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4-8-4, and check out 4-8-4 on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet. Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 4-8-4 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels on two axles, usually in a leading truck, eight powered and coupled driving wheels on four axles, and four trailing wheels on two axles, usually in a trailing truck.
The 4-8-4 wheel arrangement was an obvious progression from the 4-8-2 Mountain type and, like the 2-8-4 Berkshire and 4-6-4 Hudson types, an example of the "Super Power" concept in steam locomotive design that made use of the larger firebox that could be supported by the four-wheel trailing truck, which allowed improved free steaming, particularly at speed.
The 4-8-4 type arrived on the locomotive scene at a time when nearly all the important design improvements had already been proven, such as the superheater, mechanical stoker, outside valve gear, the Delta trailing truck and the one-piece bed frame of cast steel with integrally cast cylinders, which did much to advance the application of roller bearings on steam locomotives since it gave the strength and rigidity to hold them in correct alignment.
The stability of the 4-8-4 wheel arrangement enabled it to be provided with driving wheels of up to 80 inches (2,032 millimetres) diameter for high speed passenger and fast freight operation and, with the latest lateral control devices, the type was flexible on curves in spite of its eight-coupled drivers. Although locomotives of the 4-8-4 wheel arrangement were used in a number of countries, those that were developed outside North America included various design features which set them apart from North American practice.
Since the 4-8-4 was first used by the Northern Pacific Railway, the type was named "Northern".
The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RFP) gave each of its three 4-8-4 classes a separate name, the "General" of 1937, the "Governor" of 1938 and the "Statesman" of 1944. The big wheeled 4-8-4 was at home on heavy passenger trains and quite capable of speeds over 100 miles per hour (160 kilometres per hour), but freight was the bread and butter of the railroads and in that service the Northern had limitations.
However, when it was demonstrated that a three-unit EMD F3 diesel electric consist that weighed a little less than the total engine and tender mass of a CPR K-1a Northern could produce nearly three times its tractive effort, even new Super Power steam locomotives were retired as quickly as finance allowed.
A total of twenty-three 4-8-4 locomotives operated in Australia, built to three distinct designs. In 1943 the first of twelve streamlined South Australian Railways 520 class locomotives were delivered from the Islington Workshops in Adelaide.
The H class three-cylinder 4-8-4 of the Victorian Railways, built in 1941, was designed for heavy passenger work on the line between Melbourne and Adelaide.
In order to meet the acute locomotive shortages in Brazil after World War II, twenty-seven scaled down American 4-8-4 NiA?gara locomotives were ordered by the Brazilian Departamento Nacional de Estradas de Ferro (DNEF) from the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) in 1946.
Since the Canadian mainlines were generally laid with 115 pounds per yard (57 kilograms per metre) rail, Canadian 4-8-4s were heavy and weighed in with axle loads up to 31.3 short tons. When the Canadian National Railway (CN) introduced its first 4-8-4 in 1927, it used the name "Confederation" for the type to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. Altogether forty locomotives were delivered in 1927, twenty Class U-2-a from the Canadian Locomotive Company and twenty Class U-2-b from the Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW).
Another twenty Class U-2-c came from MLW in 1929 and another five Class U-2-d, also from MLW, in 1936.
The CN U-4a was one of the few streamlined Confederation types, with five locomotives built by MLW and also introduced in 1936. The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) experimented with the 4-8-4 wheel arrangement in 1928, when two K-1a class locomotives were built in its Angus shops in Montreal, the first locomotives to be built with a one piece cast steel frame in Canada.
In 1933 the Beijinga€“Hankou Railway in China needed new locomotives for their Guangzhou to Shaoguan line, where gradients of around two percent, curves with less than 250 metres (820 feet) radius and low capacity bridges existed. When the Changsha-Guangzhou Railway was completed in October 1936, the locomotives were transferred to operate over the northern section between Hankou and Changsha on this new mainline that connected Guangzhou with Tianjin and Peking. Following the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the locomotives were designated the China Railways KF class.
The 242A1 was put through trials on many test runs which showed that this locomotive was equal in power output to the existing SNCF electric locomotives at the time.
While the 242A1 was being tested, electrical engineers were designing the locomotives for the 512 kilometres (318 miles) line between Paris and Lyon, which was to be electrified. The performances of the Mistral and other heavy passenger express trains would therefore not have been so outstanding if the 242A1 had not existed and Andre Chapelon therefore indirectly influenced French electric locomotive design. In service, the 242A1 was allocated to the Le Mans depot and between 1950 and 1960 it hauled express trains over the 411 kilometres (255 miles) between Le Mans and Brest. In 1939 the Deutsche Reichsbahn placed two prototype three-cylinder DRB Class 06 2D2-h3 heavy express locomotives in service, built by Krupp in 1938.
After the construction of thirty K class locomotives, the NZR developed the design to strengthen the frame and introduced other improvements such as roller bearings on all axles and ACFI (Accessoires pour les Chemins de Fer et l'Industrie) feedwater heaters.
Six more were built, designated KB class, for service on the steeply graded Midland line on the South Island. On occasion these 4-8-4s recorded speeds up to 75 miles per hour (121 kilometres per hour). Between 1953 and 1955 the South African Railways (SAR) placed fifty Class 25NC 4-8-4 Northern locomotives in service. Ninety Class 25 condensing locomotives were introduced simultaneously, acquired as a means to deal with the shortage of adequate supplies of suitable locomotive water in the arid Karoo. At approximately 57 feet (17 metres) in length, the condensing tenders are about 15 feet (4.6 metres) longer than their engines. On the condensing locomotives, spent steam was recycled and condensed back to water for repeated use. However, the Class 25 was a complex locomotive that required high maintenance, especially on the turbine blower fans in the smokebox, whose blades needed to be replaced frequently due to damage by solid particles in the exhaust. The Class 26, popularly known as the "Red Devil", was rebuilt from Henschel-built Class 25NC number 3450 by mechanical engineer David Wardale. Outside North America, the largest fleet of 4-8-4 locomotives was the Class P36 of the SZD (Sovetskie Zheleznye Dorogi or Soviet Railways), of which 251 were built by the Kolomna locomotive works between 1949 and 1956.
The Class P36 was one of the best passenger steam locomotive classes built in the Soviet Union. The Class P36 first appeared on the Oktyabrskaya Railway (October Railway) to haul principal express trains between Moscow and Leningrad, but they did not remain on this 650 kilometres (400 miles) mainline long.
Later, when electrification and dieselisation expanded, many of the Class P36 locomotives were transferred to work on the Lviv, Far East, Eastern Siberia, and Transbaikal Railways.
The 242F class express passenger 4-8-4 locomotives were designed by the Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles EspaA±oles (RENFE) in 1955 and were remarkably well-proportioned.
All ten locomotives were allocated to the Miranda de Ebro shed to haul principal heavy express trains. The American 4-8-4 was a heavy locomotive, with nearly all examples in the United States having axle loads of more than 30 short tons.

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The increased boiler size that became possible with this type, together with the high axle loads permitted on mainlines in North America, resulted in the design of some massive locomotives with all-up weights exceeding 350 tons with tender included. The adhesive weight on a 4-8-4 was limited to about 60% of the engine's weight, not including the dead weight of the tender.
This necessitated the replacement of their two-wheel trailing trucks with four-wheel trucks. Although they were large locomotives, they were designed to run on lightly constructed 60 pounds per yard (30 kilograms per metre) track, with the engine's weight being spread over eight axles. Nicknamed "Heavy Harry", it was the largest and most powerful non-articulated steam locomotive built in Australia and was one of the four known classes of three-cylinder 4-8-4 locomotives.
They were two cylinder simple expansion locomotives, designed to burn poor quality local coal with a low calorific thermal value, with driving wheels of 60 inches (1,524 millimetres) diameter and a grate area of 58 square feet (5.4 square metres).
In Brazilian railway conditions, these modern locomotives were not popular with local railwaymen and were not used as much as had been hoped. However, since the CPR mainlines were built to high standards, the railway preferred to develop the 4-6-4 Hudson type for passenger work since it gave adequate power and was cheaper to maintain, while a ten-coupled type, the 2-10-4 Selkirk, was adopted for heavy-duty work.
They were called Super MontaA±as (Super Mountains), since they followed the Tipo 80 4-8-2 Mountain that was introduced six years earlier. The requirement was therefore for a locomotive with high tractive effort and a low axle load.
It also had the distinction, along with an experimental high pressure locomotive of the New York Central Railroad in the United States of America, of being one of the two compound 4-8-4s. In addition, the 242A1 demonstrated the suitability of the Sauvage-Smith system of compounding for French conditions and the designs for future French steam locomotives, that were prepared but never produced, were to make use of the Sauvage-Smith compounding system.
Many parts, such as the boiler, were standardised with that of the DRG Class 45 heavy freight locomotive.
These QR-1 class locomotives were used mainly on lines north of Mexico City and were nicknamed "La Maquina".
Introduced from 1939, they were also built in NZR workshops, most of them with streamlined shrouding to cover the external pipe work of their feedwater heater systems.
The streamlining shrouds of the KA and KB classes were removed in the late 1940s when the ACFI feedwater heaters were replaced with exhaust steam injectors. The design work on the enginea€™s condensing apparatus and the enormous condensing tender was carried out by Henschel, who built one locomotive complete with tender as well as sixty of the condensing tenders, to which they held the patent. One third of the total length of the tender is taken up by the water tank and coal bunker, while the rest is taken up by eight large radiators on each side, cooled by five steam-driven roof-mounted fans.
Since the steam wasna€™t expelled up the chimney, the smokebox contained a steam turbine driven fan beneath the chimney in order to keep the draught going. The rebuilding took place at the Salt River shops of the SAR in Cape Town and was based on the principles developed by Argentinian mechanical engineer L.D.
Compared to an unmodified Class 25NC, the Red Devil achieved a 28% measured saving on coal and a 30% measured saving on water, measured during freight service, and a 43% increase in drawbar power based on the maximum recorded drawbar power. As the last Soviet standard class steam locomotive, the Class P36 shared some common components and design attributes with earlier standard Soviet designs such as the L class 2-10-0 Decapod type and LV class 2-10-2 Santa Fe type, as well as some common attributes with the P34 class 2-6-6-2 Mallet and P38 class 2-8-8-4 Yellowstone type Mallet. Developed from a preceding 4-8-2 Mountain type, they had improved steam passages and developed 30 to 40 per cent more power at medium cut-offs and high speed.
The capacity of the tender was limited at only 6,200 imperial gallons (28,000 litres) and, with few watering points in service, the full capacity of the locomotive was not always used for fear of running short of this essential commodity in the semi-arid Spanish landscape.
In the 1960s they were a familiar sight at the head of the premier express trains, but in 1971 they were transferred entirely to semi-fast passenger trains and even to the haulage of heavy seasonal fruit trains between CastejA?n and Alsasua from October to January. On railroads with rail of 130 to 133 pounds per yard (64 to 66 kilograms per metre), axle loads of more than 36 short tons were permitted.
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The evolution to the 4-8-4 type occurred in the United States of America soon after the Lima Locomotive Works introduced the concept of "Lima Super Power" in 1925. Henry Bowen, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) from 1928 to 1949, recognized this and after testing the first two CPR K-1a Northerns introduced by his predecessor, he designed a 2-10-4 Selkirk using the same boiler. The booster contributed an additional 8,000 pounds-force (36 kilonewtons) to the tractive effort and permitted an increase in the locomotivea€™s load across the Mount Lofty Ranges to 540 tons.
Construction of three locomotives commenced at the Newport Workshops in 1939 and three sets of frames were manufactured. The order also included sixty-six 2-8-4 Berkshires, and all ninety locomotives were delivered by January 1953.
6400 achieved fame in 1939 by heading the Royal Train and being exhibited at the New York World's Fair in the same year. Nevertheless, although the two CPR Northerns remained orphans, they proved their worth continuously for 25 years on overnight passenger trains between Montreal and Toronto. They were equipped with mechanical stokers and Vanderbilt tenders and weighed 185 tonnes in working order.
Twenty-four 600 series 4-8-4 locomotives, designed and built in the United Kingdom by Vulcan Foundry, were delivered to the railway in 1935 and 1936. It was rebuilt by Andre Chapelon from the unsuccessful 1932 three-cylinder 4-8-2 simple expansion locomotive no.
Developing 5,300 indicated horsepower (4,000 kilowatts) and with 65,679 pounds-force (292 kilonewtons) of peak tractive effort and 46,225 pounds-force (206 kilonewtons) of mean tractive effort, nothing in Europe could match it.

The streamlined Class 06, the only German 4-8-4, was the biggest steam locomotive ever built in Germany. Grubb, eleven of these locomotives were built by North British Locomotive Company (NBL) and thirty-nine by Henschel & Son. Roller bearings were used throughout on all these locomotives, including the coupling and connecting rods, the crosshead gudgeon pins as well as the three-axle bogies of both the standard and condensing tenders.
Visual evidence of this altered and slightly longer smokebox is the locomotivea€™s banjo face smokebox front. Between 1973 and 1980, partially motivated by the spread of electric and diesel-electric traction, all but three of the locomotives were converted to free exhausting and non condensing locomotives and reclassified to Class 25NC. Its approximate maximum range in full load freight service on 1% to 1.25% grades was 700 kilometres (430 miles) based on its coal capacity, and 230 kilometres (140 miles) based on its water capacity. For example, the P36 and LV classes shared the same feedwater heater, made by the Bryansk machine factory.
Russian-designed roller bearings were fitted throughout and the boilers were designed to provide a continuous steaming capacity of 57 kilograms (126 pounds) per one square metre (11 square feet) of heating surface in the boiler. All were staged in full working order and kept in reserve for times of extraordinary demand. Ten of these locomotives were built by La Maquinista Terrestre y Maritima SA in Barcelona to burn fuel oil. Not convinced, read more.Our prices are dirt cheap, and unlike other properties that charge an arm and a leg for a private room on weekends. The prototype was built to Super Power principles by American Locomotive Company (ALCO) for the Northern Pacific Railway (NP) in 1926, with a four-wheel trailing truck to carry the weight of a very large firebox that was designed to burn low quality lignite coal. The resulting T-1a Selkirk locomotive had the same number of axles as the Northern, but the driving wheels were reduced from 75 to 63 inches (1,905 to 1,600 millimetres) in diameter, while the additional pair of driving wheels increased the tractive effort by 27%. Although work was halted due to the outbreak of World War II, a shortage of motive power caused by increased wartime traffic resulted in authorisation being given for the completion of class leader H220. The Belpaire firebox included a combustion chamber and the boiler pressure was a high 18 standard atmospheres (1,800 kilopascals; 260 pounds per square inch).
In some places the turntables were too short to turn the locomotives and they had to be turned on triangles.
On test they produced 2,355 indicated horsepower (1,756 kilowatts) at a coal consumption of 34 kilograms per kilometre (120 pounds per mile) and a water consumption of 274 litres (60 imperial gallons; 72 US gallons) per kilometre.
The locomotives represented a significant improvement over previous designs and incorporated a more efficient E-type superheater and duplex steam valve to allow better steaming without enlarging the boiler, while the 4-8-4 wheel arrangement allowed better weight distribution. The two locomotives were shedded in Frankfurt and were placed in service on the line to Erfurt. The system proved extremely efficient and reduced water consumption by as much as 90% by using the same water up to eight times over, which gave the Class 25 a range of 800 kilometres (500 miles) between water refills.
In the process their condensing tenders were also rebuilt to ordinary coal-and-water tenders by removing the condensing radiators and roof fans and replacing it with a massive round topped water tank. The primary objectives of the modifications were to improve the combustion and steaming rate, to reduce the emission of wasteful black smoke and to overcome the problem of clinkering. At certain intervals the locomotives were taken out from staging, steamed up and put to work to haul trains to test the condition of the locomotives. The gross horsepower figures recorded with the dynamometer car were 1790, 2350 and 2320 respectively, the calculated horsepower on the rail being 2600, 3400 and 3580. In a later variant, Bowen added a booster to the trailing truck, enabling the big Selkirk to exert nearly 50% more tractive effort than the similar sized K-1a Northern. The locomotive went into service on 7 February 1941, but remained the sole member of the class since the other two partly built locomotives were never completed. In addition, the building specifications had called for a locomotive capable of a maximum speed of 80 kilometres per hour (50 miles per hour) and the ability to negotiate curves with a minimum radius of 80 metres (260 feet).
The design was not repeated, however, and the FdE returned to the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement with subsequent acquisitions.
The cylinders and frames were cast in one piece, while the steel cylinders and steam chests were fitted with cast iron liners.
Since the tenders were built on single cast steel main frames, it was impractical to attempt to shorten them.
This was achieved by the use of a Gas Producer Combustion System (GPCS), which relies on the gasification of coal on a low temperature firebed so that the gases are then fully burnt above the firebed.
In the late 1980s these strategic reserves of locomotives were disbanded and the Class P36 locomotives were distributed to museums and for preservation. To increase the comfort of the locomotive crew, the cabs had wooden floors mounted on springs, and the seats of the driver and fireman were also sprung, a very welcome improvement for long runs on poor tracks. This last point proved to be a source of contention when it was later discovered that the curves in some places were of less than 50 metres (160 feet) radius.
The Tipo 100 was used on the line from Almeda to Talca until it was replaced by diesels in 1969. The Class 25NC had already proven to be on the slippery side and the much more powerful Class 26, with essentially still the same dimensions as the Class 25NC, was even worse. Some, that had not seen regular use for more than fifteen years and were in the worst mechanical condition, were scrapped. The AAE Properties offers you a deluxe all new room, comfy plush bed and linens, plush towels and all the toiletries you can imagine, year round huge pool, 24 hour casino floor with all your favorite games (win more then you came in with) . Walk to New York New York (our neighbor casino) and Ex Calibur, MGM Grand, Bellagio in minutes from a Safe Location on the strip and minutes to the airport- of which we now provide a cheap shuttle option!*******PLEASE NOTE- THESE DISCOUNT RATES ARE ONLY AVAILABLE WHEN YOU BOOK ON LINE. If the credit card declines, the reservation will be cancelled.There is a $100 refundable security deposit (to be charged with either cash or credit) due at check-in. Please know these 2 additional amounts before you check in.Please make sure the registered guest checking in is at least 21 years of age.
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