest, as well as the crudest and simplest, of these four Leardo maps is preserved in the Biblioteca Communale Library at Verona, Italy and carries the date 1442.
Commentaria in somnium Scipionis, 20:20, a treatise by Macrobius, gives the diameter of the earth as 80,000 stades, which might, if converted into Arabic miles, be approximately 6,857 miles of Leardo, other figures are even more at odds.
The astronomical details are followed in the third paragraph by the explanation of the calendar. The second circle shows the names of the months, beginning with March, which was officially reckoned the first month of the year in the Republic of Venice until as late as 1797; it also tells the day, hour, and minute when the sun enters each of the twelve signs of the zodiac.
The seventh circle gives the dominical, or Sunday, letters; these are indicated opposite the days of the month (fourth circle) on which Sunday falls in the years designated by the first letters (seven) of the alphabet.
The four figures in the spaces between the calendar and the outer edge of the parchment represent the four evangelists: the lion for St. Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water.
In its orientation, with East and the Terrestrial Paradise at the top and with Jerusalem at the center, the map follows the Christian tradition of the earlier Middle Ages, hence the long axis of the Mediterranean runs vertically up the southern half of the disk.
Later medieval contacts between Europe and remote lands are revealed in names derived from Western travelers such as Marco Polo who had visited the Far East, as well as in the Arabic names in Asia and Africa.
In contrast to the earlier medieval cartography, such as the T-O maps (Book II, #205) that were symbolically drawn, in the Leardo map the contours of the Mediterranean and of Western Europe are surprisingly well drawn and easily recognizable, obviously being based upon sea-charts known as portolanos. This Leardo map, which was painted on parchment, displays the seas as a uniform blue color, with of course the exception of the Red Sea that is appropriately colored. Winds blowing from the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass are shown by eight faces around the edge of the disk. Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps. Among the existing maps dating from the 14th and early 15th centuries this Leardo map of 1452 is very closely related to the group of maps drawn by the famous Catalan cartographers of Majorca in the Balearic Islands.
A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K.
ASIA: In the extreme north (left-hand side) there is a large structure that looks like an Italian church with its campanile (#13).
South of the sepulcher can be seen the River Volga (items #6, #7) flowing into the northwestern corner of the Caspian (item #250).
Farther east, beyond a row of six castles representing towns on the borderlands of China (#35-40), we come to a gulf of the encircling ocean and to a great system of mountains.
Immediately west of the statues appears Mount Tanacomedo (item #48), apparently Leardo copied Montana Comedorum from a Ptolemaic map, combining the last part of the first word with the first part of the last. In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118). The Tigris and Euphrates (#165, #166) join, reaching the Persian Gulf (#267) as a single stream flowing between two large edifices that represent Susiana (#172) and Babylonia (#173). The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque. AFRICA: On Leardoa€™s map, this continent, like that of the Catalan-Estense map, has a very unusual shape (see outline map comparisons below).
THE MEDITERRANEAN: The outlines of the Mediterranean (#433) and Black Seas (#431) are more correct than any other features which Leardo draws. Leardoa€™s place-names along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts are all derived from the portolan charts, although Leardo wrote names only where it was easy to do so without crowding. The maps vary among themselves, but all are oriented with East and Paradise at the top and Jerusalem in the center. The computus and theological framework of the Leardo maps show their purpose: to illustrate the totality of Goda€™s creation in both space and time. Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievale e sistenti a Verona (Firenze: B.
Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievaleesistenti a Verona (Firenze: B. Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo Map of the World, 1452 or 1453, in the Collections of the American Geographical Society (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928). NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897). NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp. Uzielli, Gustavo and Amat di Filippo, Pietro, Mappamondi, carte nautiche, portolani ed altre monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XVII, 2nd ed. American Geographical Society 1928 (colored, original size) The World Encompassed: an exhibition of the history of maps, Plate V. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), Plate 56. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), 56. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Descriptions of early maps, originals and facsilimes (1452-1611) (New York, 1921), 1, no. Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo map of the world, 1452 or 1453, in the collections of the American Geographical Society (New York, 1928). Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water.A  One cannot, however, question his belief in the sphericity of the earth, for otherwise he would hardly have held the views expressed in the panel below the calendar. Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps.A  With the exception of the eight wind faces and the symbolic figures of the evangelists no living creatures, whether animals or men, are graphically represented.
A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas,A  Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K.
In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118).A  The Lake of Aral, in which these great streams actually have their outlet, seems to have been wholly unknown to the geographers both of antiquity and of medieval Europe. The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.A  Several corrupted Turkish place-names, along with classical names appear in Asia Minor.
The Indian Ocean is filled with yellow and red islands.A A  A legend asserting that pepper and spice are found in these islands (#275) comes from Marco Poloa€™s description of the East Indian archipelago. Like most medieval cartographers, Leardo makes the Nile (#312) rise in West Africa (#338).A A  In this he follows Herodotus, Pliny, Mela and other ancient authorities.
This simple sketch is typical of Lucan-type T-O maps in that it presents only the four cardinal directions, the three continents, and the features that divide them, including a€?gada€™, or Cadiz.
This page is from Lucana€™s manuscript of Pharsalia, which describes the fight between Pompeii and Caesar. On the African side, which has the most legends and is even divided into various countries and provinces, opposite Roma we see Cartago and to its east the legend inside the rectangle reads Fenicies [Phoenicia]. Looking at the map it seems that some of the legends are later additions, such as Mare Mediterraneu, Tanais and Nilus, which the scribe may have added in order to rectify some of the apparent errors. The map shown at the bottom is a simple Lucan map, which mentions only the three continents with the rivers and sea separating them (Tanais, Nilus and Mare Mediterraneu). As mentioned above the map is of T-O type, but unusually, it also incorporates the Macrobian climatic zones. The inhabited world is squeezed inside the Northern Temperate Zone; hence it is shown n somewhat distorted and stylized form. In Europe, at the lower left of the map many provinces are shown including Roma, Ythalia [Italy], the city of Constantinople, Grecia, Ungaria [Hungary], the river Danube, Germania and Francia.
In Africa the cities of Carthage, Cyrene [Seine a€“ Aswan] and Hyppone [Hippo, present day Annaba in Algeria], as well as other provinces are shown. The text that surrounds this tiny but detailed T-O map refers to the division of the earth among the sons of Noah, revealing its origin from another work, as Gautier does not mention this event in the accompanying text. This map is known as Gautier de Chatillon world map and is included in his work entitled De Alexandreis, an epic poem about the conquests of Alexander the Great. The four protruding arms and the outer ring of the map are inscribed with the names of the four cardinal directions and the external double circle bears the legends of the twelve winds.
This is a climate Y-O map, in which the inhabited world is divided into eight climates, seven of which come from Pliny. DESCRIPTION: In so far as ancient cartography is concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian artifact is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by agents of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul General in Egypt, between 1814 and 1821 and now preserved in the Egizio Museum of Turin, Italy. It is now known that Drovetti obtained both the quarry map and tomb plan, along with many other papyri, from Amennakhtea€™s family tomb at Deir el-Medina. The extant papyrus consists of two principal sections, earlier thought to belong to two different documents. The second section of the papyrus comprises a number of fragments for which the final placement, based on careful study of the fibers of the papyrus, has yet to be made. The Turin Papyrus fragments were long considered the earliest surviving topographical map from Egypt to have come to light. The route marked as leading off from the cross valley to the left is likewise described as a€?another road that leads to the ym.a€? The placement of the second section to the right of the map of the gold region seems correct, since it would then constitute the beginning of a papyrus roll, which would normally suffer greater damage.
The difficulties in matching features depicted and labeled on the papyrus with those on the ground are compounded by the absence of any indications of scale.
Two geologists from the University of Toledo in Ohio examined the map and recognized topographical features from the map, a roadway still in use and the mountains on both sides, shown as cones. An ancient Egyptian map drawn on a scroll of papyrus paper was discovered between 1814 and 1821 by agents of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul General in Egypt. The current reconstruction of the map in the Egyptian Museum, which dates to the early 1900a€™s, is incorrect in several of its details. The map was rolled up when discovered and subsequently handled, and this explains the especially poor preservation of the rightmost portion in Figure 3, which formed the outer abraded surface of the scroll. The Turin papyrus map is notable for being the only topographic map to survive from ancient Egypt and also for being one of the earliest maps in the world with real geographic content. From the good agreement between the modern maps of the area and the Turin Map, it can be seen that the papyrus clearly depicts Wadi Hammamata€™s long course and eventual confluence with wadis Atalla and el-Sid, the surrounding hills (shown as stylized conical forms with wavy flanks that are laid out flat on both sides of the valleys), the quarry for bekhen-stone, and the gold mine and settlement at Bir Umm Fawakhir (a€?Well of the Mother of Potterya€™). Fragment A shows five cultural features associated with the gold-mining settlement, including: four houses, a temple dedicated to the God Amun (the large white area subdivided by walls), a monument stone honoring King Sety I (1290-1279 BC of the New Kingdoma€™s 19th Dynasty), a water reservoir, and, at the confluence of wadis Hammamat and el-Sid, a water well with an encircling wall that casts a shadow on its right side. On map fragments A and H, within the main valley represented by multi-colored dots, there are three small drawings of trees, which from their form can be identified as Tamarisks. The papyrus map also has numerous annotations written in hieratic script (the cursive form of hieroglyphic writing) that identify the features shown on the map (see Table 1 for translations), including: the destinations of the valley routes (texts 1-3, 9 and 16 on fragment A), the distance between the bekhen-stone quarry and gold mine (text 17 on fragment E), the location of gold deposits in the hills (texts 4-5, 11-12 and 16a€™ on fragments A and D), the gold-mining settlement (texts 6-8 and 10 on fragment A), the bekhen-stone quarry (text 20 on fragment H), and the sizes of the quarried bekhen-stone blocks (texts 23 and 25-28 on fragments M-P).
Besides being a topographic map of surprisingly modern aspect, the Turin papyrus is also a geologic map because it accurately shows the geographic distribution of different rock types (the black hills with Hammamat siliciclastics, and the pink hills with Dokhan volcanics, Atalla serpentinite and Fawakhir granite) and the lithologically diverse wadi gravel (the brown, green and white dots within the main valley that represent different kinds of rocks), and it also contains information on quarrying and mining (see Table 2 for a description of the geologic units).
There he was told to gather a large quantity of copper [which would have been used for the tools wielded by the workers excavating the royal and private tombs] and bring them to the Temple.
Guards of the Treasury, Paynodjom and Amenmose son of Tjewenany, and the servant Pnekhemope. Synopsis, Part 2: Hori returned to Karnak Temple in the company of Paynodjom and Amenmose plus the two Foremen of the Tomb, Nekhemmut (Horia€™s brother) and Anherkhe. DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black. The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers. In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G. Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?.
As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth.
The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south. Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name.
It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise .
This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made. In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments .
Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean.
Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell. This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes. As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea. The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters.
Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world.
In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well.
Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}. He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha.
The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants.
Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War. As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us.
Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f.
Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent.
In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend.
Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps. More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099.
Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it.
These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et.
At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church. The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner.
Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half.
In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography.
On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol. But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England. Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf. In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work. The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order.
The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer. The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628. The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods. One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries. The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified.
Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian.
In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign. As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map.
The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe].
The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia. The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex. In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia].
In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city.
The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation. There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade. Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century. The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century. Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century.
While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features. In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling.
The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West. This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f. 205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f.
205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes .
205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS. 205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond.
205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS. 205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol. 205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS. 205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat. 205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS.
205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS.
205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat. 205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol.
205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod. 205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol. 205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. But this influential beauty will forever be remembered as the driving force behind the Rolling Stones during their formative years. All of the four world maps attributed to Leardo have characteristic features of both the T-O diagrams of Isidore (Book II, #205), and the zonal maps of Macrobius (Book II, #201). This map does share a special feature with the others, namely the exceptional addition of a series of rings surrounding the circular map-disk, which constitute an elaborate calendar. In the third circle the first nineteen letters of the alphabet represent, in order, the years of the Metonic Luni-solar cycle. From this we see that the vernal equinox fell on March 11, inasmuch as the calendar was constructed before the Gregorian reform.
Other features reflecting the religious or scriptural influence are Noaha€™s Ark resting on top of Mt. In most cases the names have been written upon the vignettes themselves; since the latter are also colored pink or green, the letters are frequently obscured and quite illegible. Those to the north, northwest and northeast are blue, suggesting cold blasts from these quarters; the other faces are ruddy. In its general outlines it is so similar to the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246) that we may assume a common cartographic ancestor of recent vintage. The gulf (item #11), which contains three islands, appears in almost the same position and form on the Estense map, where there is a legend explaining that on the islands griffons and falcons are found and that the natives are not allowed to kill them without the permission of the Grand Khan of the Tatars. In the 12th century, reports spread through Europe of the vast realm of a fabulous Christian monarch in the heart of Asia.
The least successful portion of Leardoa€™s Mediterranean coast is that of Spain: the shore here is unduly elongated as compared with that of the Catalan-Estense map, Barcelona (#475) and Ampurias (#476) being placed too far northeast on what ought to be the French shore line. The Red Sea is red, Gog and Magog are confined in the northeast, along with griffins and cannibals, and Noaha€™s Ark and Mt. Modern features are included where that can be done without violating the integrity of the model, but the basic format is the traditional one. However, Leardo does not specify the years to which the dominical letters in his calendar refer.
Furthermore, his two legends relating to the fiery and frozen deserts echo a theory that was propounded in classical times and based upon the hypothesis of a spherical earth. Wrighta€™s analysis).A  For a more detailed account of all of the numbered features of this outline map see Wrighta€™s monograph. A  Marco Polo adds that at the time of the funeral of Mongol Khan 20,000 persons were thus slain. This mis-location error is also to be found on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) and the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246).
Many of the place-names in India correspond with those of the Catalan maps and in turn were derived from Marco Polo.A  The scene of St. Moslem scholars, however, were aware of its existence.A  Leardo places the castles of Organa and of Organzia [Urganj] (items #120, #121) at the mouth of the Jaxartes and his place-name Orcania (item #132) on the Oxus. The largest of these islands, lying off the coast of India, is marked Taprobana (#269) and probably represents Sumatra. Ptolemy, however, seems to have had a more correct view, placing the sources of the river in the Mountains of the Moon in eastern Africa. This is probably because of failure on the part of the makers of the original portolan charts to take into consideration the declination of the compass.
Lucan lived during the first century and like Sallust, was of the opinion that Asia was the greatest continent of all and that Europe and Africa should be considered together as one continent. One is a T-O map shown on top of the page, which is a typical Sallust map oriented with east at the top and showing the Mediterraneu, Tanais and Nilus, The last two legends appear under the arms of the T while inside the body of water the legends at the left read Fison [Ganges] and Fir-fir. We also see the island of Gades (port city of Cadiz in mainland Spam) at the western edge of the Mediterranean. Johna€™s College Map, the map in this German Bible is arranged in an abstract fashion, but it is more geographically accurate and is superimposed on a zonal format. This untitled map is bound to the end of the Bible known as the Arnsteln Bible, kept in the British Library. Zonal maps we generally oriented with north at the top, but here the T-O model takes precedence and hence the map is oriented with East at the top. In order to accommodate all the information intended to go on the map the width of the Temperate Zone has been exaggerated, making it wider than all the other zones combined. The northern part contains the provinces of Armenia, Brithinia, Frigia, Galacia, Lidia, Bactria, Pamphilia, Cilicia, Nyce and Troy.
At the very edge of the map the provinces of Anglia, Scocia, Hyberia [Ireland] as well as Britannia are shown.
In line with Sallust, who writes that the Persian and Armenian mercenaries of Herculesa€™ army settled in the northwest of Africa, this area of the map shows the name Perse [Persians] but no Armenians. From top, along the Mediterranean we note the tribes of Medi (Medes), Ubies (Libyans) and Armeni (Armenians), who according to Sallust had settled in North Africa after the death of Hercules.
Instead of a pictorial representation of the world, a list of provinces, cities and islands is given, divided into the three continents. The surrounding ocean and the divisions between the continents are added to this map (the Nile, the Mediterranean and the Tanais [Don] with the additional refinement of the Sea of Azov [Meotites Palus, here: the lake or swamp of Maeotis]. 278a€“280, mischaracterizes the V-in-square figure as used to diagram the Noachide dispersion in copies of Isidorea€™s Etymologiae (Book 14), where it is almost always juxtaposed with a T-O map. The map was made about 1150 BC by the well-known a€?Scribe of the Tomba€? Amennakhte, son of Ipuy. If the map was made for Ramesses IVa€™s big quarrying expedition then why did Amennakhte keep it, and why did he and others reuse its backside for documents and drawings unrelated to the map?
The more important section is a fragment, measuring approximately 40 cm high, generally called the a€?map of the gold minesa€?.


Near the junction of the cross valley with the upper route a circular, dark-colored image is marked, with a second partially overlapping design in a darker black line.
Its principal feature is the continuation of the wide, winding route of the wadi interspersed with stones. The papyrus clearly has a character distinct from the cosmological drawings of the universe or of the routes to, or depiction of, the after-life found within the formal context of religious art.
This requires the resolution of questions concerning the placement of fragments in the second section and the identification of the places to which the roads to the left of the viewer are said to lead.
The map would then show on the right (that is, the West) the darker a€?schista€? areas of the main part of Wadi al-Hammamat, with the gold mines of the region of Bir Umm Fawakhir some twenty-five kilometers to the East.
Annotations on the second portion of the papyrus suggest that the document was drawn up in connection with work on the extraction and transport of stone, ultimately destined perhaps for a royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The geographical content depicts three roads leading from unidentified Egyptian gold mines to the Red Sea. The colors pink, brown, black and white were used to illustrate mountains and other features; however, the geologists James Harrell and Max Brown believe that these colors were not used for aesthetics, but that they a€?correspond with the actual appearance of the rocks making up the mountainsa€?. The map came from a private tomb in the ancient village of Deir el-Medina, near the modern-day city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt (Figure 1). A new arrangement of the map fragments has been proposed and this is shown in Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6. Map of Egypt showing the locations of Reir el-Medina,a€? the Valley of Kings and Wadi Hammamat. An unknown amount of the papyrus has been lost at its right edge and so fragments K and N-P cannot be correctly placed. The arrangement of the papyrus map fragments as currently displayed in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy. Although there are a few older topographic maps from outside Egypt, they are all quite crude and rather abstract in comparison to the relatively modern-looking map drawn on the Turin papyrus. Bekhen-stone (geologically, metagraywacke sandstone and siltstone) is a beautiful grayish-green ornamental stone that was highly prized by the ancient Egyptians.
The brown patch of ground opposite the settlement may represent an area where either mine tailings were dumped or farming was practiced.
The tree on fragment H (Figure 9), which is drawn upside-down, is just opposite the bekhen-stone quarry (the green oval at the base of the brownish black hill) and at the center of the sharp bend in the valley. Text 18 on fragment F is especially important for understanding the purpose of the map because it refers to a bekhen-stone quarrying expedition and the destination of the quarried blocks. Detail of the papyrus map (fragment H) showing an upside down tree in the wadi directly opposite from the bekhen-stone quarry, which is shown as a greenish oval embedded within the brownish black hillside. Additionally notable are the representation of iron-stained, gold-bearing quartz veins with three radiating bands on the pink hill above the gold-mining settlement on fragment A (beneath text 5), and text 11 on fragment A, which reads very much like a legend on modern geologic maps by explaining what the pink coloring represents. Texts 17 and 18 are written in a script that is bold, calligraphic and near-hieroglyphic in style. They met with Ramessenkhte and turned over the requested copper to the Scribe Khonsmose, who received it for the Treasury of Amun. Map of Egypt showing the locations of Reir el-Medina, the Valley of Kings and Wadi Hammamat.
From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half. Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don]. Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles. The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world. Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium. The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees.
The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors.
Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today.
Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples. The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany. In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire. Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities. The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line. There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown. This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes. One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms. Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean. The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history. These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia. Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM. Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider. Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant. The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point.
Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes. A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah. Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony.
Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented. It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order. Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map.
The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem]. It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589. This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea. Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake. It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas. In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia]. Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China.
It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found.
The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct. The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region.
It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars.
Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov.
Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West.
Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360. Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea. While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile. It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization. Pallenberg began dating Stones’ cofounder Brian Jones in 1965 but left him in 1967 for legendary guitarist Keith Richards with whom she maintained a relationship until 1979. However, Leardoa€™s use of a more precise delineation of the Mediterranean area based upon contemporary nautical or portolano charts and place names culled from the accounts of medieval travelers to the Far East, combine to make these maps significant improvements over many of the more stylized mappaemundi of the period. The third, from 1448, is somewhat more elaborate in design and belongs to the Museo Civico at Vicenza. The description and explanation of these rings or circles is found as part of a broader text in the frame or panel located below the map itself. He mis-quotes the Nicene Creed and runs the Trinity and the person of Christ together as if they were the same thing. These years were usually designated by the golden numbers, but before the Gregorian reform letters were frequently employed in place of the numbers. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland. There are certain legends and place names that are found on one and not the other, however, their real similarity lies in their coastal outlines.
This is also from Marco Polo, who writes that a€?the islands where these birds are bred lie so far north that the North Star is left behind you in the southa€?.
Briefly, this theory, ascribed to Crates of Mallos (#113, Book I), states that around the equatorial circumference of the globe is a fiery zone so intensely hot that no man can cross it.
Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland.A  The only other natural features depicted are mountains, rivers and lakes, although certain deserts are mentioned in legends.
The actual place of burial of the Mongol Khans was in Cathay, far away from northern Russia where Leardo, following the model of Catalan maps, draws it.A  European cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries seem to have known and cared little about the relative positions of places in Asia; as Italian merchants by this time had established contacts with the Mongols in southern Russia, what was more natural than to place the Mongol overlorda€™s tomb in the hinterland of the Black Sea?
Thomasa€™ mission and of the early introduction of Christianity into India is indicated by the inscription: Here preached St.
This map is drawn on the last page of a heavily annotated manuscript below another, Sallust-type map. The original of the text of Lucana€™s Pharsalia (or, a€?Civil Wara€?, as many scholars call it) was written in 61-65 CE, approximately a century after the events it chronicles. There are two rivers emerging from the Tanais is and the Nile, connecting them to the surrounding ocean in a slanted path. These are the Numidi, Libie, Armeni and Medi (Numidians, Libians, Armenians and Medes), with Perse [Persians] further to the south, each shown with linear borders. It is accompanied by some other sketches, none of which contain any associated text in the Bible that houses them. The zones in the map are therefore shown as vertical divisions at the two extremities of which we intemperata [extreme] zones.
The Mediterranean Sea, here called Affricum mare, separates Europe from Africa and the rivers Thanais and Nylus are the borders between Asia-Europe and Africa-Europe respectively. The central sector is topped by Paradise, followed up by the names India, Parthia, Assyria, Persida, Media, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Arabia, Syria, Palesinta, Ascelonia and Antiochia.
Britannia, here most probably refers to the French region of Brittany rather than Britain, which is already shown with the names of its constituent provinces. The map is located at the end of the poem and contains 59 geographical names, in addition to the cardinal directions and the 12 winds. The book includes this map, which is a Sallust type of map and contains a few of the toponyms included in the poem.
In Europe the names shown include the river Danubius [the river Danube] Ungaria, Germania, Italia and Roma. This feature is mentioned by Isidore in XIV.4, and in the diagram forms an elbow or Y-shape.
The V-in-square figure does not correlate Noaha€™s sons with the worlda€™s partes, which are nowhere included: the name Shem written inside the a€?Va€? cannot be said to a€?indicatea€? Asia, nor Japheth at left Europe, nor Ham at right Africa. This map has a great deal of detail in Africa, as it was designed to illustrate Sallusta€™s history of Jugurthaa€™s revolt against Rome.
It was prepared for one of the quarrying expeditions sent to Wadi Hammamat by King Ramesses IV (1156-1150 BC) of the New Kingdoma€™s 20th Dynasty.
First, the text on the map side is in Amennakhtea€™s distinctive handwriting, which is well known to Egyptologists who have studied his many other writings.
It depicts two broad roads, running parallel to each other through pinkish-red mountainous regions.
The draftsman has distributed distinctive features in accordance with the reality of a particular area, adding clarity by the use of legends and contrasting colors.
In descriptions of property in the later period, the points of the compass are given in the order South, North, East, West, suggesting that Egyptians oriented themselves facing South, with North behind them, the West to their right and the East to their left.
A more recent comparison of the features shown on the map with the ground matches the various features specifically mentioned in the gold map with the central area of Wadi al-Hammamat and with the upper part of the papyrus constituting the North.
The only indication of its purpose seems to be given in the series of hieratic notations written on those areas left blank above and below the route and the black areas depicted on the fragments of the second section.
Some of these notes seem to give measurements of blocks; one seems to provide measurements of actual distances separating points on the map. A prominent feature of the plan is what seems to be a winding wadi, or ravine, about the same width as the roads, in the mountains of Egypta€™s eastern desert between Qift on the Nile, down from Thebes, and Quseir on the Red Sea. One regiona€™s sedimentary rocks, which range from purplish to dark gray and dark green, are mapped in black. This village housed the workers responsible for excavating and decorating the royal tombs of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC) in the nearby Valley of Kings and Valley of Queens. The principal changes are the transposition of map fragments H-J and E, the placement of L at the bottom of E, and the narrowing of gaps between many of the fragments (which shortens the map to about 210 cm).
The map is not truncated here, but drawings of an unknown number of stone blocks and the accompanying texts are missing. This map shows a 15 km stretch of Wadi Hammamat (a€?Valley of Many Bathsa€™) in the central part of Egypta€™s Eastern Desert (Figure 1).
The only quarry was in Wadi Hammamat, and this was worked sporadically from the Early Dynastic period through Roman times (about 3000 BC to 400 AD). On the ancient map, this is the only major bend in Wadi Hammamat prior to its confluence with Wadi Atalla.
The Turin papyrus is the oldest known geologic map in the world and it is all the more remarkable considering that it would be another 2900 years before the next geologic map was made and this was in France during the mid-1700a€™s. Note that a€?a€¦a€? indicates missing text, untranslated ancient Egyptian words are italicized, and comments are given within brackets.
Turin 1879, verso II),a€? Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 31 (1994): 91-97. Volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, pp. The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart . His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge. During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities. In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today.
Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail.
In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown. Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas. Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s. The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map.
Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul. These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear. There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places. ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI. In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA. These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety. Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity. A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol.
The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu.
In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean.
His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks. In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map. The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World. The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa. The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century. Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times. Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice]. Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman].
The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible.
A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus. Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay. His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation. This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara. Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality. The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century.
In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal. The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses. The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat. It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date.
The inscription on this particular Leardo map is somewhat awkwardly phrased in the Venetian dialect of the 15th century; but, although the beginning of each line is missing, the meaning is fairly clear, especially when certain of the missing lines are reconstructed from the corresponding inscription on the map in Vicenza of 1448.
This passage is followed by a statement that the map shows how the land and islands stand in relation to the seas and how the many provinces and mountains and principal rivers are distributed on the land. Leardo explains that C (golden number 10) stands for 1453, D for 1454, and so on until T is reached, after which we begin over again at A. Sinai, the exaggerated length of the River Jordan and an inscription in the far northeast referring to Gog and Magog. The mountains southeast of the gulf make an enclosure shaped something like a A? (items #42-47). Within this conventional structure, however, Leardo has found it possible to incorporate some modern material. Here there was more available space than in the Far East, and here also, on the Leardo map, the Grand Khana€™s tomb could be made symmetrically to provide balance for Prester Johna€™s palace on the other side of the map in Africa (item #299). The latter stream represents, perhaps, a combination of the Niger and Senegal, of which some faint knowledge may have been gained through traders who had crossed the Sahara.
In the accompanying Flemish manuscript, as is common, the Jugurthine War is bound with Sallusta€™s account of the conspiracy of Catiline.
Above the left arm is a vignette of a castellated city, representing Jerusalem (somewhat rubbed). According to Sallust these were the tribes, which form the ancestral line of the present day North Africans. The map seems to have been prepared in Germany and above it there is a diagram showing the four branches and sub-branches of philosophical knowledge, though also have no connection with the map. The Temperate Zone, which includes the inhabited world, is widened and occupies a large portion of the map and is itself shown in the T-O format. The two sloping lines at the western end of the Mediterranean, near the ocean are named Calpes, to Rock of Gibraltar, with Gades [Spanish city of Cadiz] situated in their middle. The Biblical provinces of Samaria, Galylea, Judea and Hierusalem follow the inscription ASIA. Oriented to the East, the areas marked off in the North and South may be the remnant of a zonal map. In addition to having the T-O map layout, the map also boasts two double vertical lines at the northern and southern fringes of the inhabited world, dividing the world into three climatic zones. The triangular shape at the western end of the Mediterranean, near the ocean is inscribed Calpe, Latin for the a€?Rock of Gibraltara€?. The text in the southern hemisphere describes the universe surrounding the earth a€?like the white of an egga€™. The scribe also included the cardinal directions and the names of Noaha€™s three sons, as well as a small cross in the East. Rather, the V-in-square functions precisely to offer an alternative to the tripartition of the T-O; the former epitomizes the distribution of peoples according to passages in Etym. The purpose of these expeditions was to obtain blocks of bekhen-stone that would be carved into statues of the gods, king and other notables. And second, the first and earliest text on the backside of the papyrus was written and signed by Amennakhte. Because papyrus paper was an expensive commodity in ancient Egypt, it was common practice among scribes to use the originally blank backsides once whatever was written or drawn on the front side was no longer needed. They are drawn horizontally across the papyrus, the lower with indications of a rocky bed or sparse vegetation, characteristic of the larger dried-up watercourses or wadia€™s that form the natural routes across the eastern desert from the Nile to the Red Sea.
A little below and to the right of the design is another, more oblong in shape, colored green with the zigzag lines by which the ancient Egyptians conventionally represented water.
In contrast with the gold-mine section, the area on each side of the road is colored black, and the legend indicates that in this area the stone known to the ancient Egyptians as bekhen is to be found. The texts indicate that the area depicted must be along the natural route from Coptos (Qift) on the Nile through the eastern desert via Wadi al-Hammamat to the port of Quseir on the Red Sea. If this placement were correct and the fragments of the second portion were to be placed to the right, it would require the ym to which the road now leads westward, that is, back to the Nile, to be taken in some sense other than the Red Sea. In contrast with the hieratic texts on the gold map identifying geographical features, these texts refer to the transport of a statute.
Soon after it was found, the map was sold to king Charles Felix, ruler of the northern Italian Kingdom of Sardenia and Piedmont. The Egyptian Museum has many small map fragments that it left out of its reconstruction (and are also missing from Figures 3-8) and eventually these a€?pieces of the puzzlea€™ will be added to create a more complete map.
The top is oriented toward the south and the source of the Nile River with west on the right side and east to the left. The gold mine at Bir Umm Fawakhir was active during the New Kingdom and again in the Ptolemaic through Early Byzantine periods (about 1500 BC to 600 AD). As seen in Figure 9, however, Wadi Hammamat actually has many sharp bends as well as wide meanderings.
There is no reason to think, however, that the ancient author intentionally set out to make a geologic map. Gardiner, a€?The tomb of Ramesses IV and the Turin plan of a royal tomb,a€? Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 4 (1917): 130-158. These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars. The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area. In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem].
These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today. Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt.
Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe.
In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon.


The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above). They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world. She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim. 8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13). Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message. The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter.
The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES. The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent.
Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania. One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran. Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia. It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431. In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol.
Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split. West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea.
North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea. According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks. Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century.
By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian. Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it.
The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality. Then, on the asserted authority of Macrobius, a very excellent astrologer and geometrician, figures are given for the dimensions of the earth and various heavenly bodies. Nothing daunted, most of the 15th century cartographers who used the writings of Ptolemy boldly transferred the Mountains of the Moon to West Africa to suit their theory of the rivera€™s course.
The Mediterranean and Black Seas are drawn according to the model of the sea chart, though the mapa€™s small size does not allow for many place-names, and the winds are eight, in seaman fashion, rather than the classical twelve.
The Iron Gate was built by Alexander in the wall enclosing Gog and Magog, and the statues represent trumpeters set up to keep guard over these unclean hordes. The lower Nile is joined by the River Stapus (#313), doubtless the Astapus of Ptolemy or the modern Blue Nile. What is less common is that the map appears in the Catiline section rather than in the Jugurtha text.
The other arm bears the legend Egiptus, near which appears the rectangular shape of Mare Rubrum [Red Sea]. Above the map is a diagram of the structure of knowledge or philosophy, divided into the theoretical, practical and mechanical branches. At its southern border is the perusta [scorched] zone, which is followed by the Southern Temperate Zone, all unknown to mankind. The third sector of Asia, at the far right, contains the inscriptions Alexandria, Egyptus and Babylonia (in reality Cairo). In short, this is a composite world map, drawn from a variety of sources and here included as relevant to the tale of Alexander, who conquered the world. The two outer zones are the frigid zones, outside the habitable world and only the central part is shown as the habitable world, conforming to the T-O shape and divisions. This diagram appears for the first time in a pair of Spanish manuscripts from the 9th century. What is less common is that the map appears in the Catiline section rather than in the Jugurtha text.A  A teachera€™s notes on the details of Roman military organization, taken from Cincius, On Military Science, appear on the rim of the map. A now famous rock-cut inscription or stela (officially designated CM 12) was left on the quarry wall by this king to commemorate his final and largest expedition during the third year of his six-year reign.
In other words, the papyrus map became scrap paper after the quarrying expedition it recorded lost its importance, perhaps following Ramesses IVa€™s death a few years after the map was made. Legends written in hieratic, the cursive hieroglyphic everyday hand of the time, explain where these routes to the left are leading. Within the design there are traces of a hieratic group, apparently to be read as a€?cisterna€?, a€?water-place,a€? or the like. This black or dark green stone, generally called schist by Egyptian archaeologists, is more properly identified as graywacke. This route was used in ancient times in the course of expeditions to the Red Sea for trading voyages south to the land known to the Egyptians as Punt [Somaliland]. Such a view seems to be supported by the legend designating the upper route of the gold map leading off to the left as a€?the road that leads to the ym,a€? that is, to the Red Sea, taking ym in its most common meaning. It would likewise place the area of bekhen stone to the east of the location of the main quarry inscriptions in Wadi al-Hammamat.
A text of five lines, of which the first four lack their beginnings, seems to reflect a situation in which a king sent an expedition to the Wadi al-Hammamat to bring a statue back to Thebes. To judge from instructions contained in a model letter copied by a pupil as part of his scribal training (instructions that seem to refer to the same general area as the Turin Map), calculations of distance are the kind of work a scribe might be expected to do. It is believed that this map also displays the gold-bearing basin to the east of Coptos (shown in pink on the original map) in the mountainous region of Nubia [part of modern Sudan] located at Bir Umm Fawakhir in the Wadi Hammamat. According to these geologists, this is probably one of the oldest surviving geological maps and the earliest evidence of geological thought. In 1824, this king established the Egyptian Museum in Turin, the kingdoma€™s capital, and here the map has resided ever since. Figures 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are computer-generated photo-mosaics derived from digital scans of photographs taken of the papyrus.
There is no constant scale used on the map, but by comparison with the actual distances in Wadi Hammamat it is evident that the scale varies between 50 and 100 m for each 1 cm on the map. Because the ancient map was drawn on a papyrus scroll, which would have resembled a modern roll of paper towels, the author did not have the freedom to show the true wandering course of Wadi Hammamat and so included only the most important bend, the one near the bekhen-stone quarry. From the colors used for the hills and wadi gravel, it is evident that he merely drew what he literally saw in the desert a€“ the real hills and surface gravels have the same general colors as those on the map (Table 2). Brown, a€?The oldest surviving topographical map from ancient Egypt (Turin Papyri 1879, 1899 and 1969),a€? Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 29 (1992): 81-105. Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims. The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below.
Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached.
The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled). Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races.
These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world. The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi. Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe. Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus.
392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242. The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape. Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem.
These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country. The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais.
Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260.
These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated.
In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m]. The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto.
These estimates are quite fanciful, bearing little relation to the corresponding figures actually cited by Macrobius. Ptolemaic names appear, especially in Africa, where the Nile flows from the Mountains of the Moon, located in West Africa.
On the Catalan-Estense map this tributary rises in the Terrestrial Paradise, there placed in East Africa. The column on the left begins with the region of Armenia and is then followed by Bitinia, Frigia, Galathya, Lidia, Boecia, Pamphilia and Niceia. According to the inscription, this included 8,362 men, which makes it the largest recorded quarrying expedition to Wadi Hammamat after one about 800 years earlier during the Middle Kingdoma€™s 12th Dynasty. As one of the two a€?Scribes of the Tomba€™ during Ramesses IVa€™s reign (along with Hori, son of Khons, who also wrote some of the later texts on the back), Amennakhte was an important administrative official in the Theban region and this is where the map (text 18) says the blocks of bekhen-stone were taken.
The enormous expenditures of the Pharaohs and the priesthood were met principally by taxes on the land, payable usually in the form of grain crops. A broad, winding crossway wadi connects the two routes, from which an alternative route is indicated and labeled, also leading to the left.
In the same central section of the map a round-topped stela is also indicated in white, with a legend dating it to the reign of Sethos I of the 19th Dynasty.
The surviving fragments give no indication of precise locations comparable to those found on the section depicting the gold mining region and its settlements.
The central area, between Bir Al-Hammamat and Bir Umm Fawakhir, was visited as a source of ornamental stone and gold, and it is rich in rock tables, recording quarrying expeditions and in archaeological evidence of ancient gold mining. It was, we are informed, deposited in a workshop beside the mortuary temple of Ramesses II (Ramesseum) on the west bank of the Nile of Thebes and subsequently taken, half-worked, to the Valley of the Kings in a regal year six. The scroll notes the locations of the mine and quarry, the gold and silver content of surrounding mountains and the destination of the roadways. According to the geologist Harrell, a€?In order for it to be a geological map, it must show distribution of different rock types. The many map fragments were originally considered parts of three separate papyri that were designated as Papyrus or P. Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life. Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens . Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil. Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?. The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule. However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H. When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM. Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify. As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497). The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf.
The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded.
In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top. It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities. Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other. The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river.
One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines.
On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt].
Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash.
The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians. Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events.
Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source.
To the mountain range of North Africa, the Carena of the Catalan maps, Leardo has added Ptolemaic names.
Inside Europe there are only a few legends, the important ones being Europa, Hispania and Roma. The right column begins with Paradisus and is followed by India, Parthia, Media, Assiria, Persida, Mesopotamia, C[h]aldea, Arabia, Siria, Palestine, Anthiochia, Ascolonia, Samaria, Asia, Judea, I[e]r[usa]lem, Galilea and the legends in South Asia read Egypt, Alexandria, Babilonia.
Early exegetical tradition hesitated too rigidly to align Noachide inheritance with the geographic division of lands. It is almost certainly for Ramesses IVa€™s big expedition that the map was made, but what purpose it served is unclear. He is well known from his many other surviving works to be an individual with an unusual combination of scribal, cartographic and artistic skills as well as a a€?sense of geologya€™. For purposes of such taxation, the land was carefully measured and registered, and the boundaries marked. Running vertically from the upper route is yet another road with hieratic text that gives its destination. The feature is presumably to be identified with one of the rock-cut stelae executed by that king, depicting Amun or another deity, preserved on the mountain face flanking the wadi. Such a docket must have been written at Thebes, the papyrus obviously having been at some time in the possession of one of the scribes attached to the work gang responsible for constructing and decorating the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
Surveying rarely resulted in graphic maps, and in this respect ancient Egypt is very similar to medieval Europe until well into the 14th and 15th centuries. The mapmaker has tried to show how the two main east-west roads lie in valleys that are linked by a road that curves through a mountain pass. Secondarily, it should indicate the location of geological features like mountains and valleys.
They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes. The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe. A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol. But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water.
Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden. But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein.
A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others). Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences. The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition.
Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms. The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile].
Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps. Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation.
The southern region is described as uninhabitable due to the heat and is colored red on all three maps. It could not have been a road map showing the way to the quarry because it only covers a small area with the 75 km between Wadi Hammamat and the Nile Valley excluded. These attributes are especially well displayed on another of his papyri in Turina€™s Egyptian Museum.
Jottings on the back of the papyrus include a reference to the statute of Ramesses IV of the 20th Dynasty, suggesting that year six should refer to the reign of that king.
In both regards the scroll qualifies and reminds us of modern geological mapping.a€? The English surveyor William Smith is credited with initiating modern geologic mapmaking in 1815. Most of these fragments were eventually recombined to form a single map about 280 cm long by 41 cm wide (Figure 2). From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q]. The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile. But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed. Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east. Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west.
It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p. It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram. 29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text.
From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm. Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts. By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road.
In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East. Africa is indented by a deep gulf on either side, while the southern part of the continent is fanned out as it is on the Catalan Modena map (#246), producing an Indian Ocean with an opening to the east.
Most likely, it was drawn as a visual record of the expedition to be viewed by either Ramesses IV or Ramessenakhte, the High Priest of Amun in Thebes, who organized the expedition for the king.
Centuries later, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes (#112) made use of these early Egyptian measurements in his treatises. On either side of the main roads the map outlines saw-tooth mountain ranges in an early attempt at rendering topographical detail.
Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky. Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea. A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map. Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site. It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg.
Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth. 64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them. In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon. So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper. The nature of the country, the houses, buildings and entrances to galleries are also illustrated. Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct. The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100.
This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207). Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist.
The Persian Gulf runs from east to west, cutting off the Arabian peninsula on the north, while the Red Sea has a right-angle bend in it, oriented north-south in Egypt and turning to run into the Indian Ocean from the west.
It has Amennakhtea€™s distinctive handwriting labeling the parts of the tomb and giving their dimensions, and on the back is his last will and testament. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles.
Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time. A large Scandinavian peninsula lies along the northwestern section of the map, taking up so much room that the British Isles are pushed down to a location off the western coast of France. The plan also includes elements of geology, such as a drawing of the kinga€™s sarcophagus in the central burial chamber painted to resemble the pink granite of Aswan from which it was carved, and the location of the tomb under a mountain of well-layered, inclined strata, which is an accurate depiction of the situation in the Valley of Kings.
82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol. Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time. Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. There are several references to the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, and in the Sahara are some of the towns that began appearing on Catalan maps in the previous century.
3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times.
In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber.
In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline. The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands. XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol. The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando?
Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?



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