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HO scale (1:87) model of a North American center cab switcher shown with a pencil for size.
Z scale (1:220) scene of a 2-6-0 steam locomotive being turned with a scratch-built Russell snow plow parked on a stub (Val Ease Central Railroad). Railway modelling (UK, Australia, Ireland and Canada) or model railroading (US and Canada) is a hobby in which rail transport systems are modelled at a reduced scale. Involvement ranges from possession of a train set to spending hours and large sums on a large and exacting model of a railroad and the scenery through which it passes, called a "layout".
Layouts vary from a circle or oval of track to realistic reproductions of real places modeled to scale. The Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) at MIT in the 1950s pioneered automatic control of track-switching by using telephone relays. The oldest society is The Model Railway Club (established 1910), near Kings Cross, London, UK.
Later, modellers became dissatisfied with inaccuracies and developed standards in which everything is correctly scaled. In addition to different scales, there are also different types of couplers for connecting cars, which are not compatible with each other.
In H0, the Americans standardized on horn-hook, or X2F couplers, though these have largely given way to working knuckle couplers (Kadee) which are a close approximation to the "automatic" couplers used on the prototype there and elsewhere. For British modellers, whose most popular scale is 00, the normal coupler is a tension-lock coupler, which, again has no pretense of replicating the usual prototype three-link chain couplers.
It must be emphasized that, in all scales, couplers can be exchanged, with varying degrees of difficulty. Some modellers pay attention to landscaping their layout, creating a fantasy world or modelling an actual location, often historic.
Constructing scenery involves preparing a sub-terrain using a wide variety of building materials, including (but not limited to) screen wire, a lattice of cardboard strips, or carved stacks of expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) sheets.
Weathering refers to making a model look used and exposed to weather by simulating dirt and wear on real vehicles, structures and equipment.
Model railway engines are generally operated by low voltage direct current (DC) electricity supplied via the tracks, but there are exceptions, such as Marklin and Lionel Corporation, which use alternating current (AC). Most early models for the toy market were powered by clockwork and controlled by levers on the locomotive.
Early electrical models used a three-rail system with the wheels resting on a metal track with metal sleepers that conducted power and a middle rail which provided power to a skid under the locomotive.
As accuracy became important some systems adopted two-rail power in which the wheels were isolated and the rails carried the positive and negative supply or two sides of the AC supply. Other systems such as Marklin instead used fine metal studs to replace the central rail, allowing existing three-rail models to use more realistic track.
Where the model is of an electric locomotive, it may be supplied by overhead lines, like the full-size locomotive.
Early electric trains ran on batteries because few homes in the late 19th century and early 20th century had electricity. Engines powered by Live steam are often built in large, outdoor gauges, and are available in Gauge 1, G scale, 16 mm scale and can be found in 0 and H0.
Occasionally gasoline-electric models, patterned after real diesel-electric locomotives, come up among hobbyists and companies like Pilgrim Locomotive Works have sold such locomotives. Modern manufacturing techniques mean mass produced models achieve a high degree of precision and realism.[citation needed] In the past this was not the case and scratch building was very common. The first clockwork (spring-drive) and live steam locomotives ran until out of power, with no way for the operator to stop and restart the locomotive or vary its speed.
Electricity permits control by dividing the layout into isolated blocks, where trains can be slowed or stopped by lowering or cutting power to a block. Many layout builders are choosing digital operation of their layouts rather than the more traditional DC design. In large scales, particularly for garden railways, radio control and DCC in the garden have become popular. A propane fired 1:8 scale live steam train running on the Finnish Railway Museum's miniature track. A model train running on the Willans Hill Model Railway miniature track in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.
Several organizations exist to set standardizations for connectability between individual layout sections (commonly called "modules"). NMRA, National Model Railroad Association, the largest organization devoted to the development, promotion, and enjoyment of the hobby of model railroading. MOROP, European Union of Model Railroad and Railroad Fans, the European standardization organisation. List of rail transport modelling scale standards — See also: Rail transport modelling scales This page lists the most important model railway scale standards in the world.
List of rail transport topics — A list of topics associated with rail transport, railroads and railways.

History of rail transport in Poland — This article is part of the History of rail transport by country series.
Product DescriptionWe are pleased to offer you this beautiful authentic reproduction of a Lionel Electric Trains Model Railroad Accessories vintage logo advertising sign.
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The scale models include locomotives, rolling stock, streetcars, tracks, signalling, and roads, buildings, vehicles, model figures, lights, and features such as streams, hills and canyons. Hobbyists, called "railway modellers" or "model railroaders", may maintain models large enough to ride (see Live steam, Ridable miniature railway and Backyard railroad). Scale is the model's measurement as a proportion to the original, while gauge is the measurement between the rails.
Manufacturers and hobbyists soon arrived at de facto standards for interchangeability, such as gauge, but trains were only a rough approximation to the real thing. These are used by modellers but have not spread to mass-production because the inaccuracies and overscale properties of the commercial scales ensure reliable operation and allow for shortcuts necessary for cost control. Also in H0, the European manufacturers have standardized, but on a coupler mount, not a coupler: many varieties of coupler can be plugged in (and out) of the NEM coupler box. Bachmann and more recently Hornby have begun to offer models fitted with NEM coupler pockets. Most models come out of the box looking new, because unweathered finishes are easier to produce and many collectors want models to look pristine. Although this made control crude the models were large and robust enough that grabbing the controls was practical. Before Digital Command Control became available, this was one way of controlling two trains separately on the same track.
Today, inexpensive train sets running on batteries are again common but regarded as toys and seldom used by hobbyists.
Hornby Railways produce live steam locomotives in 00, based on designs first arrived at by an amateur modeller.
Large-scale petrol-mechanical and petrol-hydraulic models are available but unusual and pricier than the electrically powered versions. The advent of electric trains, which appeared commercially in the 1890s, allowed control of the speed by varying the current or voltage. Dividing a layout into blocks permits operators to run more than one train with less risk of a fast train catching and hitting a slow train.
This is so several (or hundreds, given enough space and power) people or groups can bring together their own modules, connect them together with as little trouble as possible, and operate their trains.
The history of rail transport in Poland dates back to the first half of the 19th century when railways were built under Prussian, Russian, and Austrian occupation.
While other transport systems are well catered to by model manufacturers, monorail systems are not.
Wenn Sie auf Gebot bestA¤tigen klicken und HA¶chstbietender sind, gehen Sie einen rechtsverbindlichen Vertrag mit dem VerkA¤ufer ein. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. Modellers may collect model trains, building a landscape for the trains to pass through, or operate their own railroad in miniature.
The museum also houses one of the earliest scenic models - the Madder Valley layout built by John Ahern. Similarly, The Historical Model Railway Society at Butterley, near Ripley, Derbyshire specialises in historical matters and has archives available to members and non-members. It is easier to fit a G scale model into a garden and keep scenery proportional to the trains. The finescale standards include the UK's P4, and the even finer S4, which uses track dimensions scaled from the prototype.
None of the popular couplers has any resemblance to the prototype three-link chains generally used on the continent.

This theoretically enables modellers of British railways to substitute any other NEM362 coupler, though many Bachmann models place the coupler pocket at the wrong height. Buildings and structures can be purchased as kits, or built from cardboard, balsa wood, basswood, paper, or polystyrene or other plastic. Also, the wear a freight car or building undergoes depends not only on age but where it is used.
Various manufacturers introduced slowing and stopping tracks that could trigger levers on the locomotive and allow station stops. The electric-outline model would be supplied by the overhead wire and the other model (usually steam-outline) would be supplied by one of the running rails.
Battery power is used by many garden railway and larger scale systems because of the difficulty in obtaining reliable power supply through the rails outdoors and because the high power consumption and thus current draw of large scale garden models is more easily and safely met with rechargeable batteries. More sophisticated models can be made using a combination of etched sheets of brass and low temperature castings.
As trains began to be powered by transformers and rectifiers more sophisticated throttles appeared, and soon trains powered by AC contained mechanisms to change direction or go into neutral gear when the operator cycled the power. The advantages to DCC are that track voltage is constant (usually in the range of 20 volts AC) and the command throttle sends a signal to small circuit cards, or decoders, hidden inside the piece of equipment which control several functions of an individual locomotive, including speed, direction of travel, lights, smoke and various sound effects.
Despite different design and operation philosophies, different organizations have similar goals; standardized ends to facilitate connection with other modules built to the same specifications, standardized electricals, equipment, curve radii.
Due to its popularity, it can be found in regional variations, most notably the Imperial-to-Metric measurement conversions.
Standards are considerably more flexible in module shape than NTRAK, and has expanded over the years to accommodate several scenery variations. Rail transport is the conveyance of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run along railways or railroads. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. This was built in the late 1930s to late 1950s and brought in realistic modelling, receiving coverage on both sides of the Atlantic in the magazines Model Railway News and Model Railroader.
Models in these scales are usually hand-built and powered by live steam, or diesel-hydraulic, and the engines are often powerful enough to haul dozens of human passengers. Official scales for the gauges were drawn up but not at first rigidly followed and not necessarily correctly proportioned for the gauge chosen.
A fairly common alternative is to use represantations of chain couplings as found on the prototype, though these require large radius curves to be used to avoid derailments. Trees can be fabricated from materials such as Western sagebrush, candytuft, and caspia, to which adhesive and model foliage are applied; or they can be bought ready-made from specialist maunfacturers.
Rail cars in cities accumulate grime from building and automobile exhaust, while cars in deserts may be subjected to sandstorms which etch or strip paint. In addition the notion of accurate models had yet to evolve and toy trains and track were crude tinplate. Three-rail systems often insulate one of the common rails on a section of track, and use a passing train to complete the circuit and activate an accessory.
This allows more realistic operation in that the modeller can operate independently several locomotives on the same stretch of track. The date at the top of this building, 1946, was the year that Allied opened its doors and the 4411 on the awning is the actual street number of that train store. Die tatsA¤chliche Versandzeit kann in EinzelfA¤llen, insbesondere zu Spitzenzeiten, abweichen. Bekonscot in Buckinghamshire is the oldest model village and includes a model railway, dating from the 1930s.
A model that is weathered would not fit as many layouts as a pristine model which can be weathered by its purchaser. In some cases, evidence of accidents or repairs may be added, such as dents or freshly painted replacement parts, and weathered models can be nearly indistinguishable from their prototypes when photographed appropriately. A variation on the three-rail system, Trix Twin, allowed two trains to be independently controlled on one track, before the advent of Digital Command Control. The world's largest model railroad in H0 scale is the Miniatur Wunderland in Hamburg, Germany. These kits produce models that are not covered by the major manufacturers or in scales that are not in mass production. Laser machining techniques have extended this ability to thicker materials for scale steam and other locomotive types. This arose due to British locomotives and rolling stock being smaller than those found elsewhere, leading to an increase in scale to enable HO scale mechanisms to be used.
Most commercial scales have standards that include wheel flanges that are too deep, wheel treads that are too wide, and rail tracks that are too large.

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