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20.03.2014
The CN Tower is on of my favorite buildings in the world, though not strictly a building it is still the worlds talled free standing structure. On the website you'll find lots of detailed information about the Tower, including menus, pricing, hours, upcoming events and group information. Fortunately, the Tower designers had the foresight to realize that the new buildings were only the beginning. Its location, at the front door of the city, also determined the need for the Tower to be more than a communications structure.
While several individuals figured prominently, no one person can be given the credit for the total design and construction of the Tower. Because it is the first of its size and type, the CN Tower broke new ground in many of its answers to engineering challenges. Barely four months after construction began, all was in readiness for the above-ground operation. Twenty-four hours a day, five days a week, concrete was poured into a massive mold or 'slipform.' As the concrete hardened, the 'slipform,' supported by a ring of climbing jacks that were powered by hydraulic pressure, moved upwards, gradually decreasing in size to produce the gracefully tapered contour. Intrinsic to the construction of the CN Tower was the mighty crane, which over its four years of round-the-clock service lifted some 50,000 tons of material and machinery. For many, the purpose behind the familiar donutshaped collar at the base of the Skypod is a mystery. In September 1973, the Tower became the tallest structure in Toronto and by January 1974, it was unrivalled in Canada.
During the Dedication Ceremony on 1 October 1976, presided over by Prime Minister Pierre E Trudeau, a time capsule was placed in the wall on the Indoor Observation Deck. Not only is the CN Tower the tallest freestanding structure in the world but it is also probably the safest. When plans for the Tower were concluded, their wind resistance factor was established at 260 mph.
To ensure against the possibility of ice or snow building up and falling to earth, every place where ice is likely to collect (such as changes in the roof contour) is ice proofed, either with de-icing tracers or sheathed with a cling-proof plaster surface. Since its opening, the Tower has boasted a perfect record thanks to its carefully conceived design, interior monitoring system, and diligent security force.
Next to the Tower itself, the 'Universal Man,' a 10-foot high by 18-foot wide bronze sculpture, is one of the popular CN Tower subjects for photographers. In addition to this impressive artwork (which signifies earthbound human energies reaching towards a higher knowledge through communications), the outdoor plaza also features a mounted 1000-pound piece of the great Matterhorn mountain, which was presented to the Tower in April 1981 in conunction with the Salute to Switzerland exhibition.
Today, both public and experts from the field of construction come to marvel at the Tower which stands as a testament to human ingenuity and achievement. Its official owner is CN Tower Limited, a subsidiary of Canadian National and part of the CN Hotels, but few will argue when one says it really belongs to Canada. It is fitting that television, the technological wonder that profoundly changed life in the 20th century, spurred the building of the era's tallest freestanding structure.
A Toronto firm prepared the initial design, enlisting the aid of engineering experts the world over. When the tower reached the 1,100-foot mark, the builders made preparations for the SkyPod, a seven-story structure housing two observation decks, a revolving restaurant, a nightclub, and broadcasting equipment. For the last phase of construction, a Sikorsky Skycrane helicopter arrived to install the tower's 335-foot communications mast. Of interest to Torontonians since construction began, the CN tower gained additional fans with the arrival of the helicopter.
Completed in 1975, the tower had cost $57 million to build, a bargain compared with other modern wonders. Engineers established a wind-tolerance standard for the tower of 260 miles an hour, a level well above nature's most extreme demands. Almost twice as tall as the Eiffel Tower and more than three times the height of the Washington Monument, the CN Tower has taken proud ownership of Toronto's skyline, while exorcising the ghosts from its TV sets.


Before starlets were baring all at the beach, male celebrities owned the waves with their mankini bottoms.
You'll also find some cool stuff like frequently asked questions about the Tower, the Tower's history, construction video clip of the Tower, and a calculator to see how many of you it would take to be as heavy or as tall as the World's Tallest Building. At the time, Toronto was reeling from the effects of a major building boom, which had dotted its skyline with monolith buildings. From the initial proposal in 1968, to the final model in 1972 and eventually the Tower itself, which was completed in 1976, the project involved a consortium of experts from around the world.
First, 12 steel and wood brackets, weighing 350 tons had to be systematically lifted, inch by inch, up the sides of the Tower. To assure its strength and quality, the concrete was mixed on the site, continuously checked and tested, then reinforced with a unique system of post-tensioning which produced a strength of 6000 pounds per square inch.
Technically, it is known as a radorne and without its protection, the sensitive microwave dishes which receive the transmissions would be ravaged by the elements. The top of the 'slipform' concrete, 1464 feet, was reached on 22 February 1974 and to that was added a special 16-foot concrete extension which would serve as a base for the transmission mast. As a promotion for the Egg Marketing Board, Patrick Ballie, 17, of Toronto, beat the Guinness Book record for egg dropping by over 500 feet.
Everything from the forces of nature to man-made disasters were considered in the formulation of its design.
To test the Tower's design against this and other extreme wind forces, a special 'wind tunnel,' the first of its kind in North America, was created at the University of Western Ontario.
In addition to the structure, the windows of the Tower, which are armor-plated, were carefully designed for extreme wind tolerance. Every surface which could possibly attract lightning is attached to three copper strips running down the Tower, connected to 42 22-foot grounding rods buried 20 feet below the surface. Created by Canadian artist Geraid Gladstone, it is one of the largest bronze castings ever made and was air-freighted from the Singer Foundry in England in nine sections. While some day, some place, someone might build a Tower higher, the significance of the CN structure and its tremendous contributions will never be diminished.
March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November(the spine shows a little age wear on this issue) and December1987-July, September, October, November and DecemberI only have a small scanner, so i only pictured one magazine at a time and because of time I only pictured a couple of themI go to the post office on Monday, Wednesday and Friday for shipping. From Paul McCartney to Ronald Reagan, these vintage studs were the pioneers of summer eye candy. As a result, the proportions for the Tower were set, with its microwave receivers at 1 1 00 feet and its antenna topping off at the 1815 feet mark. In addition, as an integral part of the populated downtown landscape, the incorporation of public facilities was as sumed from the onset. Consequently, never had a foundation been devised which would bore so deeply into the ground.
The legs of the Tower are hollow, as is its hexagonal core which houses all of the electrical cables and water piping. Fortunately, the answer to dismantling the crane and erecting the enormous antenna came in one solution-'Oiga', a giant Sikorsky helicopter. Made of teflon-coated, fiberglass-rayon fabric, it is strong enough to hold the weight of an average adult male, yet measures a mere one-thirty-second of an inch thick. He dropped a Grade A egg, unscathed, from 1120 feet into a specially-designed net, on 27 July 1979. Within the tunnel, construction models of the Tower were tested under conditions which simulated the maximum wind strength based on the analysis of a 1000-year time frame.
The outside panes are three-eighths of an inch thick and the inside panes are one fourth of an inch thick. One danger designed against in the Tower's construction was 'torsional oscillation'-the tendency of tall structures to twist with the rotational motion of the Earth, just as water twists down a sink drain. Now CN boasted that it would build a-structure more than twice that height-possibly as high as the world-leading Ostankino Tower in Moscow, maybe even higher.


Prohibited by construction and financial limitations, the design gradually evolved into a single Tower. Once in place, one-fifth of a mile above the ground, workmen bolted the brackets to tensioned steel bars and placed concrete in the wooden frames. Reduced to eight sections, the crane was brought swiftly down to earth and the 39 pieces of the antenna (the heaviest weighing eight tons) were lifted into place with remarkable precision.
Its balloon-like shape is the result of inflating the skin to five times its normal size then maintaining constant air pressure. The first person to parachute off the Tower was a member of the construction crew, Bill Eustace, aka 'Sweet William', on 9 November 1975: for his daring, he was discharged.
First, beginning in 1972, an elaborate soil testing operation was put into effect to assess the condition of the bedrock and its reaction to changes in hydros tatic pressure.
Next, a three-foot high concrete compression ring was placed around the outside edge of the brackets to make one strong unit. Situated at the top of the concrete is the 'World's Highest Public Observation Gallery,' the Space Deck. The ability of the CN Tower to wobble under extreme wind conditions was not overlooked either. In the unlikely event of fire, emergency generators, located in the basement, are capable of supplying power for the elevators and other systems, including the emergency fire pumps which can pump water to the top of the Tower at a rate of 500 gallons a minute.
Pre-skyscraper transmission towers were simply not high enough to broadcast over the new obstacles. The first was made with a parachute on 21 Septernber 1979, while shooting a scene for the movie 'Highpoint.' The second, which was conducted for the television show 'That's Incredible,' involved only wire cables to break the fall. Two 10-ton swinging counterweights, mounted on the antenna, ensure that the intentional sway of the Tower never exceeds acceptable levels. A two-story structure, the Space Deck was created by cantilevering a concrete platform around the top edge of the Tower. To mark the Tower's fourth birthday' two mountain climbers, David Smart, 17, and Gerald Banting, 30, attempted an unauthorized climb up the outside of the Tower on 23 June 1980. There's cer tainly not a more exceptional or perhaps safer place in the city from which to view the awesome spectacle of a raging thunderstorm. Next, from the overhang of its roof, a glass wall was suspended, banking inwards at the bottom and completely enclosing the upper story in glass. Once a year, the Tower's staircase are opened to the public, to raise funds for the United Way.
The Tower's microwave equipment is housed in the 'doughnut' collar under its rotunda, which is below the Tower's long needle antenna. In August 1974, work began on the seven-story Skypod which would ultimately house two observation decks.
As a rule, this is an autumn event, with climbers starting their ascent just above the main lobby and concluding at the Skypod. Over 62,000 tons of earth and shale were removed by giant backhoes, digging 50 feet into the ground.
Next, the 22-foot thick concrete and steel foundation was erected on a base of handand machine-smoothed shale. When finished, the Y-shaped foundation contained 9200 cubic yards of concrete, 500 tons of reinforcing steel and 40 tons of thick, tensioning cable.



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