Crime rates new york city neighborhoods,model train sets o scale oliver,ho scale prr passenger cars india,model steam engine casting kits - PDF 2016

New York City authorities, Police Chief and mayor, have taken credit for reducing the murder rate in New York City.
Yet, both Bloomberg and the stoic Chief Kelly have been on a "We wanna Stop and Frisk" rampage since a federal judge ruled last week their practice and procedure is unconstitutional.
The rhetoric for the outgoing mayor and his Chief of Police is simply not supported by empirical data.
Since Mayor Bloomberg and Chief Kelly started the unlawful practice reports are 4.4 million "stops" have been performed. The data reflects exponentially more stops of Black and Hispanics, but overall far more illegal "items" found on whites. State senator Eric Adams, who retired from the NYPD after rising to the rank of captain during a 22-year career, said commissioner Ray Kelly described his views on stop and frisk during a July 2010 meeting in the office of then-governor David Patterson. Adams had traveled to Albany for a meeting on 10 July 2010 with the governor to give his support for a bill that would prohibit the NYPD from maintaining a database that would include the personal information of individuals stopped by the police but released without a charge or summons.
While the issue is as serious as any unfair and unequal treatment in America, I refuse to move way without a couple of shots that befits the ridiculousness of the practice.
US SPY Russian spy Yesterday we published a piece about the ACA open enrollment software and server glitches. Do you have any empathy for decreasing swaths of US geography that we can truly call pristine? An NYU sociologist now says New York's famed police tactics had nothing to do with the city's turnaround. Bill Bratton took the job as commissioner of the New York Police Department in 1994 under Mayor Rudy Giuliani, setting the stage for a Cinderella story in urban law enforcement that went on to change how virtually every major U.S.
The story of exactly how that happened has since proliferated, in Bratton’s own accounting, in think tanks celebrating his tactics, in op-eds cementing a popular consensus. That conclusion, based on a paper recently published in the journal Justice Quarterly, is a pretty jarring one.
In the canon of criminology research about New York’s historic crime decline, some data have supported the NYPD's claims, while other studies have been less conclusive.

Greenberg has analyzed instead a new and richer database of precinct-level data from New York, collected from 1988 through 2001 by Missouri researcher Richard Rosenfeld. During this 14-year span, homicide rates dropped in every one of the city’s 75 precincts, and cases of assault and robbery dropped in nearly all as well. Greenberg also found no causal connection between officers per capita at the precinct level and reductions in violent crime, or between an increase in misdemeanor arrests and a drop in felonies (as "broken windows" implies might happen). Some critics of the police department have gone so far as to suggest that the city’s dramatic drop in crime never really happened, that it was the result of accounting tricks created by reclassifying homicides as suicides, or by downgrading felonies to misdemeanors. For some other, unstudied, police activity to have been responsible for a large part of the drop, one has to assume that the police inadvertently stumbled on highly effective crime prevention strategies and pursued them for 20 years without knowing what they were, or without ever publicizing them.
The more plausible assumption, he argues, is that other social or cultural changes were at play in New York (and the many other cities where crime declined). The policy of stop-and-frisks, for one, may alienate residents from the police, and law enforcement needs good relationships with communities to effectively stop crime (as, well, a whole different set of research suggests). In discussing the bill, which ultimately passed, Adams said he raised the issue of police stops disproportionately targeting young African American and Latino men.
In fact, the image to the left which appears very much photo-shopped, appears to be in an African nation. The graph above shows how successful Bratton was at reducing NYC’s violent crime rate when he first held this position during the 1990s. During the 1990s, New York City began to deploy a suite of new policing tactics, and – clearly – they worked! This data contains deeper information about the demographic composition and socioeconomic status of neighborhoods where crime occurred, the presence and practices of local police officers there, and the prison admission rates of people who were arrested. But these long-term trends predated the implementation of CompStat and appeared to be unaffected by its arrival.
Other research [PDF] conducted by Rosenfeld and Robert Fornango found that the policy of stop-and-frisks had scant impact as well. The overall crime trend, however, has been validated by researchers using outside sources such as medical examiner records and auto insurance claims.

One would also have to assume that they escaped the notice of defenders and critics of the police over all these years. If creative policing played no discernible role in one of the most dramatic crime reductions in recent history, does that mean police tactics don’t much matter anywhere?
The city cracked down on misdemeanors thought to contribute to neglected environments in which felonies then occur (this was the "broken windows" theory of policing popularized, in large part, by The Atlantic).
There's also the sticky issue that crime fell dramatically during this period in cities everywhere.
The FBI cautions the data users against comparing yearly statistical data solely on the basis of their population coverage. If you look closely at the number of total stops during the period of over 4 million, you will see a proportionate relationship that is startling. New York rolled out the now-vaunted CompStat computer system designed to better track crime. The comparisons made herein are thus, only meaningful upon further examination of all variables that affect crime in each reported city, state or other reported jurisdicition.
Greenberg allows that both explanations could play a part, but he has no definitive answer to fill the void his research has created debunking police strategy.
If you take a look at the number of "other weapons" seized, one might wonder about the practice of zeroing in on young black and Latino males vs all young males (excluding young Asians). With these pens, you will be highly entertained as your coworkers get the karma they deserve I Mustache You a Question NotepadThe workplace can get repetitive, so why not trade in your yellow post-its & spice it up a bit with these I mustache you a question notepads? Even if none of your coworkers have a sense of humor, these can still make you chuckle every time you write a memo.

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