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10.11.2013
Description: The Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, constructed in 1542, is now preserved in the museum of the New York Historical Society, having been found in Madrid by Buckingham Smith.
It will doubtless prove of interest to note upon this map the line running from pole to pole and cutting through the border of South America. The Ulpius globe is 15.5 inches in diameter, and is supported upon a worm-eaten stand of oak, the iron cross tipping the North Pole, making the height of the instrument three feet and eight inches.
The literal translation is as follows: Regions of the Terrestrial globe handed down by ancients, or discovered in our memory or that of our fathers.
This may be rendered: Marcellus Cervino, Cardinal-Presbyter and Doctor of Divinity of the Holy Roman Church. This work is of great historical interest, for the reason that it bears direct and independent testimony to the voyage of Verrazano in 1524, certified first by the Letter of Verrazano to Francis I, confirmed by Carli, and attested to by the map of Hieronimo da Verrazano (#347); this witness being followed by the author of the Discourse of the Dieppe Captain, in 1539. The present representation of one hemisphere of the globe, without being a facsimile, is nevertheless sufficiently correct for historical purposes, and may be relied upon. It will be observed that Ulpius does not give the exact date of the discovery by Verrazano.
In the northwest, near Alaska, is Tagv Provincia, the Tangut of Marco Polo, the coast, once again, being joined to Asia.
The Ulpius globe corrects many errors of preceding geographers, though not free from errors itself. Perhaps the most surprising thing on the globe is to find that the portion of North America above Florida is called Verrazana sive Nova Gallia [Verrazano or New France].
The names scattered along the coast of North America in Ulpiusa€™ delineation of it, are practically all of them of Italian form and termination, though many of them are evidently adaptations of place names well known in France.
In Brazil the aborigines appear in the scant wardrobe that they were accustomed to affect, and display, on the whole, what may be regarded as an animated disposition.
No true indication of the terminus of the continent of South America is given, but south of the Straits of Magellan is seen a vast continent spreading around the pole.
In the more easterly portion of this continent is written, Terra Australis adhuc incomperta, being an unexplored region, while in passing around the border of this continent we come to Brasieeli, a corruption of a€?Brazil,a€? a name earlier applied to an island in the Atlantic before the discovery of America.
The Old World is depicted substantial1y as it appeared in the re-constructed Ptolemaic maps of this period. Near the bank of the Nile a robed ecclesiastic sits upon a canopied throne with a triple crown upon his brow and a triple cross in his hand. The Conger eel, without much regard to the proprieties, stretches complacently over several degrees of latitude, herein following the example of the gold fish (Aurata), which puffs itself up to half the size of the whale. The fish represented upon the globe are so well done that they might claim a full and separate treatment, evidently belonging to the earliest scientific delineations in Ichthyology. Besides the historic groups of islands, there are also many of lesser note, together with a few not found today. Bermuda is prominent, having been laid down for the first time on Martyra€™s map of 1511, and southward is Catolica, possibly an alternate name for the a€?Island of the Seven Cities,a€? which was reported in various places, the inhabitants being a€?good Catholics.a€? Near this spot, on Ruyscha€™s map of 1508 (#313), is the word Cata. It would not, however, be proper to treat all these islands of Ulpius now missing in accordance with the volcanic theory. Turning to the Greenland section of the globe, a gratifying improvement upon Verrazanoa€™s outline is found, showing that Ulpius had consulted the maps of Ruysch, 1508 (#313), and Orontius Fines, 1531 (#356), though it will be well to remember in this connection that Behaima€™s globe of 1492 shows land in the same direction. It will be necessary next to speak of the coast names on the North American continent, though it has been indicated previously that certain of them show an agreement with the names on the Verrazano map. In 1612 he made a seventeen daysa€™ journey into the wilderness from Montreal to find the sea upon whose shore Vignan professed to have seen the wreck of an English ship. As mentioned above, the globe is further interesting for illustrations of many different kinds of fish that are found in the different oceans. It also serves to show how deeply interested were the Popes and the high ecclesiastics near them at Rome in securing and diffusing the best available scientific information.
Lithograph facsimile of the Ulpius Globe, Western Hemisphere, 1542, New York Historical Society, 23 cm from Dr. Note from Editor: John and Gale Blessing's Anozira Rail Road is a good example of taking Lionel trains outdoors to run.
We've been O-gauge railroaders for years, but for this project we decided to move our trains outside.
As we mentioned in our earlier articles, the Anzira Rail Road (ARR) uses HDPE roadbed similar to that described in Paul Race and Bill Logan's "HDPE Flexible Roadbed" article.
Plan to Ventilate Track in Hot Climates - Where the track is exposed to all day open sunshine there will be a lot of track movement - especially in Tucson where the rails can reach 140 - 160 degrees. In Tuscon, you really can fry eggs on the patio, so even our so-called "ground-level" track is elevated to allow ventilation around the ties. Because we were going to use some pretty high elevations, we chose to use 6' or longer steel fence posts from Lowes for most of our vertical risers. I also cut 3"x2" "support" blocks to make the connection between the fence post and the "ladder." My 2x6 HDPE came from the factory with a slight groove in the center that was just right for stabilizing the fence posts. Other Options - Since we began this project, Atlas has begun using UV-resistant plastic ties on their O-gauge, nickel-silver track, which makes them a viable option, although their track will still probably require ventilation in our setting.
When I have a short straight piece separating an "S" curve, I fasten it down with one screw in the middle. Track Power Attachment - While you are creating your track plan, don't forget to include your track power attachment points. Here's a BIG "lesson learned." Initially I made assumptions about how much room the curves would really need and how easy it would be to tweak things if they didn't quite go as planned, based on the marketing brochures and my experience with some, but not all, of Gargraves' products.
For the next expansion, I used templates to lay out where the track should go before I staked the roadbed. The next time I do this (not likely in my lifetime), I will order one piece of each curve I expect to use and make templates to guide my roadbed construction. No matter how careful you are when laying the templates, you are going to be off when it comes to placing your ladder roadbed and track.
No, I haven't started another railroad, and don't plan to, but, based on our experiences, this process should work for the next person trying this. Lay the whole route out with the templates to make certain you are designing something that can actually work.
After you've built your HDPE "ladder" roadbed, put each curved section in place temporarily, using clamps to hold the ladder and support blocks on the fence posts. With the curved roadbed sections clamped to the risers, lay the fixed radius track on the roadbed and made sure things are lined up properly. Finally, when you are connecting curved sections, use flex for the "straight" sections; that allows you to make minor adjustments.
If you lay your track system like that -- oh my gosh it will be sooooooooooooooooo smooth to run trains upon. Once you have your roadbed where it needs to be, it's time to pay attention to details of installing Gargraves for a "bulletproof" outdoor railroad. Connecting Gargraves Track Sections - Fifty percent of the track is joined, track section to track section, not by the standard track pins, but by the GarGraves Fit-Up track joiners. Applying Conductive Grease - We have found that an application of conductive grease or electrical anti-corrosion grease is an absolute necessity to protect conductivity on joint-to-joint connection devices such as track pins and Fit-Ups (our preference). To attach the next track section apply the conductive grease to one end of the track section as explained above, but do not slide the ties back. Leave Small Gaps Between Rails to Absorb the Rest of the Expansion and Contraction - Living in Tucson, I don't install track until ambient temperature is in the 70s at least.
We have never mastered soldering to stainless steel rails, so, all power drops to tracks are to GarGraves terminal track sections at 10 to 15' intervals. The Anozira Rail Road has 700' of track that is divided into 8 equal sections for use with Lionel's TrainMaster Command Control (TMCC) system. Wipe The Track Often - The track MUST be wiped clean before running of trains; even if you just ran trains the day before.
Troubleshooting Outside Gargraves Track Problems - Any time you have trouble with an engine not wanting to run along a section of track as it should, go through all the regular checks and then suspect loss of internal rail conductivity due to degraded track end connections. Mechanical and Conductivity Issues - Trains are more likely to derail on turnouts than anywhere else. UV Issues - Even though Gargraves' plastic ties are supposed to be UV-resistant, I've had issues with their turnouts.
Control Issues - Here is the really big issue - if you want to use Lionel TrainMaster Command Control (TMCC) to control your turnouts, you'll discover that nobody makes the equipment you need to do this outdoors. We have mostly tried using GarGraves switches, though we have a couple of Atlas 7.5 degree, high speed turnouts. After trying several options, we settled on Z-Stuff for Trains DLZ-2500 switch machines, because they respond to TMCC signals, the technology we use to control our trains. I've also looked into Del-Aire, which are impervious to moisture, dust or UV, because they're really just little pistons powered by air.
I've looked all of the other switch machines that are TMCC-compatible; none seem likely to hold up to outdoor use even as well as the DLZ-2500s did. Still Trying New Things - When I first sent the content for this article to Paul, I thought I had the switch motor problems figured out. As a result of other turnout issues, in 2009, I began replacing the GarGraves switches with Ross switches.
Paul speaking: We should probably have thrown out all the stuff John tried that didn't work and just published a nice straightforward set of instructions that made everybody look good and made you feel brave about your next project.
Recently, I learned that the Blessings have had further problems with their track; again the problems seem to be related to the extreme climate in which they are operating. And if you have any successes or failures that your fellow hobbyists can learn from, please drop me a line.
Fred Young's Ground-Level Arizona Railroad - A ground-level railroad that has lots of operational options and some unique ways of adapting to the Arizona summer sun. Note: Family Garden Trains?, Garden Train Store?, Big Christmas Trains?, BIG Indoor Trains?, and BIG Train Store? Broadcasting is all about transmitting a message and having it understood by those that are listening. If left untreated, sound from the talenta€™s voice will echo off wall surfaces and come back into the microphone causing comb-filtering as various frequencies combine and cancel making it difficult to comprehend what is being said. Feedback occurs when the amplified sound from any loudspeaker reenters the sound system through a microphone and is amplified again and again, causing a loop. The furniture and seating arrangements of the room can be organized in a variety of different ways. Check out the handy Room Setup Guide from AmpliVox and know exactly which amplifier and setup is right for your next presentation! Although hubs and switches look very similar and are connected to the network in much the same way, there is a significant difference in the way they function. An Ethernet switch, on the other hand, provides a central connection in an Ethernet network in which each connected device has its own dedicated link with full bandwidth.
The two important electrical specifications for a pair of headphones are the impedance of the phone transducer itself and its on-the-ear sensitivity.
Headphone sensitivity is usually stated as the in-the-ear sound pressure level produced by one milliwatt (mW) of audio input. Doing a little bit of math will show that a signal of .775 Vrms will produce one mW in a 600 ohm load. Low impedance headphones will sound louder with devices with low output voltages such as portable MD recorders etc., you cannot use more than one pair of headphones at the same output simultaneously. New school states Woofers out and Tweeters and mid-frequencies in (yes, the opposite of old school). Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum wireless communication provides error-free transmission, top security, and high levels of throughput without the need for an FCC site license.
Narrow-band frequency hoppers use a predefined algorithm to maintain synchronization and high throughput between master and remote modems. The sequence of frequencies is very difficult to predict and thus nearly impossible to eavesdrop on or jam. This saying is not technically exactly correct but for every day use use of dynamic microphones you will not find gain limitations. Sennheiser uses dynamic microphones for distortion measurements on loudspeakers at very high sound pressure levels. So as a conclusion we can state the MD 421 has no maximum SPL limitations for practical use.
According to our friends at Genelec, the role of a monitoring system is to reproduce sound without adding or taking anything away from the original input signal.
Secondly, onto the often quoted "final mix translation" issue, one can observe that domestic and car audio systems are generally improving over time and having better, i.e.
Extended display identification data (EDID) is a data structure provided by a digital display to describe its capabilities to a video source (e.g. Before DDC and EDID were defined, there was no standard way for a graphics card to know what kind of display device it was connected to.
The EDID is often stored in the monitor in a memory device called a serial PROM (programmable read-only memory) or EEPROM (electrically erasable PROM).
Many software packages can read and display the EDID information, such as read-edid for Linux and DOS, PowerStrip for Microsoft Windows and XFree86 for Linux and BSD unix.
Now that we know how many pixels are in a 4K image the next thing we need to know is, how much bandwidth does it take to distribute that information? Depending on the number of pixels, color depth and refresh rate, the 4K bitrate can range between 3.5 and 20 gigabits per second (Gbs). Sending a full 4K signal, that is 4096 x 2160 with a refresh rate of 24 Hz will require nearly 10.2 Gbs.
Many professional wireless microphones use the same frequencies as broadcast television stations. The most effective solution for broadcast television interference is to avoid using frequencies of local active TV channels. A mic-level or microphone-level signal is the amount of voltage that comes out of a microphone when someone speaks into it - just a few ten-thousandths of a volt. To attenuate a line level signal down to microphone level, the A15LA attenuator can be used.
Where safety is a concern, choosing a multimeter is like choosing a motorcycle helmet, if you have a a€?ten dollara€? head, choose a a€?ten dollara€? helmet. The good folks at Fluke have put together a truly informative and important guide on the subject. 4K has made some hefty promises to provide better detail, texture, clarity and resolution by quadrupling the number of pixels being delivered. As it becomes more widespread, 4K will be beneficial across digital cinema, TV, gaming, the internet, and commercial applications (video projection, digital signage, etc.).
Translating to a resolution of approximately eight million active pixels (4096 pixels wide by 2160 vertical high), 4K is delivered in an uncompressed format. Due to bandwidth requirements, the industry hasna€™t agreed on which cabling options are best suited to deliver 4K signals over longer distances. The answer is through the use of phantom powera€”power sent over the same wire pairs used for data. Electricity has a low frequency of 60 Hz or less, and data transmissions have frequencies that can range from 10 million to 100 million Hz. For the best speaker damping and least amount of power loss you will want to use the heaviest gauge that is practical.
In the non-professional HiFi world ita€™s common to use the 3 pole connector for stereo signals (headphones) and the 2 pole connector for mono signals. In the professional broadcast and audio industry the 2 pole connector is used in combination with unbalanced cables for short and interference insensitive transmittals (guitar cable). For more sensitive applications like digital transmissions or longer lines it is the custom to use 3 pole connectors together with balanced cables (to avoid EMI - electromagnetic interference), but ita€™s still a mono signal (balanced mono signal).
HDMI over IP creates endless possibilities in corporate or residential environments by enabling HDMI source(s) to be connected to your screen(s) via an existing or new local area network, saving both time and money on the installation of a new cable infrastructure.
Whether using HDMI over IP set-ups a single source to screen, single source to multiple screens, or in a matrix format (multiple sources to multiple screens), the use of an HDMI over IP System will make your installation simple and user friendly. Control and set-up of the MuxLab system is taken care of using the MuxLab HDMI over IP dip switch configurations or the Management Software thus giving any user on the same network complete control over source to screen configuration a€“ whether on-site or not! Be it a digital signage project, corporate system, control room environment, bar or restaurant displays, or general audio-visual distribution systems, consider a HDMI over IP System as a solution as it provides flexibility and is economical, with the ability to add and extend your system over time. Wireless microphone and monitoring systems have become standard equipment for musicians, broadcasters, theatre productions, television shows, and sound contractors alike. The transmitter accepts a (mic or line) input signal, converts it into an RF (radio frequency) signal, and then transmits it.
The receiver picks up the transmitted RF signal, converts it back into an audio signal, and then outputs it for mixing and amplification.
Using the ComprehensIve Guide to Setting Up, Configuring and Using Evolution Wireless G3 Systems guide from Sennheiser, we see that evolution wireless G3 systems elegantly solve two classic challenges: avoiding interference and building complex, multi-channel systems. From small clubs to boardrooms to Broadway stages or stadium-sized concert halls, Sennheiser evolution wireless G3 is used with confidence every day by professional users the world over.
A recent FCC survey found that 80 percent of broadband users in the United States dona€™t know the speed of their broadband connection. The first thing a system designer needs to know about a fiber optic link is how much optical loss will be experienced between the end points of any fiber optic cable.
You will need two devices to determine the optical loss measurement, an optical power meter, such as the FiberlinkA® 6650 and a light source.
Now, if youa€™re going to put a microphone super close to an amp, it better be able to handle some high SPLs (sound pressure levels). Technical transmitter monitoring cannot guarantee that a listener using an FM radio can hear the station with good quality reception. Operators in control centers can simply use a common media player to listen to the stream encoded by the Instreamers. Obviously, confidence checking or "listening in" is not limited to radio stations a€“ many other applications of this Barix solution have been installed or can be envisaged, covering everything from monitoring whales to surveillance applications. Selecting the right reference monitors and setting them up correctly in your mixing environment is one of the most critical elements in creating mixes that will translate to any speaker system. Fortunately, a good monitoring setup is possible on any budget and the good folks over at Presonus have put together a brief, yet in-depth tutorial on selecting and configuring studio monitors. Although use of a Wet Cleaning process largely avoids issues of scratching, using a solvent cleaner can also present problems. Since IPA is the traditional chemical commonly used for both end face cleaning and for fiber preparation before fusion splicing, it has achieved a€?universal solventa€? status over the years. To overcome the problems inherent in using IPA for cleaning fiber optic connectors, application specialists at Chemtronics recommend using a proprietary cleaning solvent called Electro-Wash PX Fiber Optic Cleaner. To minimize battery change disruptions, careful consideration should be given to the power requirements of the equipment and the requirements of the shoot; consider not just the tape length but the amount of time the camera will be "hot".
Taking a minute or two here will save you time, money & aggravation, as your camera is only as good as the battery system that powers it. Attenuators are used with single-mode fiber optic devices and cable to filter the strength of the fiber optic signal. But when two fiber devices connected with single-mode fiber cable are close to each other, the signal may be too strong. Because ita€™s probably not feasible to move your fiber equipment farther apart, the easiest solution is to attach an attenuator to each fiber device. Before selecting an attenuator, you need to check the type of adapter on your fiber devices.
First let us lay some groundwork: audio systems can exhibit "hum" and they can exhibit "buzz", which are two separate situations. Sixty(60)-hertz hum (fifty (50) hertz internationally) is a result of having a ground loop in the audio system.
Another cause of system "hum" is electrically induced, such as having a very sensitive component too close to a power transformer.
This week wea€™re taking a moment to spotlight Larry Villella of ADK Microphones and TapeOp Magazine.
Larrya€™s custom shop and 3 Zigma line of microphones have captured performances by many acclaimed artists, including Ray Charles, Chick Corea, Burt Bacharach and The Manhattan Transfer.
Discussions surrounding whether or not to test a fiber channel with the patch cords have been unclear.
In reality, the main deciding factor for whether to test the channel with the patch cords included or to just test the permanent link depends on the specification provided by the end user or their consultant. If after checking the spec the question still remains as to whether or not patch cords should be included in channel testing, consider the fact that patch cords are factory terminated and offer a lower risk of defect and errors.
Sometimes it is also not logistically feasible to test the channel with the patch cords because they are often not in place during initial testing, before active equipment is installed and up and running.
While most should not have to worry about testing the channel with the patch cords (unless ita€™s specified), the fact remains that sometimes things can go wrong.
Another key consideration is whether or not typical insertion loss values or maximum insertion loss values are being used to design the channel.
While not necessary for achieving certification on an end-to-end Belden FiberExpress channel, we recommend using maximum insertion loss values when designing channels and testing the channel with the patch cords whenever possible. And if at first, you only tested the permanent link and then experienced higher-than-normal bit error rates once the active equipment was up and running, it might be time to retest the channel with the patch cords in place.
The spatial resolutions of the two also differs in that while both formats display 2160 px high, UHD has a width of 3840 px while 4K has a width 4096 px. Communications Speacialties has a wide range of 3500 Series Fiberlink products to support the transport of multiple 3G-SDI signals over single and multiple fibers.
UL listed means that a product has been submitted to Underwritera€™s Laboratories for safety testing in certain categories.
APC surge protectors undergo stringent testing by IEEE, and are awarded "let-through ratings", which indicate the maximum voltage level that can possibly reach your equipment after a surge or voltage spike has passed through an electric surge protector.
While most other surge suppressors continue to let power through even after their circuits have been damaged - leaving your equipment exposed to future surges, APC's SurgeArrest uses a fail safe design, which means that once the circuit of an APC SurgeArrest has been compromised the unit disconnects equipment from the power supply ensuring that no damaging surges reach your equipment. Whether you are recording vocals, guitars, drums or even a piano, proper microphone placement is the first step in getting great sound. This important and deeply interesting instrument was discovered in the collections of a Spanish dealer in 1859, and brought to New York the same year, after the death of its owner, being purchased for the society by John David Wolfe. Ulpius, in 1542 stands as the fifth witness to the voyage by the following inscription: Verrazana sive Nova Gallia a Verrazano Florentino comperto anno Sal. The Old and New Worlds are represented as they were known at the time, the latitude of Florida, which was too high on the Verrazano map (#347), being given quite correctly, while the excessive easterly trend of the North American coast line on that map is corrected. On the North American section of the globe various new points are indicated, and the advance of the Spaniards in New Mexico is noticeable.


The peninsula of Lower California does not appear, though exploration had been extended to that region, as proved by Domingo del Castello, on his map of 1541 (Lorenzana Historia de Nueva Espana, 1770). This is a reference to the a€?Seven Cities of Cibola,a€? which were credited with such vast wealth, it being declared that the houses were supported by massive pillars of crystal and gold. The name of America had been reserved for South America for the better part of half a century, at least for over thirty years, from the time of Canon WaldseemA?llera€™s map in 1507 (#310), which followed the descriptions given in the notes of Amerigo Vespuccia€™s voyages. For the first time the peninsula of Florida receives a proper location and the shore of North America generally is rather well outlined. This, it is noted, was discovered by Verrazano, the Florentine, in the year of grace (anno salutis), 1524. Breton, for instance, is mentioned, but there is a Selva de Cervi [a forest of deer or stags]; there is, of course, a San Francisco and a Porto Reale [Port Royal], and then there is a Terra Laboratoris, evidently what was later to be Labrador, but Ulpius, following Verrazano, places this very much farther south than our present-day Labrador. From the Straits of Magellan to Chinca, just north of the Tropic of Capricorn, the coast is marked Terra Incognita. A couple of Brazilians, broad ax in hand, are on the point of taking off a fellow beinga€™s head, while a third, with a knife, is artistically dressing a leg.
With respect to the East Indies, however, a clear improvement is made upon the Verrazano map. Canton is displayed as a collection of houses, near which is a bird, in company with a couple of goats with ears that reach to the ground. Tall ships, laden with the wealth of a€?Ormus and of Ind,a€? move bravely homeward with billowing sails, while light galleys glide around the borders of the newly found lands.
The Kraken of Pontoppidan, or at least what resembles the sea-serpent of Nahant, appears in the Atlantic off South Africa, corrugating his hirsute back. The fish upon the Ulpius globe bear a close resemblance to those of Rondelatius (Lugduni, 1554).
An island that appears to be a duplicate of Cape Breton that lies eastward of that region, and is called Dobreta. The Greenland section of Ulpius also indicates that the knowledge in possession of the Zeno family at Venice found some expression in Italy before the publication of the Zeno Voyage and Map in 1558. Along the eastern border of the Gulf of Mexico, adjoining Florida, may be seen Rio Del Gato [the Cat River], the Rio de Los Angelos, or [River of the Angels], the P. As far northward as the coast of the Carolinas, the territory is considered Spanish, while thence to the Gulf of St.
The sea and isthmus were copied from Verrazano, and the existence of a body of water in close proximity to the Atlantic was generally believed. This man, who marched before Champlain through the tangled forests, has been called an impostor, and, with a musket leveled at his head, Vignan confessed himself one; yet no doubt he was as much deceived as Champlain, having acted upon the trusted relation of another, a course which he supposed would succeed, and bring him great credit. This globe, surmounted with a cross, remains as a very definite demonstration that the too common impression of Roman ecclesiastical authorities as hampering the progress of science or keeping information away from the people, is one founded entirely on ignorance of the actual conditions.
This article accompanies the article Planning an O Gauge Outside Railroad, which uses John and Gale's extensive Anozira Rail Road for many examples. Where possible, I let the track "float" on the HDPE ladder "roadbed." The open construction of the ladder helps cool the track. We have taken steps to ventilate all of our track, and replaced about 100' of it with track that has basswood ties. That way, the piece can pivot a little as the curves move in and out with temperature changes, and it doesn't lift off the track in high winds. However, the new sections where I have laid sectional track have not yet been exposed to all day, open sun, so I may have to update this section if the results are different. So the flex comes in very handy to make adjustments EXCEPT, JUST DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME. These joiners are over 2X longer than conventional track pins, thus they provide a larger surface area by which to make physical and electrical contact.
We place two ties, edge to edge at the very end of the track section to insure a better hold on the Fit-Up. This end will simply slip directly down and over the installed Fit-Ups of the track section in place.
Since O Gauge Outside track is exposed to water, track connections degrade at what seems to be an alarming rate if you don't use Fit-Ups and conductive grease. Bob thinks a lighter color would help the Gargraves turnouts hold up better in his blistering back yard. The fundamental principle behind broadcast acoustics is that the treatment should improve communication and bring intelligibility up to the very highest level. This will eliminate flutter echo, significantly reduce first order reflections and vastly improve communication. When you reduce the distance between the sound source and the microphone by half, you double the sound pressure level at the microphone. Each arrangement is used for a specific type of instruction to maximize the efficiency of the lesson being taught. Because a hub doesn't use management or addressing, it simply divides the 10- or 100-Mbps bandwidth among users.
Switches divide LAN data into smaller, easier-to-manage segments and send data only to the PCs it needs to reach. Select a stackable hub connected with a special cable so you can start with one hub and add others as you need more ports.
Ethernet switches intended for large managed networks feature built-in management, usually SNMP. Most Ethernet switches operate at "Layer 2," which is for the physical network addresses (MAC addresses).
A modular switch enables you to populate a chassis with modules of different speeds and media types.
Some Ethernet switches can be connected to form a stack of two or more switches that functions as a single network device. Phones in this impedance range may be directly plugged into the headphone jack routinely found on recording and playback equipment.
This shows that the advantage of high impedance headphones is that they can be used with almost any amplifier output without any risk of being damaged by overload, and you can connect up to 10 or more pairs to the same output. The concept (simply stated) being this - and there are more complex answers having to do with phase coherency, time alignment, and other big words, but I did say "simply stated" - if the woofers are at the outside of the image, the sound comes from everywhere anyway so their placement would probably be OK on the outside of the image. They achieve this by continually switching or "hopping" from one transmission frequency to another throughout the Spread Spectrum band.
If interference is encountered at any particular frequency, the built-in error correction detects it and resends the data packet at the next frequency hop. Ia€™ve found that the output is quite low compared to some other microphones that I have used in the past and ita€™s quite noisy when I turn it up to get enough gain. Many Dynamic and ribbon microphones such as the Shure SM7 and the EV RE-20 have a low output compared to other microphones such as condensers.
At SPL levels above 160 dB some mechanical problems might occur (for example the voice coil might crash onto the magnet) but these SPL levels are very hard to find in real world. However if using dynamic microphones at high SPL levels a user should be aware that the very high voltage (up to several volts) delivered by the microphone might cause problems when connected to mic preamps. Some VGA connectors in personal computers provided a basic form of identification by connecting one, two or three pins to ground, but this coding was not standardized. 4K has a data stream of 8.8 million pixels but what we need to know is the bitrate of the 4K image. Likewise sending an Ultra-HD signal, that is 3840 x 2160 with a refresh of 30 Hz will also require nearly 10.2 Gbs.
Though it is not possible for an wireless mic receiver to "hear" anything from a digital TV transmission, the DTV signal acts as a very strong broadband radio noise source. Television transmitters may operate at power levels up to several million watts while wireless microphone systems typically operate at less than 50 mW (fifty one- thousandths of one watt!) of output power. Indoor setups are at less risk than outdoor setups because building structures will usually strongly attenuate TV signals. Aux-level inputs and outputs are found on many kinds of equipment, including tape recorders, CD players, and some computer sound cards.
Engineers who analyze multimeter safety often discover that failed units were subjected to a much higher voltage than the user thought he was measuring.
What performance specification should you look for, especially if you know that you could be working on high-energy circuits? It describes in full detail the how's and why's of the subject and how to get the job done and stay safe every time. Also known as ultra-high definition resolution, 4K presents four times the picture resolution that standard high-definition resolution offers. Most 4K displays and panels are larger in size (at least 55 inches) because the benefits of ultra-high def resolution are less visible on smaller displays.
Table 1 below illustrates the data rates that are required to support 4K resolution for different color options at 60 frames per second.
To support ultra-high definition resolution and maintain color information, higher data rates are needed as shown in Table 1. Signal integrity may be a major issue for proper 4K connectivity; noise interference and increased distances can impact signal quality.
However, Gigabit Ethernet or 1000BASE-T uses all four pairs of wires, leaving no pairs free for power. When the same pair is used for both power and data, the power and data transmissions dona€™t interfere with each other.
Their major applications are the connections of instruments like guitars, keyboards, headphones. The MuxLab HDMI Over IP Extender with Management Software (500752) allows up to 16 sources to be connected to up to 200 screens. Featuring infra-red (IR) pass through, control of sources is possible from a remote screen location. Sennheiser evolution wireless G3 offers 1,680 tunable UHF frequencies across 42 MHz and an easy-to-use "Easy Setup" function that scans for interference and recommends "free" frequencies that will yield the most reliable operation. Know the speed you need - for example, whether you need a fast speed for video, or whether a slower speed will do.
Many people dona€™t know what speed they are paying for, or what they are getting compared to what the broadband provider is claiming to offer.
If youa€™re choosing a broadband provider for the first time, consider speed, price, and service.
Factors like a slow router or computer, using the Web at peak times, or using high-bandwidth applications can slow down your connection. All fiber optic transmitters and receivers will specify a maximum amount of optical attenuation, or loss budget, that can be tolerated before the equipment will no longer work properly. This can be an existing fiber optic transmitter or a light source such as the FiberlinkA® 6654 Dual Wavelength Single Mode Light Source. It is preferred that measurements be made at both wavelengths, if possible, as the optical loss can vary significantly as the wavelength varies when multimode fiber is used. While the electric guitar can certainly be recorded directly, there are times when there is simply no substitute for the sound of a real amplifier. Placing the microphone roughly 4 inches from the grill, aimed directly at the center of the loudspeaker will produce the most a€?edgea€? to your sound. By angling the microphone slightly off axis and towards the wall, you can add more a€?room sound.a€? Experimentation is a key factor in achieving the sound you are looking for.
The figure eight pattern picks up sound to the front and back of the mic without any creative placement. If the amplifier sits on a carpeted floor, you are more likely to reduce the amount of brightness in the sound.
Broadcast Australia operates a monitoring system which uses tuners and Barix IP audio encoders, allowing support staff to listen in remotely, all over Australia.
If listeners complain, the technical staff of Broadcast Australia can use a tuner within the reception area of that specific transmitter and "listen in", remotely. In addition to the operator listening in person, the Instreamer device can also automatically trigger an alarm if the signal quality fails to meet certain predefined criteria. Just about anyone who has ever mixed a record has experienced the frustration of getting a mix that sounds amazing in their mixing environment, only to pop it onto their car stereo and wonder in confusion "where did the lead guitar go?" The likely culprit is their studio setup.
Investing in a high-quality studio monitors will make mixing easier and less fatiguing and will help you to become a better engineer. Even the highest grade of 99.9% IPA is unable to remove both ionic and complex non-ionic contaminants such as buffer gels, lubricants and these oily residues in combination with dusty soils.
Without some way to limit that low frequency sound, you can wind up shortening the lifespan of the drivers considerably.
Depending on the type of attenuator attached to the devices at each end of the fiber optic cable, you can diminish the strength of the light signal a variable amount, measured in decibels (dB).
Single-mode fiber is designed to carry a fiber optic signal long distancesa€”as much as 70 kilometers (or 43.4 miles).
Just as sunglasses filter the strength of sunlight, attenuators filter the strength of the light signal transmitted along single-mode fiber cable. Attenuators typically fit into any patch panel equipped with FC, SC, or LC adapters that contain either PC or APC contacts.
This is where there are two or more ground references in the system, and current is flowing from one ground point to another. Power amplifiers have large power transformers and can induce a magnetic field into other equipment. His microphones have been endorsed by several Grammy award winning engineers, and the ADK Custom shop and 3 Zigma Audio have both individually won the prestigious PAR Excellence Award for Innovation. The answer to this long-standing question is a€?it depends.a€? Leta€™s take a closer a look. Installation of the permanent link typically has much more impact on the performance and insertion loss of the channel. They are also regularly moved or changed during reconfigurations without necessarily re-testing the channel.
Fiber patch cords can have dirty end faces or they could be damageda€”especially since they are a moveable component. If using typical insertion loss values, it is important to know how the patch cords impact the channel.
Testing the channel with the patch cords doesna€™t take any extra time, and ita€™s better to be safe than sorry.
This last attribute makes scaling and displaying UHD images on HDTV sets and monitors a rather straightforward process. Also known as "frames per second (fps)" or "frame rate" this refers to how many complete images are drawn on the screen each second. If you clap your hands and get an echo effect, you should consider adding some carpet, blankets, drapes, or other sound absorbing materials.
Getting too close to the microphone tends to increase bass response and can create problems with plosive sounds - those popping Ps, Bs, Ds, and Ts (more on this in a moment).
That nation, according to his decree, was entitled to lands discovered by them west of the line, while the Portuguese were to confine their new possessions to the region east of the line, inscribed, Terminus Hispanis et Lusitanis ab Alexando VI.
The resemblance of the globe to that planned by Mercator, 1541, taken with the fact that Mercator and the Italian, Moletius, were in a sense associated, might possibly lead us to inquire whether or not Moletius had any influence in connection with the production of the work of Ulpius. The wheat or barley heads appear to have formed a device in the family arms, as they are given with his portrait, while the Deer form a proper allusion to his name. This part of the continent is called Verrazana, sive Nova Gallia, while on the Verrazano map is found, Ivcatania. Undoubtedly, Verrazano was the first to explore the coast behind which lies this immense geographic region, and yet very little was known of that fact until quite recently.
In the distant northwest of the North American continent there is a Tagu Provincia, which is evidently a reminiscence of previous mapmakers who had used that name. The giants themselves are wanting, like Raleigha€™s men with heads in their breasts, notwithstanding we are told by Pigafetti and other voyagers that there was a plenty of giants in those days; yet, further north, the chameleon roost upon a broad-leaved plant, and still higher up, one of the tall ostriches, described by Darwin, is trying to exhibit himself, using as a pedestal the house formerly of solid gold. Near by, two other amiable representatives of the tribe are engaged in turning a huge spit, upon which, comfortably trussed up, is another superfluous neighbor, whom the blazing fire is transmuting into an acceptable roast. Its existence was considered probable, for the reason that it seemed to be required in order to maintain the balance of land and water. Prester John has been regarded as a king in Tibet, but the Portuguese claim that he was a convert to the Nestorian faith in Abyssinia. The whale (Balena) is not so well executed as the rest, and is attended by the dolphin (Orca), also called Marsuin by the French.
On globes and maps prior to 1542 may be found a variety of intriguing marine monsters, but correct representations of fish are scarce.
Roque is De Ferna Loronha, or Fernando de Noronha, discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese navigator of that name. The French were nevertheless ambitious, and would have founded New France on the central portion of our coast if circumstances had proved more favorable. Lawrence it is French, the rest being Portuguese, as allowed by the general use of Portuguese names. Often it was represented as lying further to the south, and hence some suppose that what was referred to may have been the Gulf of Mexico. The instrument in question is a Roman production, the design of which may yet be traced to Pope Marcellus himself, who was known for his ability and skill in this kind of work. According to a metallurgist, I should expect at least 2 mm of expansion and contraction in each 37" section. Insuring that the Fit-Ups are up into each rail as far as they will fit; slide the ties to secure the Fit-Ups as explained above (2 ties - 1 tie).
Then we gap the sections no less than 2 mm at each end of EVERY joint regardless of that section's length. I use 12 gauge, landscape wire, with soldered joints at connections and underground, irrigation grade wire nuts for insulation of the splices. Some wire runs installed on the underside of the track ladder are placed in cheap garden hose because of sun exposure. All information, data, text, and illustrations on this web site are Copyright (c) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 by Paul D. Following the acoustic bell curve, the more treatment you put up on the wall, the greater the ambient noise you will attenuate. The more flexible the furniture, the easier it will be to create different seating styles to fit the immediate need.
If two stations are transferring high volumes of data between them, the network performance of all stations on that hub will suffer.
Layer 3 switches use network addresses, and incorporate routing functions to actively calculate the best way to send a packet to its destination. Because you can easily change modules, the modular switch is an adaptable solution for large, growing networks.
Higher impedances, such as 600 ohms, are more useful in studio installations where many units may be wired in parallel for studio monitoring applications. You can see that very little power is needed to drive a stereo headphone pair to very high listening levels.
So it is clear that 600 ohm phones and the lower impedance models should not be intermixed in the same application.
The max SPL this combination was able to produce was 150 dB and the THD level recorded by a MD 421 was below 1% (produced by the driver not by the mic).
To accurately monitor what is recorded on the hard drive or tape machine, the monitoring system also has a flat response at the listening position. It is what enables a modern personal computer to know what kinds of monitors are connected to it. That means there are 4096 pixels laid out horizontally across the display and 2160 pixels arranged vertically across the display for a total of a little more that 8.8 million pixels in the 4K image. Bitrate not only takes into consideration the number of pixels but also examines the color depth and the refresh rate of the image being sent.
For this reason it is unwise to choose wireless microphone system frequencies that fall in an active local TV channel block. Nevertheless, since the locations and assignments of television stations are well known it is relatively easy to choose wireless microphone system frequencies to avoid them in a particular area.
However, wireless microphones could be used on television channels 22 and 24, as this would avoid the active TV channels. Connecting a microphone to a line-level input will result in almost no sound at all, because the signal is so faint that the line input cannot hear it. A mixer will not only boost a microphone level signal up to a line level signal, but it will also combine multiple signals together into a single output.
There are the occasional accidents when the meter, rated for low voltage (1000 V or less), was used to measure medium voltage, such as 4160 V. The task of defining safety standards for test equipment is addressed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Because electricity and data function at opposite ends of the frequency spectrum, they can travel over the same cable. The shorter the run, the smaller gauge you can use with minimum power and damping factor loss. Power to both transmitter and receiver units are taken care of when used with a PoE (Power over Ethernet) LAN Switch giving minimal power requirements at the source and more importantly at the screen location. Some of the most important considerations in selecting the right wireless system for an application is avoiding sources of potential interference, the number of channels required, the number of and type of microphones needed, antennas, mounts, accessories and the list goes on.
For setting up multi-channel systems, evolution wireless G3 includes 20 banks of coordinated frequencies, each set calculated to work together without interference - an undesirable effect called intermodulation. Choosing the right broadband provider and plan for your needs can be complicated, but there are strategies for navigating the process. When single mode fiber is used, measurements should be made at 1310nm as this is the most common wavelength used with single mode fiber. While digital modeling and processing systems certainly have their place, they may not have the same level of realism as the sound from an amplifier. A good instrument mic can perform well on a variety of instruments, including a guitar cabinet. This is achieved by deploying Barix Instreamer devices - reliable IP audio encoders a€“ with FM tuners attached, all over Australia and connecting them via a nationwide IP network.
Some advocate a Dry Cleaning technique using lint-free fabrics, while others prefer a Wet Cleaning Process, which employs a solvent cleaner.
IPA can leave a thin layer of such contaminants on the end face, again resulting in signal degradation. Filtered and packaged in a 5-ounce aerosol can that prevents contact with outside air prior to application, this cleaning solution effectively removes the types of soils most commonly encountered in Outside Plant and OEM operations.


Atlas Sound offers a full line of DSP products that can meet any horn speaker protection needs.
This provides unlimited flexibility for selecting a combination of different batteries to cover all your application needs. Fiber devices send this signal with great force to ensure that the signal, and your data, arrive at the other end intact. Within the attenuator, therea€™s doping that reduces the strength of the signal passing through the fiber connection and minute air gaps where the two fibers meet. In addition to the type of adapter, you also need to determine the necessary attenuation value, such as 5 or 10 dB. If you suspect this may be the cause of your problem then placing more distance between the two components is the only practical solution.
Even a negligible loss on the patch cord can impact the design and ultimately the channel performance.
It also facilitates the display of HDTV signals onto a UHD screen without geometric distortion.
Getting too far away makes the microphone more subject to picking up room ambience - a sound that creates the effect of the vocalist being in a bowl. Da Costa, in The Magazine of American History (1879), called attention to a reference in Hakluyt to a€?an olde excellente globe in the Queena€™s privie gallery at Westminister which seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge.a€? On that globe he says the a€?coaste is described in Italiana€? and, as this is the special characteristic of many of the names to be found on this globe, it might possibly seem as though this were the one which Queen Elizabeth I frequently consulted in the privacy of the gallery at Westminster. Everything is done in accordance with the best science of the age, and proves that the globe was intended for careful use. Hakluyta€™s reference to an olde excellent globe in the Queen's privie gallery at Westminster, which seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge, is also of interest, for, like the globe of Ulpius, it had the Coaste described in Italian, and a necke of lande in the latitude of 40 degrees.
Purchas says that South America was called Peruviana, and North America, Mexicana; which explains the action of Hieronimo da Verrazano in 1529 (#347), who employs the name of Yucatan in accordance with the same principle.
The wealth of Cibola eventually became the subject of sport, as was the case respecting the whole continent, at first supposed to be a part of the East Indies, and remarkably auriferous.
His brother published, in 1529, a large map, preserved in the College of the Propaganda at Rome, which outlines Giovanni Verrazanoa€™s discoveries.
Curiously enough, Greenland is pictured not very far from where we know it and under a name not very different from ours, but Islandia is placed very close to the Greenland coast. Gvito, or Quito, happens to be placed nearly in the centre of the South American continent, and close by we read, Domus olim ex solido auri, [the House formerly of solid gold]. The parrot, evidently an edified spectator, gazes placidly down from its perch in the tree.
Regio Patalis, a part of this continent, lies southwesterly from the Straits of Magellan, the name perhaps having been transferred from the coast of Africa.
This lonely, harborless isle, with its remarkable peak appears ready to be what it is now, the Sing Sing of Brazil; while St. An instance is found in the Isle de Fer, a reflection of which, often noticed by sailors, and called the Land of Butter [Terre de beurre], was gravely ceded by the Spanish Government to Louis Perdignon. The editor of the Ptolemy of 1482 knew of the Chronicle of Ivar Bardsen, and some of the names mentioned by him appear upon the editora€™s map; yet at the same time he assigns a false position to Greenland, which is shown as an extension of Norway, while Iceland is laid down in the sea west of what is given as Greenland.
2, 1591) represents the sea in his map, while the Virginia colonists entertained a similar idea. Nevertheless, by whomsoever it may have been designed, this ancient globe has come to us from the Eternal City, finding a permanent resting place at last, not without a certain fine justice, in the great metropolis which looks out upon the splendid harbor visited and described by him whose name is so prominently engraved upon the portion representing the New World. Even if you allow 2mm for expansion at every connection, the heat will eat up that gap, especially on straightaways.
The rails work themselves back and forth just like a nail or screw that works itself out of fastened materials. Hubs are good choices for small- or home-office networks, particularly if bandwidth concerns are minimal. Very advanced Ethernet switches, often known as routing switches, operate on OSI Layer 4 and route network traffic according to the application. The 600-ohm models are more rugged than low impedance models in that the higher resistance coils are less susceptible to burn out than low impedance models. Placing them on the inside of the image (ideally in an equilateral triangle) will create a more solid center image.
So, "A" goes left with the woofer on the outside of your stereo image and speaker "B" goes right with its woofer on the outside of your stereo image. The Dubbing Stage must replicate this response so that the mix translates precisely to the Movie Theatre. EDID is defined by a standard published by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). Connecting a line-level source (such as a CD player) to a mic-level input will cause the sound to be loud and distorted because the line signal is much stronger than what the mic input will accept. Just as common, the knock-out blow had nothing to do with misuse - it was a momentary high-voltage spike or transient that hit the multimeter input without warning. In the other method, called Alternative B, two wire pairs are used to transmit data, and the remaining two pairs are used for power. The longer the run, the heavier gauge you will need to minimize power and damping factor loss. With the capability of high-definition 1080p images and audio up to distances of 330ft between transmitter and switch, then from switch to receiver, the HDMI over IP Extender kits exceed the standard distances of a point-to-point HDBaseT extender kit. However, choosing the right equipment and frequencies for your application doesn't have to be a chore.
With evolution wireless G3, building a reliable, interference-free multi-channel setup has never been easier! A small guitar amp can be just as effective for this application as a stack, because you dona€™t necessarily need to a€?cranka€? the volume. Youa€™ll target the cabinet but youa€™ll also pick up the cabinet sound as ita€™s reflected in the room (fig.3). If youa€™re looking for a big reverberant tone, placing the amp and microphone in the bathroom is another popular technique.
Using excessive amounts of IPA can also contribute to signal loss through a phenomenon know as a€?haloinga€?, which is thought to be caused by residual alcohol combining with ambient soils and moisture, resulting in a residue that can adhere to the end face. The hygroscopic nature of IPA combined with its relatively low volatility and intrinsically higher surface tension, can result in adhesion of microscopic particles to the end face surface. This line includes the ASP-MG24, a 2x4 loudspeaker processor offering full DSP configuration of various crossover types, parametric EQ, compression, delay, and graphic EQ.
For instance you might want high capacity batteries when using on-camera lights or shoots needing long runtimes, medium capacity for regular shooting and a small lightweight battery as a backup or for low-power application needs. Fiber grooves may also be intentionally misaligned by several micronsa€”but only enough to slow the fiber optic signal to an acceptable rate as it travels down the cable. However, when using maximum insertion loss values, patch cords will not likely have an impact.
While vocalists may need to move about in order to hit those high notes, make every effort to maintain a constant distance from the microphone, as this will provide the greatest tonal balance.
It would be interesting to trace, at least conjecturally, the possibilities of how the globe found its way over to England. The latitudes are found by the nicely graduated copper equator, upon which the names of the zodiacal signs are engraved; while the equatorial line of the globe itself has the longitude divided into sections covering five degrees each.
What we know as Central America is called Nova Andalusia; the Pacific Ocean is named Mare Pacificum, but also Mare del Sur, which became the familiar South Sea in English, and in South America we find such names as Peru, Bresilia [Brazil], Venazola, Terra Paria, and Rio de Platta.
It was doubtless from this that the detailsa€”some of them at leasta€”of the Ulpius globe were secured. Hibernia [Ireland] has much the form we know and looks like the little dog we see on our maps, but Scotia [Scotland], much less well known at that time, does not extend far enough north, and England is much compressed in length. On a peninsula may be found the following inscription: Lusitani vltra promotorium bone spei i Calicutium tendentes hanc terra viderut, veru non accesserut, quaobrem neq nos certi quidq afferre potuimus [The Portuguese, sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope to Calcutta, saw this land but did not reach it, wherefore, neither have we been able to assert anything with certainty]. Helena, discovered on the festival of that saint, 1501, is waiting to imprison one of the worlda€™s great disturbers.
To a similar origin may be assigned Jaquet Island, which came from the Jaquet Bank, a shoal near the edge of Grand Bank.
The Fata Morgana is perhaps quite as unsatisfactory as the theory of satanic delusion, sometimes resorted to for the purpose of explaining the mystery.
Ulpius, on the contrary, and in accordance with fact, places Iceland east of Greenland, though both are placed too close to mainland Europe. Then follow Selvi di Cervi, the Deer Park of Verrazano, and Calami, similar to the Carnavarall of the Spanish maps.
But for a head wind when off Cape Cod, sailing southward in 1605, Champlain might have reached the Hudson, and instead of planting Port Royal in Nova Scotia, he might have established its foundations on Manhattan Island, in the region where Port Royal (Porto Reale) was laid down by Ulpius. Lawrence River, a belief that led the French to attempt the colonization of that cold and inhospitable country, in preference to the sunny and fertile regions explored farther southward by Verrazano. As late as 1651 the western sea was represented within about two hundred miles of the Atlantic coast, as appears from a map of that year, found in some copies of The Discovery of Nevv Brittaine (see #472). If the history of the globe could be written, it would be found to possess the charms of romance.
Paul Jovius wrote a book on ichthyology, which was published in 1524, but it was not illustrated. But because I can't see them little aeroplanes out there at 100 yards, I had to stay with pounding steel on the RR.
Sometimes the rails of two connected sections are butted up, end-to-end at one end and there is 4 mm gap at the other end. All wire bundles larger than 2 wires are protected with landscape plastic edging over the top prior the refilling the wire trench to protect the wires from future spading or shovel nicks. Because users connected to a switch do not have to share bandwidth, a switch offers relief from the network congestion a shared hub can cause. But we had to have a philosophy to build this speaker to, and the common wisdom (and technology) states tweeters in and woofers out. Mid and highs being more directional should be spread out to give the listener a wider stereo image. Now a mix with the kick drum and bass guitar dead center (where the speakers arena€™t) should sound like you can close your eyes and reach out and touch them in that center space, where therea€™s no speaker! Note that the soundtracks for the release of movies on DVD's are re-mixed on flat response monitoring systems for reproduction in domestic environments. The EDID includes manufacturer name and serial number, product type, phosphor or filter type, timings supported by the display, display size, luminance data and (for digital displays only) pixel mapping data. Jacks marked phono are for phonograph turntables only, and are not compatible with anything else.
That there are two different PoE power-transmission schemes isna€™t obvious to the casual user because PoE Powered Devices (PDs) are made to accept power in either format. Further distances can still be achieved by simply adding secondary LAN switches (330ft per switch). Instead, you want to increase the ampa€™s initial gain to achieve the desired amount of overdrive. Manufacturers of cleaning devices sometimes misstate claims and rarely detail exactly how their products should be used or how they can be misused. Even after drying is apparently complete, these contaminants remain bonded to the end face surface and in a€?blinda€? areas such as the sides of ferrules, and within the bounds of generally accepted imperfections in the polished surface. Four distinct meridional lines divide the globe into quarters, while four more lines are faintly indicated. The name Nova Gallia [New France] is not surprising, though that term was applied later to territory farther north than here delineated, and indeed continued to be a favorite geographic designation for Canada and the French possessions until the middle of the 18th century.
The Orkney Islands, under the name of Orcades, are given a very prominent place, thus leaving insufficient room for northern Scotland.
The Amazon and the La Platt Rivers appear, but Ulpius does not show any clear knowledge of the Orinoco River seen by Pinzon around 1500. There is also Insvle Tristan Dacvnha, found by the Portuguese, Dacuna, in 1506; and Insvle Formose, while in the southern part of the Indian Ocean is Insvle Grifonvm [the Isle of Griffins].
Here we might pause to remark upon the ease with which islands that have no existence are found in the sea, and the corresponding difficulty of getting rid of them. Mayda is simply the a€?Maidasa€? of the early maps, while the Three Chimnies, if not explained by some eruption, may have originated in such peculiarities of the bottom as that known as the a€?Whale Holea€? on the bank of Newfoundland. The waters of Greenland are represented as navigated, and nothing is perhaps more susceptible of proof than the fact that communication was never lost with Greenland from the tenth century down to the present day. Perhaps this last one was placed here in honor of Andrea Corsali, the Florentine navigator in the service of Emanuel, King of Portugal, though no record is found of any voyage made by him to this region.
This would have made the greatest city in America a French city, and, possibly, changed the destiny of the continent.
At the same time the globe, as pointed out, bears the line of Pope Alexander, by which the most of the New World was given to Spain. The Spaniards, on the same principle, as previously noted, proposed to fortify and colonize the Straits of Magellan.
This error had its day, and then died though not without manifesting a remarkable vitality.
This may be the very globe that, as Hakluyt said, a€?seemetk to be of Verrasanus making,a€? and which Queen Elizabeth I was accustomed to consult in the gallery at Westminster. The whale is represented as living in the distant north and is, perhaps, the poorest illustration of all. In addition, Fred has asked Gargraves to make track with light gray ties - they could represent the concrete ties that some Eastern railroads are using now. It is possible that a new-generation HDBaseT chipset will be required to support HDMI 2.0 capabilities.
Improper Dry Cleaning can require corrective end face polishing and even jumper replacement. Read Atlas' guide to Protecting Compression Drivers for more ideas on how to save yourself time and money in the long run by protecting the driver(s) when it is installed. The mixer, which drives the power amplifier, also receives its ground from the AC power cord. This was the year of the restoration of Catholicism in England under Mary Tudor, and the following year Cardinal Pole became her principal adviser.
That line was drawn from pole to pole at ninety degrees west longitude, giving the Portuguese the right over all the territory of Africa, but only a small portion of South America which projects beyond that line. The latitudes are found by the aid of a brass meridian, the Tropic of Cancer being called A†TIVVS, and Capricorn HYEMALIS.
The principal adverse critic of Verrazano frankly concedes that the Globe of Ulpius affords indubitable evidence that the maker had consulted the map (Murphya€™s Verrazano).
There is a Terra Gigantum and a Terra de los Fuegos, as well as an immense Terra Australisa€”a great southern continent below the Strait of Magellan (the initium freti Magellanici is carefully noted)a€”but with regard to this southern continent the globe tells us that it had not yet been explored, perhaps not yet actually found, for the Latin words are ad hue incomperta.
It was on Verrazanoa€™s discoveries and voyage, authorized and financed by the French king, that the French based their claims to this part of North America. Upon some of our best maps may be found such islands as Jaquet Island, Three Chimnies, Mayda, Amplimont, and Green Rock.
Brendana€™s Island, without any great stretch of the imagination, might be referred to as a burning insular peak, so far as the etymology may be concerned; while, again, as the Irish monks were abroad upon the sea at an early period, some of them may have landed upon an island that afterward disappeared.
Ulpius, who seems to copy Ruyscha€™s basic outline, leaves the space between Greenland and the west as unexplored; while Ruysch, on the other hand, makes Greenland, together with Newfoundland, part of Asia, Gog and Magog being in close proximity.
These facts, however, are consistent with one another, even on the supposition that the globe was made at the Vatican under the direction of the Cardinal-Presbyter Cervinus. The belief was shared by Ulpius in common with Verrazano, the latter being as positive on the subject as Frobisher himself, both having committed the belief to maps. Of course, the sea serpent finds a place here, but then the sea serpent has been seen many times, ever since, without scientists being able to locate him. For now, many manufacturers are introducing HDBaseT products that can support 4K video within HDMI 1.4. For example, when using a Dry Cleaning technique, the recommended a€?twist and turna€? scrubbing motion applied to the dusty end face can result in scratches that can induce signal loss or signal deterioration.
When the audio cable connects the mixer to the power amplifier the amplifier now sees a second ground from the mixer.
Through him the globe might easily have found its way into England at this time, and an interesting question would be to trace the relations of friendship between Reginald Pole during his sojourn in Rome and Cardinal Cervinus before he became Pope, so as to discover how this globe could have come into Polea€™s possession and be taken to England. Nevertheless attention has been called to the fact that, in an appendix to his work, the same critic refers to what is called an a€?authority,a€? which says that the map of Verrazano was originated sometime after 1550. In the case of the monks, it would have received due embellishment, since they were as fond of the marvelous.
It remained for the Zeno Map, published sixteen years after the Ulpius globe, to show the position of Greenland more distinctly, and at the same time to reveal the sites of the eastern and western colonies of Greenland, so erroneously supposed in later times to have been situated on the opposite coasts of that country. That person, though loyal to the Papal throne, which he was destined to occupy, was not over friendly to Spain, having three years before refused a pension of ten thousand piastres from Charles V., who wished to win his support. Lawrence was supposed to lead directly into the a€?Sea of China.a€? When Champlain went to Canada in 1608, he declared that he would not return until he reached that sea. It certainly went to Spain, and there, the instrument upon which perhaps more than one Pope read the decree of his predecessor, Alexander, was finally banished to the realm of worthless antiquities. So you get a more solid image of your sound in between the speakers where the sound is and the speakers are not.
The a€?figure-8 motiona€?, used for end face polishing, should never be used for end face cleaning. Even with that problem settled, however, the question as to how the globe found its way back to Spain, would remain.
A brass hour-circle enables the student to ascertain the difference of time between any two given points, while the graduated path of the Ecliptic is a prominent and indispensable aid.
If this were so, it would appear that the Verrazano map was based upon the Globe of Ulpius in connection with certain maps, and that, instead of having influenced the production of other maps, it is itself a composition made up of early material. On Coltona€™s Atlas these islands lie in the track of navigation between France and Newfoundland.
Germano, both Verrazano names, the former being Longueville, near Dieppe, and the latter St. Therefore, while recognizing the decree of Alexander, he might have been fair with the French, and thus conceded what they had accomplished in the New World by the aid of his countryman, Verrazano.
On most Crown amplifiers there is a "ground lift " switch on the back of the amplifier that performs this function and can be used to eliminate hum caused by ground loops.
If there were a replica, one could easily understand that one of the two should find its way there since Marya€™s husband was Philip II of Spain, and he doubtless would have been very much interested in this globe which, better than almost any other map of the time, set forth the Spanish possessions on the other side of the water.
It is said that they originated with icebergs in the fog-banks, or possibly in the fog-banks themselves. However this may be, the French are recognized, and the most of the region now occupied by the United States was claimed for France as New Gaul.
For Constant Voltage systems such as a 70.7V or 140V systems, the voltage is high and the current is low.
The figure-8 motion is a polishing procedure, which is not intended for use in routine cleaning. If you are using a cable service, such as cable TV, and you are routing the audio through your stereo system, you may experience a ground loop hum. But Hakluyta€™s reference is to Elizabeth, perhaps thirty or forty years after Marya€™s death, and when there was no possibility of any such communication between England and Spain as would account for the globe reaching Spanish dominions.
It should be noticed, however, that this part of the ocean is volcanic, and that islands of considerable magnitude have risen from the sea at different times. It stands connected with its maritime enterprise and adventure, and with its naval and geographical romance.
This is a result of the cable company's ground reference setting different than your system ground reference. The earliest eruption on record in the north Atlantic is that mentioned on the Ruysch map in the Ptolemy edition of 1508. You can contact your cable company and get an isolation transformer that will take care of the problem. Between Iceland and Greenland is the legend Insule hac 1456 anno Dno fvit totaliter combusta [This island was entirely burned up, A. Especially does it prove to the student how the exploration of our continent tried the courage, tested the endurance, baffled the skill and dissipated the fortunes of some of the noblest of men.
Cartiera€™s voyage of 1534 is not mentioned, as he made no discoveries, but the Gulf of St.
Porto Reale follows, when suddenly we reach the river intended for the Penobscot or Norombega, which, as on the Allefonsce map, which is positioned too far south. Ribero on his map (#346) indeed closes the Gulf, yet it was well known to the French at a very early period. Next is Refvgivm Promont, intended for the Cape of Refuge of the Verrazano map, which afforded Verrazano a land-locked harbor, today identified with Newport, RI. It must be observed again, however, that the outline of the Ulpius globe is a bit confusing. The next name is Corte Magiore, unless indeed Magiore belongs with the succeeding inscription. The signification is obscure, like that of Flora, though the latter occurs in several of the Ptolemaic maps of the period, including the Maggiolo map (#340) of 1548, and in Ramusioa€™s Verrazano sketch. Finally, Cavo de Brettoni is reached, or Cape Breton, a name usually referred to the French, but which may have been given by the Portuguese. The reading may be cdmeri, and thus refer to the Cosin de mer annano, or Oceanus on the SchA¶ner globe of 1520 (#328), signifying the Ocean Cape. With Terra Laboratoris we reach, not Labrador, the Portuguese a€?Land of the Laborers,a€? but Newfoundland. By mistake, Laboratoris is applied to Newfoundland, as later to Cape Breton, the inland waters of which are today called a€?Bras da€™or,a€? previously lengthened from Brador, which, according to the fancy of someone, signified a€?the Arm of Gold,a€? Thus easily are names emptied of their original signification. By mistake, Laboratoris is applied to Newfoundland, as later to Cape Breton, the inland waters of which are today called a€?Bras da€™or,a€? previously lengthened fromA  Brador, which, according to the fancy of someone, signified a€?the Arm of Gold,a€? Thus easily are names emptied of their original signification.
Frio [the Cold Cape of the Portuguese] represents Newfoundland, one part of which is marked Terra Corterealis. Yet, whatever name may be given to Newfoundland by the old cartographers, that of Bacca laos always adheres, being derived from Baculum, a stick, often used to keep fish spread open when drying. As in several other maps of the period, the name is repeated on an island lying westward as Grovelat. The greater portion of the region around the Pole is shown as land, but north of Asia is an immense lake, Mare Glaciale, also found on the Nancy globe (#363).




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