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29.12.2014
I have attached a picture of the layout: the layout is not attached to the boxes underneath they are there for temporary support and will not be in the move. I move a similar size layout last year, 12mm plywood sides, screwed to the sides of the baseboard, cut above the hight of the scenery, 12mm blocks in the corners scerwed and glued to the plywood, i didnt form a top it went into the removals van with the open top against the side and strapped down, appart from some losse ballast and ground mix all was safe. Mind you, some say the wire bristles cause scratches which attracts more dirt, so I use a Q tip with a cleaning fluid mostly. I unpacked a 4×8 layout that was stored for nearly 25 years and it came out just fine and it had been moved several times.
Been watching your tips and comments now for about a year and decided its now or never to build my own HO layout. The card and the wrap could be used to protect the layout, then get a crate made to put the layout in.
I love that I finally got to see what’s along the upper track after that first big turn past the bridge.
Scenic development around the upper level is especially interesting particularly as much of it is only visible via track cam. I Know this is late but I stock pile the posts and watch them in groups if I get a half hour spare. Modular is the market leader in providing powerful information management solutions to meet the needs of both open pit and underground mining operations worldwide. Avoca Resources announced that it commenced placing cemented tailings (paste) into underground stopes at its Trident mine, Western Australia’s third largest underground gold mine, following the successful construction and commissioning of its paste plant. All too often, a mining agreement that is vital to a country’s development and that will boost economic opportunity and job creation is an occasion for vilification by NGOs.
Ventilation has always been a concern in underground mines.  For many years, there was very little understanding of how ventilation could be used to remove harmful contaminants from the air, or how to control airflow and isolate worked-out areas.
Today, ventilation schemes typically consist of a complex network of open and sealed areas that provide fresh air to working faces while pushing dusty and gaseous air out of the mine. In addition to the new 3-day cure for Tekseal®, Minova also unveiled new packaging that allows bulk handling of its standard-setting Tekseal® products.
The new Minova bulk bags, constructed of a reinforced nylon material with a heavy-duty plastic liner, are tear- and water-resistant. The company has developed comprehensive documentation for the 3-day cure for Tekseal® and new bulk packaging systems. TM, designed to enhance mine site safety.  The system was developed after extensive research by Caterpillar showed that 70% of haulage truck accidents at mine sites occur during initial machine startup and low speed movement. The system has been purpose-built to integrate with Cat large mining trucks-models 785, 789, 793 and 797-and is intended to aid an operator when starting to move a truck and during low speed maneuvering. Using a combination of short range radars, medium range radars and four cameras, the system monitors and shows the operator the areas immediately around the truck.
Unlike basic camera systems, the Cat Integrated Object Detection System provides the operator with multiple types of warnings, both audible and visual.
The system is wholly contained on the machine and does not require any off-board infrastructure. Of course radar detects both moving and still objects, and camera views are available at all times.
The Cat Integrated Object Detection System will be available for many current models of large mining trucks in early 2010. Your browser does not support inline frames or is currently configured not to display inline frames.
What do you use 4 taking those movies of going around your setup, movie pics is what I’m talking about ?
I reinforced this with planed 2×1 timber battens on the outside ends and two equally spaces between that allow fingers to get under to lift. I’ve always used the fibreglass pencil on my stuff but have suffered some failures of the little plastic cardan shafts that carry the drive from the motor to the trucks on my electric locos. I always get a Smile and a Chuckle watching Dave’s Video’s they are beautiful and so entertaining!
Was there a follow up to this where he explained the how to with photos or diagram’s? The layout is very well designed, space well utilised and a wide range of operating options evident. The truck cam shots are well judged and exciting and the overall film as put together is a real tour de force of how rail models can be filmed. However, World Growth International and World Growth Mongolia are clearly NGOs of a different cut - NGOs with people at the forefront of their considerations and with no hidden agendas.
But even in the most controlled environments, mined-out areas continue to generate dangerous methane gases.  Continuous ventilation of these areas can strain fan systems and is not practical for continuously monitoring mines in operation for 30 years or more. The bulk bags can be placed above the placer unit to provide material previously contained in individual 45-lb bags. The radar information is processed by a new on-board touch screen display, which alerts the operator with a visual indication followed by an audible alarm if the truck is put into gear. Three different levels of alarms indicate the proximity of an object or the urgency of taking action to avoid an object. The system is scalable, allowing miners to start with just the four cameras and add radars later.
Additionally, any critical zone warning that has not been acknowledged will trigger an audible alarm.
Radars used include both short range radars, which detect objects as far away as 23 feet (7 meters), and medium range radars, which have a range of 66 feet (20 meters).


Internally I cut 2×2 posts that rested on the scenery in selected places to support the top. They particularly didn’t seem to like the trucks turning sideways or at an angle during cleaning, I guess because this brings the ears at the end of the shaft close to the edge of the recess in the flywheel.
These two have applauded the Government of Mongolia for signing a landmark mining agreement to develop Oyu Tolgoi. A display screen in the cab provides visual confirmation of the objects detected by radar, which enables the operator to make informed decisions when moving a truck. When the audible alarm is active the camera view will switch automatically to the zone that has a detected object.
The system is integrated with VIMSTM and other on-board computers, enabling it to switch into camera-only mode when the machine travels beyond 66 feet (20 meters).
In the event of multiple objects, the camera view will toggle between camera views in zones with objects. A Minova bulk bag contains the equivalent of a full pallet of individual bags and requires no manual handling.  An added safety feature is the significant reduction in airborne dust and waste material handling. The Minova bulk system also reduces the time and labor required to install a seal and helps to ensure a consistent mix. It took just a couple of hours to cut and make, and a couple more to build around the layout. In order to analyze the dynamics of a coach that moves along a curve, a global model has been developed which includes the characterization of the track and the fixations, stiffness and damping of the bogie and the identification of global conditions in the wheel-rail contact area. The present article describes an analytical formulation that allows the estimation of the dynamic state due to the passage of a railway vehicle, summarizing the results and simulations derived from the application of that model, under the consideration that the contact between wheel and rail is constant, and thus the turn of the wheelset is due to the path tread. The type of wheel-rail contact in a curved track can be studied by means the behavior of two elastic solids rotating one over the other, under the action of normal and tangential loads to the surface of contact, producing a relative motion between them. Accordingly, a composition of movement occurs with a small elastic deformations associated with those regions close to contact area, resulting in a equivalent displacement which depends of rolling movements and an apparent slip or creepage. This slip is called apparent because it is produced by the elastic deformation of the bodies in contact, without really causing a landslide in such area. Carter [1] approached the contact surface to a rectangular and uniform strip, tangential to the rail, taking into account the longitudinal creepage.
This theory has been extended into the two-dimensional analysis, whereas a circumferential contact area and longitudinal and transverse apparent slips [2]. Additionally, there are approximate formulas and correlations for the case of elliptical contact areas with pure longitudinal creepage [3, 4], based on the division of contact area into strips parallel to the direction of the rolling, and the use of the Carter theory in each of those strips. For the analysis of them, did not consider the interaction of each with the others, that is, the solution provided by the Carter theory in a strip did not affect the neighboring stripes. These investigations have been validated experimentally using photoelasticity techniques, which showed that the shape of the area was closed to the value provided by the modeling. This model is known as the Theory of the Bands, and is used in cases where there is only longitudinal creepage. Despite a limited use in the study of the dynamic railway because it believes areas of close contact, it is of particular interest because it shows the true shape of the adhesion and sliding areas. Kalker [5] developed a theory which considers linearity relations and expressions between the tangential contact forces and creepages. This hypothesis is valid only when the lateral, longitudinal and spin creepages are very small.
When this happens, the sliding region into the area of contact is small and it is assumed that covers the entire contact area.
Additionally, the radiuses of curvatures of the two bodies are considered as being constant through the width of the contact patch.
The contact pressures between the bodies are calculated used the Hertz theory, in which the tangential forces do not affect the normal pressures of the hertzian distribution. However, it has developed a precise, three-dimensional and nonlinear formulation [6], which includes lateral, longitudinal and spin creepages, but has the limitation that needs a high computational burden. Following this contextual framework, several investigations [7, 8] have used the of nonlinear hertzian contact theory based on the following assumptions: the behavior of interacting bodies is elastic, the radius of curvature are significantly larger than the size of the area of elliptic contact, and the bends within the contact zone are constant. Based on these assumptions has been formulated by the force of wheel-rail contact through what was expressed in the Equation 1. This investigation includes different relative positions between wheel and rail, with their respective contact areas caused agree to such positions. Through the use of computational resources and the finite element method, numerical calculations were made of the contact pressure distributions, concluding that he theory of Hertz offers performance close to reality, if the contact area is framed within the rail profile. However, there is an intermediate state where the elasticity of body contact, can divide the interaction area in an adhesion area and sliding region, which have a geometry elliptic response to chart in Figure 1 [10]. It is appreciated that the axial axis of the elliptical adhesion zone, coincides with the axial axis of the contact ellipse, and both ellipses coincides at their most extreme point. The magnitude of this slip can be determined by analyzing the elastical and frictional properties of the two bodies. These parameters and coefficients can be calculated by means of equations 4, 5, 6 and 7, where c33 is a given function of the ratio of the elliptical contact area, whose typical values are tabulated on the literature [6].
This simplification takes into account the state of longitudinal, lateral and spin creepages, and considers the wheel and the rail are two rigid solids, whose contact area is modeled by a set of springs located at discrete points on both surfaces. In this way, the displacement zone is represented by a single point of traction which depends only on its surface, causing a status of forces Fx and Fy obtained according to the Equation 8 due to creepages, where s1, s2 and s3 are elasticity contact coefficients defined by Equation 9. With the aim of study the effects of such state, many investigators have proposed various models of half vehicle [11-13], taking into account that each coach is supported by two bogies containing two axes of wheel individually, and that is symmetric with respect to the vertical axis. This system symbolizes the front of the car and was defined from the assertion that half of the model vehicle is symmetrical with respect the longitudinal axis.


Additionally, considering that the behavior of an axis of the bogie is similar to that of the remaining axles that constitute the rail coach, it is assumed that the same is sufficiently characterized by the fourth model vehicle. Mc is the coach mass associated with the weight of the vehicle that hovers over the suspension. In addition to analyzing the vertical translation presented during the movement along straight and curved tracks, it has been included the coach rotation around the longitudinal axis Φc, considering the corresponding moment of inertia. The system is described by means four generalized coordinates zc, zw, zr and zs associated with vertical movements of the coach, the wheelset, the rail and the sleepers. Reference level is related with the instant referred to the track with no load, situation in which it is compressed under its own weight. Side view Hypothesis of the model Before defining the equations of motion that describe the dynamics of the proposed system, concrete scenarios and assumptions have been detailed in order to concrete governing fundamentals of the model. These approaches and hypothesis are: The rail as well as the wheel have similar characteristics and hertzian behavior.
Therefore it is possible to estimate the normal contact force and the geometry of the elliptical area of interaction, in an independent form of the longitudinal and lateral forces in the wheel-rail contact area.
Therefore, there is no slip of the wheels with the rail and the bogies maintain a constant position on the track, which does not affect the slack side between the axles and the frame of the bogie, and the slack side between the latter and the structure of the vehicle. Additionally, it is not considered closer tabs of the wheels on the rail, or sideways movement of the coach originated by the action of the centrifugal force. In addition, due to the high inertia of the railway vehicle, it is possible to disregard the rotation θc around the longitudinal axis.
In order to study the dynamic interaction at the wheel-rail contact area, linear approach of the Kalker theory has been used in the determination of lateral and longitudinal contact forces, considering the normal forces and the creepages calculated according to Equation 15. Also, aR and bR describe the geometry of interaction on the right side for the same load conditions.
Additionally, as shown in Figure 3, db is the half distance between the sleeper supports on the ballast, dr is the half distance between the rail supports on the sleeper, and bs is the height of the each sleeper. In addition, the numerical analysis includes the railway system parameters described in table 1.
For example, the graphs presented in figure 5 show that while the coach was moving along a curved track, the displacement in the left wheel is similar to that existing on the right one.
Unimportant appreciative variations of the rotation angle of the wheelset, are also observed.
Rotation of the wheelset On the other hand, figures 6 and 7 summarize the vertical displacements and rotations associated with the rails and the sleepers, while figures 8, 9 and 10 present respectively the normal, lateral and longitudinal contact force in both interaction zones.
Right side The numerical simulations have been performed for parameters characterizing the spanish ballasted track.
For this average stiffness and damping of the track and the suspension, the most severe system dynamic response was obtained in form of normal contact force. In the train speed studied a maximum force of 138 kN is observed in the left wheel-rail interaction zone.
Nevertheless, such force does not produce a very significant vertical displacement on the left rail.
In this case, the influence of the excitation represented by means of the wheel profile irregularities is important in the vertical direction of the railway equipment, but does not play a predominant role in the temporary histories of the rotations, as well as the longitudinal and lateral forces. From the beginning to the end of the temporary history, several oscillations on the forces are observed, which are around the static load contribution in the case of normal forces, and around no load in the case of lateral and longitudinal forces. These oscillations are a direct result of the excitation in form of wheel profile irregularities, and due to the bogie stable running on both tangent track segments for the forward speed.
In the case of study of straight tracks there are no important lateral and longitudinal forces, and the normal problem is equal in both zones.
Thereby, in such situation is enough to analyze the generation of normal forces on a single wheel of the train, in order to estimate the dynamic performance derivative of the passage of the wheel. Finally, it must be also pointed out that for the cases studied here, the most important normal contact mainly occurs on the inner wheel of the wheelset.
Consequently, when studying the wheel- rail contact forces, the leading wheelset of the coach should always be focused. Nevertheless, it is very necessary advanced numerical methods in order to predict dynamic interaction efficiently in a short period of time. Using this model it has been possible to investigate the evolution in the time domain of the contact forces in the wheel-rail interaction zone.
The proposed model is characterized by simple equations of motion for the wheelset, the suspension of the bogie, the rails and the sleepers, including the effects of nonlinearities at the contact area by means the hertzian theory, the excitations due to the profile of each wheel and the tangential problem modeled by the theory of Kalker. The most severe system dynamic response, for the real wheel profile studied here, has been the fluctuation amplitude of wheel-rail normal contact force, which is the source of the vertical displacements presented in both rails. In addition, it has been observed that the influence in the lateral and longitudinal directions is not significant.
The present numerical procedure can be further improved in the analysis of these phenomena, and in the optimizing wheel and rail profiles in order to reduce the contact stresses, the generation of vibrations and the wear. Programa para monitorizar las vibraciones producidas por los trenes de Ferrocarriles Metropolitanos de Barcelona, para estimar el estado general de mantenimiento de los bogies.



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