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DESCRIPTION: Shown here are reproductions of an early road map of the imperial highways of the Roman world, covering the area roughly from southeast England to present day Sri-Lanka. This Colmar copy was found by Konrad Celtes (1459-1508), a German poet and scholar for the Emperor Maximilian I and later turned over to Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), Chancellor of Augsburg, in 1508 in Augsburg and has since been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or Peutinger Tables or Itineraries. In its design, the Peutinger Table makes no pretense of showing the whole world or even its major parts in correct proportion. The proportions of the Peutinger Map are such that distances east-west are represented at a much larger scale than distances north-south; for example, Rome looks as though it were nearer to Carthage than Naples is to Pompeii. In the Jansoon edition of the Peutinger Table (1652), the first sheet shows a section of southeastern England protruding from the title cartouche, with the roads and harbors marked. The Colmar manuscript of the Peutinger Tables, also known as Codex Vindobonensis 324, is presently in the National Bibliothek, Vienna and has been divided into sections for preservation. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman miles (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees).
Around the personification of Rome - a female figure on a throne holding a globe, a spear, and a shield - are twelve main roads, each with its name attached, a practice not adopted elsewhere. Ostia is shown with a harbor occupying about one-third of a circle, in a fashion similar to that of miniatures in the early manuscripts of Virgila€™s Aeneid.
The road network is thought to have been based (at least within the empire) on information held by the cursus publicus, responsible for organizing the official transport system set up by Augustus.
The part of the British section of the Peutinger Map that survives is so fragmentary that it covers only a limited area of the southeast, not even including London, and an even smaller area around Exeter.
Owing to the shape of the map, the Nile could not be represented as a long river if it were made to flow northward throughout its course.
Late antiquity is considered as a relatively autonomous historical period, that according to certain scholars is extended from 200 A.D. These maps were used with a multitude of functions, including the use of maps as cadastral and legal records, as aids to travelers, to commemorate military and religious events, as strategic documents, as political propaganda and for academic and educational purposes. The object of this study is focused on the cartographic genre of itineraria picta and more specifically on the Tabula Peutingeriana, a road map prepared in order to show the roads of the empire over a total distance of 104,000 km. According to actual cartographic terminology Tabula Peutingeriana is a typical example of a thematic road map preserving mainly the topology of geographic continuity rather than the conventional cartographic representation.
Depicting in topological consistency the road network and offering travel information to its users (by showing the road network, the settlements, the staging posts, the partial distances, the cities of various type, depending on their size and significance etc. As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol.
The second most important road axis, the Via Egnatia, ran crosswise through the Balkans and provided communications between the Adriatic, the Aegean, and the Propontis, between Rome and Constantinople. The borders of the Roman Empire in his northern regions correspond to the flow of the river Danubius, while the eastern limits correspond to the flow of the Tigris River.
The road network is represented with red distressed (zigzag) line, that denotes the corresponding changes of horses, with distances between stations, expressed in roman miles (milia passus = 1,4815 km) for all the territory.
There exist three cities of the First Level, Roma, Constantinopolis and Antiocheia, represented as female incarnations, Tychai of the cities, that constitute the three capitals a€“ imperial residences of the Empire.
There exist six Second Level cities, which are represented in the form of fortresses with walls, bastions and deferring number of towers. Most of the pictures represent Third Level cities, provincial capitals (metropoleis) and important commercial centers (Figure 7).
The network of settlements is supplemented with the insertion of stations - mansiones and points of change of horses - mutationes that constitutes the intermediary turning-points between the various central places. A number of settlements are represented according to particular uses and functions of space that are attributed with the particular characteristics of the shells that support the function. There exist in total 33 temples located usually in colonies and points of local adoration, for example in the Balkans (Ad Dianam), in Africa, (Ad Herculem, Temple Jovis, Ad Mercurium, Temple Veneris), while in Egypt can be found three temples of Serapis and three of Isis.
The defensive function is present in all the representations of cities, a fact that is considered in the context of a period after the imperial pax romana.
Recreational functions are represented with thermal baths, portrayed with square structures, with a closed facade and in the center a swimming pool. Lighthouses are found in Alexandria, Egypt, in Chrissopolis [Uskudar] and in Jovisurius in the entry of Euxeinus Pontus. The iconographic system of the Tabula Peutingeriana is based upon a hierarchical structure that represents the settlements network, with a process of symbolic generalizations and personifications, in the period of the successors of Constantine the Great.
The reliability of map has been placed under contestation by many scholars, in regard to the precision of settlements locations and distances that represent. Albu, Emily, a€?Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp.
Drakoulis, Dr Dimitris, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol.
Fowden a€“ Athanasiadi P., a€?The successors of Great Constantinea€? (in Greek), Istoria Ellinikou Ethnous.
Salway, Benet, a€?The Nature and Genesis of the Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman milesA  (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees).
As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis,A  a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol.
At 12:30 a€?Cheta€?, from a€?Over the Road Toursa€? picked us up in a twenty seat tour van. The city itself is enormous, stretching some 40 miles in across and encompassing several large mountains. We enjoyed a few hours of shopping, then stopped at a Starbucks for some of that strong nectar.Then, we walked back along the boulevard to the Doubletree, enjoying the sunshine and warm temperatures.
Frank Lloyd Wright first came here, in 1937 at age 72, to found a Winter sanctum, to cure his ailing lungs.He ,his wife and acolytes camped in tents for four years, until the prarie-style masterpiece took shape and was completed.
The foundation that runs the property is a functioning architectural firm, that admits 11 architectural students a year to mentor with working architects. It was late afternoon and we were tiring, in spite of the arhchitectural brilliance of Taliesin West. We met Jerry and Muriel from Boston, cousins Michelle and Jane from New Jersey and a whole passel of friendly Canadians.
It was sunny and nice out, with an azure sky, as we continued up along Oakcreek Canyon along Rte.#89-A. The line of cars, waiting just to enter the Grand Canyon, was an hour long.We sat patiently, awaiting our turn.
We walked along the narrow trail, looking out some ten miles across to the North Rim of the Canyon, 1,000 feet higher in elevation. We walked back to the Maswik lodge and had coffee and danish in the small lodge.Everyone else was up and about. We were approaching the Glen Canyon Damn.The huge project had created a 200 mile long Lake Powell and filled the huge Glen Canyon to the top with the water from the Green, the Escalante, the Colorado, the little Dirty and the San Juan Rivers, over a 17 year period.
We sat with a Canadian couple and Kim Durham, chatting while everyone trooped up to the breakfast bar.
We took a side road into the a€?Gouldings Trading Post.a€? It is a complex of gift shops, trading posts, a small museum, two dining rooms and a small hotel. Mary and I walked through the museum, the Dukea€™s shrine, the gift shop and then looked all around us at the towering mesas and wierd stone pillars, all covered in a dusty vermillion paint. After lunch, we saddled up in the back of two very large pick-ups for a tour of the valley. Kanab, a small metropolis of eight thousand souls, had been an outpost for the early Mormons, who ran their buisinesses under a a€?United ordera€? concept, something like a benevolent socialism, where a€?each got according to his need and gave according to his ability.a€? I found it interesting to see this pocket or socialism so deeply embedded in the American West.
The country side was getting more snow-covered as we rose in altitude towards Bryce Canyon. The kids from Florida were laughing and throwing snowballs, unused to playing in the white powder. At a€?Sunset Pointa€? we saw a vast panorama of bright orange hoodoos, with alabaster tops.
We stopped by the Zion Lodge for breakfast and then returned to our room to put our bags out and prep for the day.
The terrain was getting flatter and browner as we approached the desert mecca of Las Vegas.The passengers were stirring with anticipation at so fabled a destination.
After a€?T.Ia€? as it is now called, we walked to the Mirage, former home of Sigfried, Roy and their Tigers. After breakfast, we walked down the strip towards the Luxor Casino, that huge pyramid and assemblage of all things Egyptian. We caught an early dinner in the Zanzibar cafe, at the Alladin, before setting our for a walk along the strip to the Luxor and our show for the evening. Afterwards, we walked back along the crowded strip, amazed as always at the sheer throngs of people streaming by.
250 the original tables were, themselves, copied from a larger original map of the first century A.D. After Peutingera€™s death, two of the twelve sections of the Colmar manuscript were engraved and published in 1591 with annotated text and place-names taken from the sections reproduced. It is merely a graphic compendium of mileages or basically an itinerary route map with the roads delineated predominantly by straight lines, often with curious jogs.
The archetype may well have been on a papyrus roll, designed for carrying around in a capsa [tool box].
France, Spain, and North Africa with roads, cities and some prominent buildings are also depicted, along with major Mediterranean islands being Corsica and Sardinia.
Its date of transcription is 12th or early 13th century, but it has long been recognized as a copy of an ancient map.
It is not a military map, though it could have been used for military purposes but the words of Vegetius give an indication of its possible function. Constantinople is represented by a helmeted female figure seated on a throne and holding in her left hand a spear and a shield. This system, extended under the late empire to troop movements, relied very largely on staging posts at more or less regular intervals; couriers traveled an average of fifty Roman miles (74 km) a day. This can be well illustrated by a name in Italy otherwise recorded only (in corrupt form) in the Ravenna cosmography. Instead it is made to rise in the mountains of Cyrenaica and to flow a€?eastwarda€? to a point just above the delta.
According to the military manual of Vegetius (383a€“395), military commanders possessed itineraria that not only were written (scripta) but also contained drawings in color (picta). Also, the display of world maps was part of an ideology of extended rule, used both by the emperor Theodosius II at Constantinople, in the fifth century, and later by Pope Zachary II in the Lateran Palace at Rome, in the eighth.
It contains the network the main roads (about 100,000 km), the network of settlements, of overnight stations (mansiones) and stations of horse changing that were found in the routes that crossed the late empire. The strongly deformed shape, mainly in terms of latitude, does not preserve any rational cartographic scale or orientation in any of Tabulaa€™s twelve sheets.
In fragment XI, westwards the Euphrates River we find the text Areae fines Romanorum [end of roman limits] that is followed by representations of Mesopotamia, Persia and India.
Exception constitute the regions of Galatia, measured in galloroman leyges (leugae = 2,222 km), the regions of the Persian empire in parasangas, (6 km) and India expressed where the distance are in Indian miles (2 km). These are: Aquila (with 7 towers and a big residential complex), Ravenna (5 towers), Thessalonica (5 towers), Nikomedeia (8 towers), Nicaea (6 towers and a temple or basilica) and Ankara (7 towers) (Figure 6). The basic functional uses, which incorporate corresponding social practices and are drawn with their shells are: 1) religious, 2) political, 3) defensive, 4) recreational and 5) remaining uses. In Italy 15 structures are found, in the Balkans five, in the Asia Minor and in Syria one each, while in Africa there are eight such thermal complexes (Figure 13). At the top are found three first level cities (Rome, Constantinople, Antiocheia) and then follow six second level cities (Aquilla, Ravenna, Thessalonica, Nicomedeia, Nicaea, Ancara).
The administrative organization and the provinces of late empire are not present and one would have to seek information in other texts of late antiquity (Laterculus Veronensis, Notitia Dignitatum and Hierocles Synekdimos) in order to have a picture of bigger administrative divisions. A., Romea€™s World, the Puetinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 357pp. We had tried to check in on-line, with Southwest Airlines, after midnight , and had no success.
Two pools, tennis courts, exercise facilities and a restaurant and bar make this a comfortable place to stay.
Several shiny new bank buildings, a huge sports arena and convention center compliment the state capitol building complex to make an attractive downtown area. Camelback, South and newly named Piesowa Mountain, which was renamed from Squaw Mountain, to honor the first Native American woman soldier recently killed in Iraq dominate the skyline.
It was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and has two eighteen hole golf courses on its grounds. The concierge had recommended a nearby Southwestern restaurant, called the a€?Tequila Grille.a€? It was a great find. We were headed for the very pricey a€?Fashion Island Mall.a€? The sun was shining and it was warm and in the 60a€™s out. We had decided to make a pilgrimage to Frank Llloyd Wrighta€™s a€?Taliesin West a€? this afternoon.
Low slung and angular, the house, in Wright tradition, seems like it is part of the surrounding land itself. First year students are required to sleep in tents, for a year, to get the feel of the land and the wind and their relationship to the buildings. We had salmon and a glass or two of cabernet, as we chatted and became acquainted with a table-full of fellow travellers.Everyone seemed amiable enough and would prove to be good travelling companions over the course of the next week.
Most of the town lies along both sides of Rte.#179 and extends a mile or so along the road. We packed our bags and put them outside the door.Then, we set off for a sunrise walk to the Canyona€™s rim. Every time, the canyon came into view an appreciative a€?ooha€? and a€?ahha€? rose from all of us. We drove across the bridge, admiring the chasm beneath us and the huge expanse of the damn itself. The original Gouldings had come to Monument Valley in the early twentieth century and set up shop.
Mary and I elected to wash off the trail dust and enjoyed a welcome shower before venturing over to the dining room. An all female city council and mayor had first appeared here in the late nineteenth century and done a good job for the town too. We could see ranges of snow capped mountains along the skyline.Winter hangs long and departs slowly in these parts. In brief, after an uplifting had raised the Colorado Plateau, from beneath an inland ocean to the 8,500 foot level, rivers and winds had eroded a huge portion of the upraised Colorado plateau, shaping it in the form of a Grand staircase, that runs from here, in Bryce Canyon at the 8,500 foot level, down through Utah, Arizona and Nevada and finally reaching the floor of the Grand Canyon at the 3,000 foot level. A peak-roofed,wooden sided, two-story dining room, reception area and gift shop are flanked by several two story wooden lodges with guest rooms.
We waved to several of our fellow travellers and then were seated by a€?Jonathana€? at a nice table for six. We crossed over the time zone into Pacific Standard Time and all set our watches back one hour to accomodate the change. The sidewalks were awash with families and hordes of young people, streaming up and down the strip. We stood patiently, until the water falls in front erupted into the controlled fire of a small volcano.
We walked back to the Alladdin and decided to catch some sun on their sixth floor pool deck. At the Alladin, we bought some quarters and fed the video poker machines for an hour, enjoying a glass of wine, as we threw our money away. Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BN patch out, phase 1), Conrail (Pennsylvania RR patch out, phase 2), Southern Ry. New paint schemes: Archer Daniels Midland (TLDX reporting marks), Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Continental Grain Co. See the list below for descriptions on a wide array of places to visit and experience during your visit to the Central Texas area.
There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically). A second edition by Abraham Ortelius was published in Antwerp in 1598 as part of his Theatri Orbis Terrarum Parergon which contained eight of the twelve sections of the Table.
Such dating is suggested by the three personifications placed on Rome, Constantinople (labeled Constantinoplis, not Byzantium) and Antioch; and it fits in well enough with biblical references on the map. The second page, comprising Segments III and IV, shows Italy with surrounding islands and landforms bordering adjacent seas. In his will of 1508, the humanist Konrad Celtes of Vienna left to Konrad Peutinger (in whose hands it had been since the previous year) what he called Itinerarium Antonini.
They suggest that, whether or not the term itinerarium pictum [painted itinerary] was in current use, it is a convenient phrase for this unique map. But owing to the personification the city surround is formally shown as a circle, enlarged in proportion to the very narrow width of the Italian peninsula. Nearby is a high column (rather than a lighthouse) surmounted by the statue of a warrior, presumably Constantine the Great. Apart from the personifications, cartographic signs include representations of harbors, altars, granaries, spas, and settlements. The most northerly place extant in Britain appears as Ad Taum; but it is very far removed from the river Tay. On the Gulf of Naples, marked as being six Roman miles from Herculaneum and three miles each from Pompeii and Stabiae [Castellammare di Stabia], is shown a large building with the name Oplont[i]s. The delta itself is shown in less compressed form from south to north than most parts of the Peutinger Map.
A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.
Despite its overall deformation, the distances, at least between the main cities, are defined with sufficient accuracy. The deformations of the coastline course and of the geo-shapes in Tabula makes today its reading unfamiliar and complicated for the non-experts, but the thematic information contained is considered of great significance, mostly for the depiction and the semantics of the ancient road net- works in late roman antiquity. From that port, travelers crossed by sea to Dyrrachion and Apollonia and then on to Clodiana, passing various stations on the way around Lake Ohrid to the north, entering Macedonia toward Thessalonike.
A number of natural characteristics are represented also in graphic form, for example, mountain ranges (Monte Taurus), rivers (fl. We have to note the absence of Alexandria which is represented with the use of a big lighthouse as symbol, but without a name, fact that is considered a copyista€™s error.
The first, exterior harbor that later was used only as space of reception of boats they were separated from the interior with a peninsula with the imperial Palatium, the theatre, the baths and the Forum. Petrum, close to Rome, a reference to the Basilica that was built in the Vatican hill (Mons Vaticanus), by Constantine the Great and his mother Helen in the place of Circus Neronianus, inaugurated in the 326 A.D. Third level cities are numerous and constitute the provincial capitals, followed by groups of settlements with military, commercial, administrative, religious and recreational functions (walled cities, commercial centers, public administrative buildings, temples, thermal installations), while at the bottom of the hierarchy belong the towns (mansio) and villages (mutatio).
However, at the settlements level, we consider that the map represents symbolically, but with precision, the hierarchy of network, fact that is particularly useful for the study of regional and urban organization of late antiquity.
There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically).A  No copies of the original have survived but a copy of it, now in Vienna, was purportedly made in 1265 by a monk at Colmar who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and who seems to have omitted nothing important that appeared in the original. A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.A  The digital copy of the Biblioteca Augustana emanates from 1888 Konrad Millera€™s publication.
Given our tight time frame today, we were apprehensive about boarding our flight later this afternoon. Green Park areas, several restored 19th century homes and a general aura of clean prosperity greeted us as we drove around the bustling city.
They then start to sprout a€?arms.a€? The Cacti can grow to enormous size, live without water for up to seven years and exist for over 300 years.
Casual and comfortable, we had some Dos Equis beer and a plate of Que Sedias that were wonderful A basket of Mexican corn chips and several tangy dips were also great to the tatse. Sited on the brow of a desert bluff, (Taliesin is Welsh for shining brow) just below the crest of a nearby Mount McDowell, you can look out over 90 miles across the desert and seeTuscon,on a clear day. Second year students have to design and build their own quarters.They also work the kitchens, to be familiar with what design elements should be incorporated in well designed kitchens. Kim Durham introduced herself as the Collette representative and gave us an overview of the week ahead of us.
We watched the desert scenery flash by, enjoying the various flora and the remarkable a€?green carpeta€? on the desert floor.The area had enjoyed bountiful rains this Winter and the desert was blooming with flora.
They were replaced by scrubby pinon trees , thin ponderosa pines and short, flat, prickly-pear cacti. Jewlery shops, art galleries and the entire array of tourist support structure lay waiting for us.We browsed several of the stores and bought some decent Indian jewelry. We were ascending onto the Colorado Plateau, at the 7,000 foot level, as we traversed the winding switchbacks. We saddled up and drove over to move into building #9, room 6904.The rooms were pine-panelled and basic, but clean and had all the amenties.
Whole families took up tables for eight and ten and were busily going through the various psycho dramas that families endure at dinner time on vacation. We stopped for a brief time at the visitora€™s center.They have all manner of schema on the dama€™s functioning and its construction.
They were big enough to have a knife and fork in their fins, as they wolfed down the floating cheesbits.


I think the hotel manager has to kick some butt here to get ready for the coming tourist season. The practice of Polygamy of course is the nettle that stuck in the rest of the countrya€™s craw.
We left Rubya€™s and drove higher into Bryce Canyon.The snow pack was much deeper here, often several feet thick. There are vast coal deposits there, a source of much wealth for Navahos in the future, should they elect to expolit their most sacred site. Each had on snow shoes, with iron pitons attached to the bottoms, for gripping the slick ice. Along the way, weirdly beautiful shapes of all sizes and colors had been created by the forces of erosion.
Several sheep and cattle farms sit along the fast running Virgin River here, giving the area a visage of quiet prosperity. The traffic was building heavily as we entered Las Vegas.The place grows yearly by leaps and bounds, reinventing it self in the process.
We walked down to the Venetian Casino and sat down for a light supper and a glass of wine in a small cafe, bordering the canal. The sidewalks were thickly jammed in front of the Casino, with other griswalds waiting to watch the show which appears hourly. At one point ,during the performance, giant rolls of crepe paper pass over the head of the entire audience.
Some musician had finally securred his gig in Vegas, even if it was only playing on the pool deck of a casino. A kindly businesman shared his cab with us, or we would have been waiting at the airport still. Die-cast metal frame, separately applied plastic and etched-metal parts, lowered or raised hitches, and Kadee magnetic knuckle couplers. Accurail HO scale kit custom-decorated for the Chicago & North Western Historical Society. Please give us a call for more information on any place you in which you would like to know more. Numerous other engraved reproductions were made until 1753 when it was finally reproduced in its entirety. The map does not conform to the rules of any projection, nor is it possible to apply a constant scale to determine distances from place to place; for these measurements we have to refer to the figures written in by the author. In the extant map a north-south road tends to appear at only a slightly different angle from an east-west one, and distances are calculated not by the mapa€™s scale but by adding up the mileages of successive staging posts. This was not justified as a title: it is indeed a road map, but not connected with the Antonine emperors and different from the Antonine Itineraries. The distances are normally recorded in Roman miles, but for Gaul they are in leagues, for Persian lands in parasangs, and for India evidently in Indian miles. The Via Triumphalis is indicated as leading to a church of Saint Peter; the words ad scm [sanctum] Petrum are given in large minuscules on the medieval copy. Antioch has a similar female personification, perhaps originating in a statue of the Tyche [fortune] of the city, together with arches of an aqueduct or possibly of a bridge.
This name, however, really consists of the ends of [Ven]ta [Icenor]um (Caistor Saint Edmund, Norwich), and the only unusual feature is ad, which may have belonged to an adjacent name. The distributaries of the Nile are shown to have many islands, three of them marked with temples of Serapis, three with temples of Isis, while the roads are somewhat discontinuous. The corpus of late antique cartography comprises two categories of sources: sources in written form (itineraria scripta) and depicted documents (itineraria picta). The map depicts the road network in the Roman Empire, almost 70,000 roman miles long which equals roughly 104,000 km of roads length and sea routes. This road was the continuation of the great military highway that began on the shores of the North Sea, ascended the valley of the Rhine, passed through Milan and Aquileia and then descended the valley of the Drava to cross the Sava River at Sirmium [Mitrovica]. It passed through Lychnidos and Herakleia Lynkestis (Bitola) and continued passing Lake Vegoritis and descending the upper valley of the Aliakmon to Pella.
The interior harbor was delimited by the deposits of unloading of boats and a gallery (porticus), which were renovated by Constantine the Great. The presence of Jerusalem in the map is of small importance, as the text next to her, that a€?first was called Jerusalem, but now Aelia Capitolinaa€?, makes reference to the emperor Adrian who gave this name to the city. Developing further the information it contains, scholars generally think that the Tabula Peutingeriana, despite the inaccuracy of the design, despite the fact that it does not obey to any type of projectional system, still constitutes an epitome of geographic knowledge of late antiquity, knowledge that is precious for the study of the historical geography of the Roman Empire. Historisch-geographischer AbriAY ihres mittelalterlichen Staates im A¶stlichen Mittelmeerraum (Byz. We were surprised to be able to sail through everything and make the a€?Ba€? sectiona€? of our Southwest flight.
It was the beginning of a delightful caloric onslaught that would stretch out over the next 10 days and engulf us in some memorable tastes and aromas. The entire area is set in the huge Sonorran Desert that stretches for 2,000 square miles all around us. Wright also held many soirees at the school, so that prospective students would become accustomed to socializing with wealthy patrons and learn how to secure commissions for work.The man thought of everything.
Most of the rest of the gang had just arrived, in the last few hours, and looked pretty tired. The huge red sandstone expanses of Bell Rock, Cathedral Buttes, Snoopy and Thumb Peak all stood like vermillion lamp posts in the morning sun. Then we settled into the a€?Canyon Breeze,a€? on their open back deck for lunch, joining Gerry and Muriel. The vistas, back across the valley, were awesome, not comfortable for acrophobics on the narrow road. Cars were parked everywhere along the roadsways, while their occupants walked the rim path. Gerry, Muiriel, Mary and I settled into a small booth and ordered up a martini, manhattan and glasses of wine to take off the chill. We rode back up to the lodge, then returned to our rooms for a half hour break, before we were to set off, in the landcruiser for Monument Valley, deep in the Navaho Reservation. Harry Goulding had taken pictures of the colorful Buttes and traveled to Hollywood, in the early 1930a€™s.He camped in director John Forda€™s office, until he got in to show him these great vistas. Next, we droped by the diner, where efficient and pleasant Navaho waitresses serves us some tasty a€?Navaho Tacos.a€? We much enjoyed them.
We chilled out, had a glass of Mondavi Cabernet and enjoyed a decent, if very slowly served meal. We browsed through Dennya€™s., had some good coffee and delicious maple fudge and then took pictures of ourselves standing in front of a large wooden bear and a replica of an old stage coach.
You could but look and silently admire them as they sat there in quiet stillness and let the wind and the snow swirl through and across them. And then, we came upon the first a€?window.a€? An enormous a€?windowa€? had been carved from the rock and looked out over a vast canyon of stone.
They were pine-panelled and pleasant enough, with views to the Virgin River just across the grassy entrance way. We watched a parade of gondoliers singing for their tourist fares, as the poled up and down the small canal. We entered the Luxor and retrieved our tickets for the evening performance of a€?Blue Man Group.a€? ($105 each) A tram took us back to the storied castles of the Excalibur and we then walked along the strip, past New York, the Monte Carlo and other palaces. You find your self pulling madly on the crepe covers and throwing it onto the seats beneath you, in a mad frenzy. We managed to get to our castle in time to change the clocks back for the Spring time change.
Also the Table was not apparently designed for military use, but instead gives prominence to trading centers, mineral springs, places of pilgrimage, mountain chains (in profile) and in three great cities (Rome, Constantinople and Antioch) set three rulers, believed to represent the sons of Constantine enthroned as symbols of a tripartite empire. 330 as a new Rome on the site of Byzantium, Antioch was recognized as the important bastion against the Parthians.
A royal figure, probably a Pope, or perhaps an allegory of Christ the King is portrayed as representative of the city along with a building which resembles St. It was first published in 1591 by Markus Welser, a relative of the Peutingersa€™ and since 1618 n has generally been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or translations of that phase.
Nearby is the park of Daphne, dedicated to Apollo and other gods and famous for its natural beauty and as a leisure center. But since 1964 a large palace, which probably belonged to Neroa€™s empress PoppA¦a, has been excavated at Torre Annunziata, and it seems to authenticate the detail on the map. On the Sinai desert we find the words desertum ubi quadraginta annis erraverunt filii Israelis ducente Moyse [the desert where the children of Israel who wandered for forty years guided by Moses], and there are other biblical references. The itineraria scripta, compiled in Latin, were works designed to provide assistance for travelers. From there it crossed the Axios and the Echedoros (Gallikos) River before arriving at Thessalonica.
With simpler representations are portrayed the passages between Europe and Asia, in present day Istanbul: Sycas in Europe), Chrisoppolis, in the Asiatic side (Figure 10). It becomes comprehensible that in the period of mapa€™s creation, Christianity, even if present, is not found in the center of interest, in the context of later roman empire.
The cacti, flowers and other flora were a delight to us, just coming from the frozen tundra of Buffalo.
Early city leaders had built 130 miles of aqueducts to carry water in from the Salt and Colorado Rivers, in the nearby White Mountains, to nurture the city. We enjoyed our narrated tour through the small and nautically designed living and sleeping quarters, admirng the many unique architectural features that brand the man a genius. We could see the white expanse of snow covered Mt.Humphrey, far along the skyline in the San Francisco peaks. We enjoyed their rust-red beauty and took photos of ourselves with the rock formations as backdrops.
In a brief time we reboarded the bus for the short hop over to the Bright Angel Lodge, sitting right on the Canyona€™ s Rim.
A pleasant waiter, from Providence, Rhode Island, served us up some decent River Trout, steaks and wondefrul deserts. It was quiet as we walked.Only a few other brave souls were out and about in the morning cold.
The Navaho Reservation stretches across 27,000 acres in parts of three states and encompasses mountain ranges, deserts and rivers. You first encounter the massive red sandstone pillars of a€?stagecoach butte, a€? a€?the two mittens,a€? a€?rabbits earsa€? and many more colorful stone monuments.
Ford was so taken with the area, that he, John Wayne, Henry Fonda and Ward Bond filmed several classic Western epics in the valley. The Utah area, comprised formerly of native Paiutes and Utes tribes had first been scouted by the same Spanish priests, who recconoitered Arizona, Fathers Escalante and Dominguez in the late 1700a€™s.
You can but gaze intently and try to capture the images in your minds eye, as you enjoy the vast panaroma before you.
In that the Emerald Grotto trail wound upwards for several hundred feet in elevation, we drew a by.
We would love to visit here for a longer time and spend a few days wandering the hiking trails. We noticed the graceful, slim brown envelope of the new a€?Wynn Casino.a€? It would open in a few weeks. We walked back along the boluevard to the Bellagio and stood waiting for the hourly a€?fountains dance.a€? In a small lake out front, computer controlled fountain jets orchestrate an hourly dance of fountain sprays, accompanied by classical music. For $19 each, we sat down to coffee and an enormous selection, of every type of food available, in the many stations in the huge buffet.
We browsed through the pricey boutiques, admiring the casual opulence on display and wondering who actually buys all this stuff?
We put our bags in the check room and walked next door to the Paris Casino complex, where we walked a bit and then settled into sit and watch the throngs go by. Five-pole skew-wound can motor, metal grab irons and lift rings, and Proto-Max magnetic knuckle couplers. Etched stainless steel running boards, separately applied details, and McHenry magnetic knuckle couplers.
Started in Austin in 1984 as PC's Limited by Michael Dell, the company has grown into one of the largest publicly-traded companies in the world and a leader in the personal computer and computer services industry. Put the suggestion that this fourth century archetype was based on a much earlier map would account for the inclusion of Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Pompeii, which had been destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. Peters Basilica (or the personage could be that of one of Constantinea€™s sons as previously mentioned).
Even though the temple of Apollo was burned down in 362, there were many other temples, so that this is not necessarily a guide to the dating. The sign for a spa is an ideogram of a roughly square building with an internal courtyard, often with a gabled tower at each end of the near side. Or again, a much earlier discovery near Aquileia in 1830 appears to correspond to an entry on the Peutinger Map. There is also an area in central Asia labeled Hic Alexander responsum accepit usq[ue] quo Alexander [Here Alexander was given the oracular reply: a€?How far, Alexander?a€?]. They recorded a network of itineraries over a vast area and listed the cities and stations on the routes that crisscrossed the empire, together with the distances between them.
Then it followed the Lakes Koroneia and Volve before continuing to Apollonia and Amphipolis. The fact that Britannia, Spain and the western part of Africa are missing, leads scholars to suppose that part of the Tabula has been lost. Someone from Collette Tours was supposed to greet us at the airport and transport us to the Doubletree Hotel in nearby Scottsdale. We walked across the busy boulevard and headed through a subdivision towards Camelback Mountain in the distance. We had called the local tour company and arranged for a Phoenix city tour in the early afternoon.
Paul Harvey and Glen Campbell still called these impressive haciendas and faux Roman Villas home. Row after row of shops, like Nieman-Marcus, Nordstroms, Gucci and dozens of other fashion names command your attention. He had a feel for the land and thought of the house as a ship sailing on an ocean of desert. A huge landcruiser, from a€?Tour America West,a€? was parked out in front of the hotel, presumably our a€?ridea€? for the next week. Snoopy,a€? and several other red sandstone creations, in the noon day sun.These are the real attractions of the area.
The bus took us out of the park and drove through Grand Canyon Village to the small airpark outside town. The locals were hoping that the heavy Winter snows and ensuing Spring run off would put back another 50 feet of water into the huge Canyon. They are varied in shape and a dusty vermilion in color.You can read images into them like you do when staring at the clouds. I can see even now, the a€?Dukea€? charging at the head of a cavalry troop, or riding long, lonely days with Jeff Chandler in a€?The Searchers.a€? Every time that I see these great epics again, I will think of Monument Valley and smile. Each yeah an entire hillside, with hundreds of actors, draws tens of thousands of tourists there to watch a four-day pageant, acting out in light and song, the history of the mormons.
Then, the Mormons came to this forbidding land in the mid 1800a€™s to develop it as a mining and agricultural complex, which it remains today. The casino was featuring a small impressionist collection of Moneta€™s and works by Sissler, Pissaro and Renoir in its gallery. We sat for a time, at the end of the mall, waiting for the hourly performance of the a€?talking Roman staues.a€? They performed as they always do on the hour, never tiring of their own preprogrammed ribald comments and hearty laughter.
The company employs almost 90,000 people worldwide, with over 14,000 local employees.Dell Diamond 3400 E.
At the turn of the fifth - sixth centuries the world ocean was added and improvements were made to the seas; at about the same time, the influence of this map appears in a work by an anonymous cosmographer of Ravenna (#203), who made use of some new material recently added to his source. Further south is the city of Naples drawn inland, next to it is a dark mound which might represent the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Inexplicably the word tabula has been translated a€?tablea€? rather than a€?picturea€? or a€?mapa€? in popular usage. There are fifty-two such buildings represented, of which twenty-eight are at places specifically called Aquae; in some other cases there is reason to think that a place so denoted had prominent baths. A large bathing establishment, mentioned also by the elder Pliny, was discovered on the lower reaches of the river Isonzo.
Perhaps these ample descriptions, whether Christian or pagan, were added on otherwise empty space about the fifth or sixth century A.D. The Itinerarium of Antoninus deals with the land and sea routes from western into Eastern Europe, from Gadeira (Cadiz, SW Spain) to Caesarea in Palestine and from the Crimea to Alexandria.
After that it crossed the lower course of the Strymon River and the north slopes of Mount Pangaion on its way to Philippoi, after which it headed south toward the sea again, reaching it at Neapolis (Kavala). Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman, 7-9 April 1997 (SBF Collectio Maior 40), Jerusalem 1999, p.
79 and not rebuilt, except for parts of Pompeii.A  It is also perhaps easier, on this supposition, to see why certain roads are omitted, such as the major routes through the Parthian empire mentioned in the Mansiones ParthicA¦ [Parthian Stations] of Isidorus of Charax.
The Army Corps of Engineers had turned it into lush parkland and a golf course, much enhancing the area. Novel touches, like an acousitcally perfect recital hall, and reflected light everywhere kept our attention riveted to the house and the tour guide. We walked along the rim, past the Bright Angel Lodge, Look Out Point Lodge and a few other early structures, some now undergoing rennovation, enjoying the solitude and the light effects as the sun hit the far canyon walls.
A heavy magnezium content colored some sands green, iron dyed them red and sulfur, a yellow to give the far away desert floor a multi colored hue in its vast expanse. The Vermillion Bluffs, Echo Bluff and Navaho Montain all crowded our skyline and drew our appreciative glances. Carrot cake and coffee finished off this lovely repast, as we dined quietly, enjoying the momentary lull in the pace. I remember well these scenes, from the many times I had watched the Western classics.And now, I was here amidst them. The terrain is hilly from erosion and the roads earthen and rough, with no improvements.The spiky chapparal and sage didna€™t do much to hold down the dry, red dust that coated everything and everyone.
Kim put on a video of a€?October Sky.a€? We watched it during the ride back, our thoughts remembering what we had seen, and realizing that we would never this way walk again. The viewers were into the window surprise, as we flashed through the dark and winding cocoon of bored rock. It was a mind shift for us, to go from the grandeur of erosive stone to the manufactured brilliance of the enormous casinos on the Las Vegas Strip. They had some interaction or other and, with lighting and sound effects, one of the huge ships sunk into the small lagoon. For $20 each, we wandered through the crowded gallery and admired several of Moneta€™s dusty mauve works of Cathedrals and seascapes. It is actually interesting and enjoyable, if you let yourself get into the madcap performance.
Since the Ravenna cosmographer names a certain Castorius as the author of his source in connection with material also found in the Tabula Peutingeriana, it has been inferred by early historians that this was the makera€™s name for the original.
Segments V and VI illustrate the eastern Mediterranean by prominently showing the Grecian archipelago and present-day Turkey and Crete. It is now time to call it the a€?Peutinger Mapa€? to avoid any misconception that the original image was somehow carved on a table or was like a statistical table.
365-66 all three personified cities were important, since the pretender Procopius had his seat of power in Constantinople, Valentinian I in Rome and his brother Valens in Antioch. There are also in the Peutinger Map places with cartographic signs for granaries, denoted as rectangular roofed buildings.
This is probably the place given the cartographic sign for a spa, with the words Fonte Timavi [spring of the river Timavus]. In several areas research is in progress combining fieldwork with study of the Peutinger Map and of the history of place-names. It must have taken its final form between 280 and 290 and is thought to be based on the figures provided by the department responsible for the cursus publicus, the roman imperial road office. After Neapolis, the Via Egnatia headed northeast, through Akontisma (3 km from modern Nea Karvali) and turned inland to Topeiros, where the Nestos River was crossed. Luckily there were only five of us on the tour, so we could spread out and minimize the noisy and cramped seats. Huge forests, high mesas and mountain ranges, with suguaro cacti everywhere, are beautiful. Crowds of kids were headed to the Cinemas and more crowds of locals were off work for Good Friday.This is a very busy place, especially during the Summer months, when the outside temps can reach and stay in the 100-plus temperature ranges for weeks on end.
We were only to be 33, so it promised not to be as crowded and claustriphobic as some we have experienced. One intrepid female was already sitting on a rock face meditating on the rising sun.Another couple read their bible as they looked out over the canyon. We ogled the Canyon from its eastern end and enjoyed the shadings and sculptings of the canyona€™s walls.High above us, a giant condor floated on the heated air currents rising from the canyon walls.
Finally, we arrived outside of Bryce Canyon and stopped at the very large and comfortable a€?Rubya€™s Complex.a€? Conference center, lodge, diner, gift store, provisioner and a€?old towna€? amusement center, Rubya€™s has everything.
And then, we emerged into an even more fantastic lanscape.The Virgin River had carved the canyon into weirdly shaped formations.


Interesting as it had once had been, we now found the whole show somewhat tacky and inconsequential, compared to the physical grandeur that we had experienced during this last week. We had coffee and muffins, in a small cafe, and then walked back into the casino area, to throw some more money into the video poker machines at Caesara€™s. New version adds the “Ops” package, which features new concepts, devices, windows, displays, and dialogs for setting up layouts and simulating freight traffic. Home of the Triple AAA Pacific Coast League Minor League, Round Rock Express baseball team. The overall form of the Colmar edition, which is the basic form of the Tabula as it has reached us today, must have been fixed at this period, about A.D. The seventh Segment shows Cyprus, present-day Saudi Arabia, a large allegorical representation of the Holy City, and the area southeast to Mesopotamia.
The alternative naming of the Peutinger Map as the a€?world map of Castoriusa€? has met with very little support. But in fact, although Valens set out for Antioch, he was diverted to fight Procopius and he cannot be correctly associated with the last-named city. Its fresh waters by the sea were regarded as an unusual phenomenon and obviously worth mapping. Then continued eastward along the coast to Traianopolis and through Heraclea arrived to Constantinople (Figure 3). To the political and economic incentives was now added the desire of the pilgrims of the new Christian world to travel east to the Holy Land. We ogled the Grand Cassas stretched out before us, in neat rows, like small movie sets in the desert.
Much of Arizona is federal land (54%) Another 17% of its land is on native American reservations. We laughed, thinking of doing a a€?Chevy Chase.a€? (standing and looking out across the canyon for 30 seconds, then walking back to the bus) It was a scene from National Lampoona€™s vacation and we mention it often when we are touring. The place does that to you, brings you back to the things elemental like nature and religion.
For $10 each, we sat through a stomach lurching visual of an aerial ride over and through the Canyon.The photography was magnificent.
When the bus came to a crossing, the lead cow stopped the ones behind it, until we crossed over the road. We arrived in Kanab (a€?willow basketa€? in Paiute) and stopped at a very prosperous a€?Dennya€™s Wigwam.a€? Besides the requisite jewlery, Dennya€™s carries an expensive line of Western clothing. Brigham Young took over the reigns of the religion, which exists and prospers today as the Church of the Latter Day Saints. We wandered around the huge gift store and adjacent art gallery, admiring the western and native trinkets and baubles.Except for the pricey sculptings and paintings in the Gallery, things probably hadna€™t changed much from the time when beef jerky and oxen feed were the staples. The crowds were still building as we walked across one of the overhead crosswalks to the east side of the boulevard. I find that if you step back about 12 feet from these works, and catch them at about a 45 degree angle, they snap into sharp focus from their diffused frontal perspective. I was tiring and had come down with some malady or other from breathing all the recycled air during the last week. Enjoy Americas favorite national pasttime in an affordable, exciting, fun, family-friendly atmosphere in a modern, top-of-the-line stadium located in Eastern Round Rock.Historic Chisolm Trail and Round Rock - In 1851 a small community was formed on the banks of Brushy Creek, near a large round rock located in the middle of the creek. 500; although a few local corrections were made subsequently, for example, in the eighth and ninth centuries. Variants of a two-gabled building were used to depict some settlements, but most were distinguished by no more than a name. Our hotel is located about 13 miles from the airport, so we settled back to enjoy the new surroundings. Mystic figiures like the a€?Kokopellia€? petroglyphs embellished the surfaces of these majestic rock faces. The day was fast cooling, as we stood on the stone flagged terrace of the hotel and looked out ovet the canyon.The setting sun cast a thousand differing shadows, as it set behind the West Canyon walls. A narrator gave early history of the area and included Major Wesley Powela€™s expedtion exploits through the Canyon.
At one stop, an obliging Navaho, sitting on his horse, posed on a stone mesa and let us all photograph him. It was interesting to see how fast the transition had occured from native American to a€?westerna€? in only so few a number of miles.
Brass sides with full skirting, etched weld seams, and drill-starter points for grab irons.
The original roll at the time of its transcription in the early Middle Ages was of eleven sheets, but as such it was incomplete, since much of Britain, Spain, and the western part of North Africa were already missing at the time of copying; there may also have been an introductory sheet forming part of an earlier prototype version.
Attempts to differentiate between types of settlements on the map and to establish criteria for the attribution of signs have not been entirely successful. The sky was a bright, turquoise blue, and the sun was shining benignly on a wealthy land of milk and honey. The indians had learned to scrape away the dark, a€?desert varnish,a€? that is a form of algae, and leave inscribed figures on the rock faces, depicting animals, rain and other tribal mysteries. We talked with Jane, Michelle, Gerry and Muriel as we watched the lights go out all along the Canyon. It had been a good, albeit brief, visit to a phenomena that would be here for eons after we shucked this mortal coil. When the others rejoined us, they all spoke of the breathless beauty of the helicopter rides. A small room, off the trading post, also lists all the films that had been shot in these environs, including the a€?Eiger Sanctiona€? and those crazy car commercials that show a vehicle airlifted onto huge pillars of stone.
After the gallery tour, we stopped at a small ice cream parlor, in Bellagio, and had coffee as we watched the swirl of people drift by.
A small rail shuttle took us out to the Southwest terminals.They were jammed with Griswalds.
The first postmaster called the community Brushy Creek, but in 1854 the small settlement was renamed Round Rock in honor of this now famous rock. It was evidently not, as was once thought, the work of the Dominican monk Konrad of Colmar, who in 1265 quite independently produced a mappamundi that he says he copied onto twelve parchment pages; the paleography suggests an earlier date.
The temps were dropping into th 20a€™s tonight and we were all lightly dressed, so we ambled back into the Bright Angel and milled around with all the other Griswalds. The bus dopped us off and we scurried to our various rooms, to pack for the morning departure, settle in and crash from the long daya€™s travel. Huge chunks of red sandstone, some bigger than the bus, lay along the roadside, testimory to the enormous rock falls that occurr here regularly. The colorful Dale Chihuli glass ceiling, in the Conservatory, is always worth a look as well. The second sheet of the Peutinger Map was treated as if it had been the first, with spellings of truncated names containing false initial capitals (for example, Ridumo for what was originally Moriduno).
A former collection of huge citrus groves, and named for 19th century army general Winfield Scott, the area now bustles with 225,00 residents. Through it all, Rosie filled us in on Navaho customs and even tried to teach us some of the language.
After the Civil War, Jesse Chisholm began to move cattle from South Texas through Round Rock, on the way to Abilene, Kansas.
Hence a total of twelve sheets extant at the time of copying can be accounted for only by assuming that, when the copyist mentioned this number, he was including a title sheet. It is interesting to see that, just as there is one personification in the West and two in the East, so two cities of the second rank, symbolically given walls, are in the West and four in the East.
We made our goodbyes, to our dinner companions, and walked back, through the inky and cool darkness, to our room.
The route he established, which crossed Brushy Creek at the round rock became known as the Chisholm Trail. Important cities like Carthage, Ephesus, and Alexandria are not shown with a distinctive sign.
We walked through the busy casino area, of the Alladdin and rode the elevator to our aerie, where we settled in to let the sand man whisk us away. We settled in to read and pass the time, as the overloaded behemoth off-Lifted into the Nevada sky and flew eastward towards the frozen tundra of Western New York. It had snowed all day in Buffalo and we knew not what we faced.The cold and flu hit me hard, in the air, on the flight back. Factory-installed wire grab irons, metal wheelsets, and Proto-Max magnetic knuckle couplers. Subjects include building streets, constructing tunnels and bridges, adding scenery, and modeling water.
We made our case, got checked in and even had coupons, provided by the manager, for breakfast tomorrow morning. Grimes were both mortally wounded during a shootout that is re-enacted each year as part of the Frontier Days Celebration in July, have been preserved and remodeled and now house fine dining restaurants, art galleries, offices, etc.Old Settlers Park 2800 E. Palm Valley Blvd., Round Rock, Texas 78664 Huge 570 acre sportsplex complete with 3 miles of walking-jogging trails, 20 baseball fields, 5 softball fields, 12 tennis courts, 7 soccer fields, 2 volleyball courts, professionally designed disc-golf course, 7 playgrounds, picnic areas with BBQ grills, aquatic center, and a lake with paddleboat rentals and designated fishing areas.
Most of the residents of the reservation do what they can to survive economically, but I think they fair not well. This safe, family-friendly park further enhances Round Rocks reputation as the Sports Capital of the World.Premium Outlet Mall 4401 N.
It wouldna€™t take a large mind-blink to revert back hundred of years here, to a land and a time when the gods of thunder had walked the earth and cast large shadows amongst and above the few primitives who huddled here. More than 50 top stores and restaurants, all conveniently located to your home or office at La Frontera. Contour farming, planting cover crops, building stock tanks, rotating crops and planting new seed varieties reduced wind and water erosion and kept the soil intact during periods of drought. The mission of the Pflugerville Pfarmer's Market is to bring fresh, locally grown and prepared foods to the Pflugerville community.Vendors sell locally grown produce including tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, squash, okra, garlic, melons, peaches and grapes, artisan baked goods,honey, flowers,eggs, free-range meats, jarred salsas, pickles and jams,fruits and plants. IH-35, Georgetown, Texas 78628 - Hidden for 10,000 years, this fascinating underground discovery in 1963 is one of the best preserved caves in Texas and one of the few places where remains of prehistoric animals were unearthed.
Explore this limestone cavern and discover beautiful examples of natures perfect artwork such as The Flowing Stone of Time, the mysterious Lake of the Moon and the intricate Soda Straw Balcony. Among the amazing variety of formations found within the cavern you will see beautiful helictites, ancient flowstones, and giant columns.
With the assistance of the Texas Historical Commission and the dedication of preservation-minded county citizens and officials, the fifth courthouse of Williamson County has been returned to its original 1911 splendor, once again becoming a focal point of the county.
The architecture of the downtown square buildings surrounding the old courthouse have been restored to its period beauty. As you walk aroundthe town square, you can view the beautiful gingerbread features that takes us back to yesteryear.San Gabriel Park 445 E. Morrow St., Georgetown, Texas 78628 - Meandering right through the very heart of Georgetown is the San Gabriel River. San Gabriel Park is graced with Pecan trees and 200 year-old oak trees that offer the shade of their branches to family picnics, games of touch football or Frisbee, concerts, festivals, canoeing, swimming and fishing. For those with a little more energetic spirit, theres a new wooded 1-mile hike and bike trail that wanders along the North Fork of the San Gabriel River from San Gabriel Park to the new Rivery Park west of I-35.
Resembling Bourbon Street in New Orleans, this older section of Sixth Street offers rows of shot bars, piano bars, biker bars, pubs, dance clubs, tattoo parlors, art galleries, and restaurants on both sides of the street in downtown Austin.
Great live music of every type from well-known performers and up and coming bands alike, along with a very lively atmosphere make visiting downtown Austin a unique experience and keep . Popular events like the Austin Mardi Gras celebration, SXSW (South By Southwest Music Festival), ROT Rally (The Republic of Texas Bikers Rally), the Old Pecan Street Festival and Sixth's Street infamous Halloween celebration all make for great times with great people. With a wide range of newer, hip, chic restaurants, and more upscale clubs with rooftop decks and outdoor seating, West Sixth Street provides for a little more relaxed, yet still lively nightclub atmosphere.Esthers Follies on 6th Street - 525 E. 6th St., Austin, Texas 78701 Esther's Follies began as a by-product of a pool parlor, called Esther's Pool, on East Sixth Street April Fool's Day, 1977.
For more than a quarter-century, the folks at Esthers Pool have kept Austin rolling with laughter. Part magic show, part vaudeville review, part satire tour-de-force, Esthers Follies takes no prisoners, offering biting, hilarious satire on all the newsmakers and events fit to parody. The stage's huge windows look out over Sixth Street, so passersby unwittingly become part of the show.
Go Thursday through Saturday, or book the theatre for a private party.Alamo Drafthouse Cinema Downtown Ritz - 320 E. 6th St., Austin, Texas 78701 Although there are numerous locations now, the Alamo Drafthouse Cinema is an innovative Austin original and still Austins only independently owned and operated movie theater, offering a unique setting for dinner and a movie all in one.
Located on Sixth Street in the newly remodeled former Ritz Theater, The Alamo Drafthouse Downtown offers two theaters seating 75, and 175 and is a hip combination of restaurant, bar, movie theatre, and events venue. Movies include first-runs, as well as classics, and the dinner is chef-prepared and the drinks are reasonably priced. Also check out the Rolling Roadshow (giant inflatable screen that goes on the road throughout the U.S. Sized to match Walthers Empire Builder Ranch- and Lake-series cars or Brass Car Sides basic body kit. It is a pretty cool concept and has created quite a huge following.Warehouse District - Downtown area bordered by Cesar Chavez St. Chicago & North Western, New York Central, Northern Pacific, and Pennsylvania RR (Tuscan with black roof or “Fleet of Modernism” paint schemes). Factory-installed wire grab irons, metal wheelsets, and Proto-max magnetic knuckle couplers. A bit trendier and certainly more pricey, it caters to a slightly older crowd than the other downtown entertainment areas. True to its name, the formerly old, abandoned warehouses throughout this downtown section of Austin have been renovated into concert halls, high-end retail stores, art galleries, salons, trendy steakhouses, seafood eateries, and other chic restaurants and bars such as Qua (a dance club with a live shark tank under the see-through dance floor) and Cedar Street Bar (with outdoor patios and courtyards for live music, dancing and dining). Factory-installed wire grab irons, fluted or smoothside versions as appropriate, and Proto-Max magnetic knuckle couplers. In the 1970s, Stubbs Restaurant became the heart of an explosive music scene and was ground zero for musicians like Joe Ely and Stevie Ray Vaughn.
Other musicians who would play for their supper in those days included Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker, Willie Nelson, Johnny Cash, Robert Cray, George Thorogood, Clarence Gatemouth Brown, Linda Ronstadt, and the Fabulous Thunderbirds.
The Lubbock location closed years ago, but the legend continues in Austin with great Texas Bar-B-Que, ice cold beer, and an indoor and outdoor concert venue featuring some of the most popular bands in music today.
The 30-acre garden is free and open to the public most days year-round and is enjoyed by over 400,000 visitors each year, including thousands of school children from Austin and the surrounding communities. Theme gardens such as rose, herb and Japanese garden are interconnected with streams, waterfalls and Koi-filled ponds.
Three acres in size, Barton Springs Pool is fed from under ground springs and is on average 68 degrees year round.
Over the years, Barton Springs Pool has drawn people from all walks of life, from legislators who have concocted state laws there to free-spirited topless sunbathers who turned heads in the seventies.
Even Robert Redford learned to swim at the pool when he was five years old while visiting his mother's relative in Austin.
The pool began as a swimming hole in the Colorado River, became a resort in the 1920s, and is today a popular swimming pool operated by the City of Austin.Elizabet Ney Museum - 304 E. In this studio, Ney sculpted the great men of frontier Texas, among them, life-sized figures of Stephen F. Details include two carhops with roller skates, a convertible with driver, vintage signs, benches and picnic table, bicycles, and light poles.
Ney also assembled in this studio her earlier sculptures of European notables, among them, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, King George V of Hanover, Otto von Bismarck, Giuseppi Garibaldi, Justus von Liebig, Arthur Schopenhauer and Jacob Grimm, all cherished portraits Ney rendered from life as a as a young artist.
By the turn of the century, Elisabet Ney's Hyde Park studio had become a gathering place for influential Texans drawn to the colorful character of "Miss Ney" and to the stimulating discussions of politics and ideas that took place there. Inspired by Ney's "revolutionary" idea that art and beauty have been and can be powerful forces in the shaping of a nation as well as in individuals, these early Texans went on to found the University of Texas Art Department, the Texas Commission on the Arts, the Texas Fine Arts Association and museums and art schools throughout the state. See the rainwater harvesting system, meditate on the beauty of a Hill Country stream, visit Wild Ideas: The Store, and dine at the Wildflower Caf.
Includes chimney, full roof detail, propane tank, signs, figures, cannon, and flagpole with flag. Dont forget your walking shoes so you can take a short hike on one of four trails, and be sure to bring your camera to photograph the award-winning architecture and beautiful blooming displays. Weekend activities include workshops and lectures on everything from gardening with natural plants to nature photography.
Few locals realize it is only a short drive of 13 miles from the capitol building, making it one of Austin's best kept secrets.Wildlife to be observed and photographed includes white-tailed deer, raccoons, armadillos, squirrels, and numerous birds. Capital Of Texas Hwy., Austin, Texas 78746 - Wild Basin Wilderness Preserve was founded in 1974 to protect 227 acres of Texas Hill Country. Come and enjoy over 3 miles of hiking trails through woodland, grassland, and streamside habitats. Wild Basin also hosts a variety of family events, concerts, adult workshops, children's and school programs. Wild Basin's nature education programs are funded by special events, memberships, corporate donations and grants.
Trail maps are available at the Environmental Education Center or at kiosks at either trailhead. A Segway Tour is an exciting and unique approach to viewing historical landmarks, local businesses, and captivating attractions.
Informative guides will lead you on an intriguing journey full of facts and entertainment through downtown Austin to the Texas State Capital.Lone Star Riverboat Cruises - Located on Lady Bird Lake (formally Town Lake) in downtown Austin, Texas.
Experience the exhilaration of the outdoors, the abundant waterfowl, our ever changing city skyline and the natural beauty that is Austin. Hewanted to share that beauty with the town he loved,so he openeda canoe rental business on the banks of the creek, just downstream from Barton Springs. He and his wife, Dorothy,and their four-year-old daughter rented out theirnine canoes on weekends while Howard worked for the Texas Park and Wildlife Department. Together they built the business to the environmentally friendly and family oriented establishment that it is today. With over100 canoes and kayaks and reasonable prices, Zilker Park Boat Rentals is the perfect place to bring friends and family to enjoy a relaxing outing on the water. But if you're looking for a pleasant, mostly flat, walk, jog, or bike ride with several excellent views of downtown Austin and Lady Bird Lake, then the Lady Bird Lake Hike and Bike Trail may fit the bill for you.The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge - (formerly known simply as the Congress Avenue Bridge) crosses over Lady Bird Lake in Austin, Texas. The bridge was known as the Congress Avenue Bridge from the construction of the first span across the Colorado River at that location in the late 19th century until November 16, 2006, when the Austin City Council renamed the current bridge in honor of the late Ann W. The bridge is a concrete arch bridge, with three southbound and three northbound vehicle lanes and sidewalks on both sides of the bridge.
The bridge is currently home to the world's largest urban Mexican Free-Tailed Bat colony and hosts large crowds of Austinites gathered for bat watching at sunset throughout the Spring and Summer months.Long Center for the Performing Arts - 701 W. Palmer (Municipal) Auditorium, built in 1959 on the shores of Town Lake, was recently renovated into a multi-venue community performing arts center. It is one of Austin's most vibrant and innovative arts organizations and Central Texas' oldest professional theatre.The Broken Spoke - 3201 S. Lamar Blvd., Austin, Texas 78704 - Texas' most definitive legendary dance hall built in 1964. If you're ever in Austin, stop by for an ice-cold Lone Star longneck and some traditional country music by some "real" country musicians.The Spoke has some of Austin's very best local talent such as Alvin Crow, Asleep at the Wheel, Gary P. Nunn, Sam and Son, better known as The Geezinslaw Brothers, Jerry Jeff Walker, The Derailers, Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Chris Wall, and Dale Watson just to name a few. Some of the old time country music legends that have played The Spoke include Ernest Tubb, Roy Acuff, Hank Thompson, Tex Ritter, Ray Price, Kitty Wells, Grandpa Jones, Willie Nelson and George Strait. While most of these stars are no longer around, Willie still stops in for chicken fried steak. When it was completed in 1888, it was claimed to be the seventh largest building in the world. Some 1,000 men (mostly convicts) worked every day for four years at the height of the project. It cost $3,744, 600 to build and was funded funded through an article in the state constitution, adopted February 15, 1876, which authorized the sale of public lands for the purpose. In one of the largest barter transactions in recorded history, the builders of the capitol were paid with over three-million acres of public land in the Texas panhandle. This tract later became the largest cattle ranch in the world, the XIT Ranch, covering ten counties (The XIT brand stands for 10 in Texas).
The building has been renovated many times, with central air conditioning installed in 1955 and the most recent refurbishments completed in 1997. It was built in 1854, designed by prominent architect Abner Cook in Greek Revival style, and has been the home of every Texas governor since 1856.
The mansion is the oldest continuously inhabited house in Texas and fourth oldest governor's mansion in the United States that has been continuously occupied by a chief executive. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, and further was declared a U.S.
On June 8, 2008, while midway through a major renovation, the mansion was heavily damaged by a four-alarm fire believed to be arson.



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