New york city zone 1 questions,micro trains tap and drill set nz,gargraves o scale track width - Good Point

23.03.2016
This famous quote has been recognized throughout the world as it gives a very brief and true definition of New York City nature, as well as The French architect Le Corbusier once described New York as “a magnificent catastrophe”. New York City is known for Broadway, the fabulous skyline, Central Park, Times Square, the Statue of Liberty, top sports venues and teams, and is one of the top destinations for tourists around the world( In the early 1900’s millions of people came though Ellis Island seeking citizenship in the United States, furthermore, vast majority of these immigrants settled in New York City). On one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a county of New York State. Today, more than 8 million New Yorkers live in the five boroughs–more than one-third of whom were born outside the United States. The first person to visit the area which is now known as New York City was Giovanni da Verrazano who discovered the area in 1524, when he sailed into the area and landed there. New York City became an important city during the Revolutionary War period and for a brief time period, it was Capital of the new United States after the colonies declared their independence. As early as the 1870’s and 1880’s, New Yorkers began to protest the loss of light and air as taller residential buildings began to appear in Manhattan. By then, New York City had become the financial center of the country and expanding businesses needed office space. In 1915, when the 42-story Equitable Building was erected in Lower Manhattan, the need for controls on the height and form of all buildings became clear. The concept of enacting a set of laws to govern land use and bulk was revolutionary, but the time had come for the city to regulate its surging physical growth. But, while other cities were adopting the New York model, the model itself refused to stand still.
By mid-century, many of the underlying planning principles of the 1916 document no longer stood the test of time. Eventually, it was evident that the original 1916 framework needed to be completely reconsidered. Although based upon the leading planning theories of the day, aspects of those zoning policies have revealed certain shortcomings over the years. Time passes, land uses change, and zoning policy accommodates, anticipates and guides those changes.
New York City is the center of a network of interconnecting local, state, and interstate transportation facilities. New York City’s nontoll bridges are under the jurisdiction of the Division of Bridges of the Department of Public Works.
Toll bridges operated by the MTA include the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the longest suspension bridges in the world. Port Authority bridges include three connecting Staten Island and New Jersey-Bayonne, Goethals, and Outerbridge Crossing.
Ferry lines link Manhattan with Staten Island, Liberty Island (site of the Statue of Liberty), and a few other points. Express highways, many of them part of the Interstate system, link various sections of the city. New York City’s subways, forming one of the longest and busiest systems in the world, are part of the rapid transit system operated by the NYCTA.
The Port Authority’s most extensive port facilities within New York City are in Brooklyn and Queens. Scattered throughout New York’s five boroughs are numerous playgrounds, swimming pools and beach areas, sports fields, and parks of all sizes. The oldest park, Bowling Green(1) in Lower Manhattan, was established as a lawn bowling club in 1732. In Upper New York Bay off the tip of Manhattan lie three small islands, each significant in the city’s history. Nearby Ellis Island was the main receiving center for immigrants entering the United States from 1892 until 1943. At the southern tip of Manhattan in Battery Park is Castle Clinton National Monument This round structure, completed in 1811, was originally built as a harbor fortification and named Fort Clinton.
In the area northwest of Trinity Church is the site of the former World Trade Center, destroyed during terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. At the north end of the Bowery stands Cooper Union, a college noted for its schools of engineering and art.
Greenwich Village, lying west of Broad-way between Spring and 14th streets, is an area long associated with artists and bohemian life. On Madison Avenue, one block east, are office buildings housing many large advertising agencies. Near 34th Street on the West Side is Madison Square Garden, a modern sports, entertainment, convention, and office complex.
The official residence of the mayor of New York is Gracie Mansion, overlooking the East River at 88th Street. Historic houses in Upper Manhattan include Hamilton Grange (1802), Morris-Jumel Mansion (1765), and Dyckman House (1783), the only Dutch farmhouse remaining in Manhattan.
Richmondtown Restoration on Staten Island is a restoration of buildings of major historical and architectural interest. The Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims in Brooklyn was the pastorate of Henry Ward Beecher and a center of the abolitionist movement before the Civil War. Manhattan’s skyline with its many skyscrapers is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style.
Reflecting the impression and thoughts of some wise people,  who have tasted and absorbed NYC, and also the information that can be found, New York can be identified as a city of endless barriers and at the same time great opportunities, a city of chaos and fascination, and in fact,  a city which combined controversies and existence. Ability instrument, speakers or headphones, ADSL internet-connection 256 kbps and higher, Skype program. The home of the United Nations Headquarters, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. The five boroughs—the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. Thanks to the city’s diversity and vibrant intellectual life, it remains the cultural capital of the United States.


The discovery and first settlement of the area occurred in 1609 by Henry Hudson, who found the location while searching for a new route to Asia. In the 1800’s, with the opening of the Erie Canal providing passage to the Great Lakes, New York became one of the most important sea ports on the Atlantic Ocean, and became a center of trade. Compared with architecture and planning, zoning has a relatively short history as a means of organizing the way land is used.
In response, the state legislature enacted a series of height restrictions on residential buildings, culminating in the Tenement House Act of 1901. With the introduction of steel frame construction techniques and improved elevators, technical restraints that had limited building height vanished. Rising without setbacks to its full height of 538 feet, the Equitable Building cast a seven-acre shadow over neighboring buildings, affecting their value and setting the stage for the nation’s first comprehensive zoning resolution. Housing shortages, caused by an influx of new immigrants, created a market for tenements built to maximum bulk and minimum standards.
The groundbreaking Zoning Resolution of 1916, though a relatively simple document, established height and setback controls and designated residential districts that excluded what were seen as incompatible uses. If, for example, the city had been built out at the density envisioned in 1916, it could have contained over 55 million people, far beyond its realistic capacity.
After lengthy study and public debate, the current Zoning Resolution was enacted and took effect in 1961. It coordinated use and bulk regulations, incorporated parking requirements and emphasized the creation of open space. The emphasis on open space sometimes resulted in buildings that overwhelm their surroundings, and the open spaces created by incentive zoning provisions have not always been useful or attractive.
In a certain sense, zoning is never final; it is renewed constantly in response to new ideas—and to new challenges. Local transportation, including subways and buses, is managed by three agencies, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Kennedy International Airport at Idlewild, Queens, is one of the nation’s leading international air terminals.
Other toil bridges are the Bronx-Whitestone, Cross Bay Veterans Memorial, Marine Parkway, Throgs Neck, and Triborough bridges. Also under the Port Authority is the double-decked George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan and Fort Lee, New Jersey.
The two Hudson River vehicular tunnels connecting Manhattan and New Jersey—the Holland and Lincoln tunnels-are Port Authority facilities. While elevated tracks are used in other boroughs, Manhattan’s transit lines are all under, ground.
The two largest parks are both in the Bronx—Pelham Bay, 2,118 acres (857 hectares), and Van Cortlandt, 1, 100 acres (445 ha). On Liberty Island stands the Statue of Liberty, a national monument and a symbol of the nation; it was donated by the people of France in 1885.
Governors Island, the largest and most easterly of the three islands, has been the site of harbor fortifications since 1776. Its Long Room was the scene of George Washington’s farewell to his officers after the Revolutionary War in 1783. A focal point of international trade and finance, it was completed in the early 1970’s. It is a small area, inhabited by Chinese for many generations, and known for its restaurants, shops, and Chinese New Year’s celebrations. Immediately to the south is the SoHo district, site of numerous art galleries and artists’ studios. Across town and fronting on the East River is the headquarters of the United Nations, one of New York’s chief attractions. Other historic buildings in Brooklyn include Wyckoff House (1639) and the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of Flatbush (1796). As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m).
A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.
Environmentally friendly gas-fired absorption chillers, along with a high-performing insulating and shading curtain wall, ensure that the building does not need to be heated or cooled for the majority of the year. Each of the five boroughs that make up New York City has the same boundaries as the county in which it lies. Yet zoning determines the size and use of buildings, where they are located and, in large measure, the density of the city’s diverse neighborhoods.
Warehouses and factories began to encroach upon the fashionable stores along Ladies’ Mile, edging uncomfortably close to Fifth Avenue.
It fostered the iconic tall, slender towers that came to epitomize the city’s business districts and established the familiar scale of three- to six-story residential buildings found in much of the city. It introduced incentive zoning by adding a bonus of extra floor space to encourage developers of office buildings and apartment towers to incorporate plazas into their projects. The Midtown Manhattan bus terminal is one of the world’s largest facilities of its kind. From 1855 until 1890 it served as an immigrant landing depot, and from 1896 until 1941 as the city aquarium.
The center’s twin 110-story towers, which rose 1,350 feet (411 m), were the tallest in New York.
Running north from Chinatown is the Bowery, a street once wealthy but later a notorious skid row, with many missions, soup kitchens, and cheap hotels. There are also quiet side streets with quaint old homes, many of them fashionably renovated. Not including its television tower, it rises 1,250 feet (381 m) at Fifth Avenue and 34th Street. Rockefeller Center, between Fifth and Sixth avenues from 48th to 52nd Street, is a cluster of tall buildings with street-level and rooftop gardens and an outdoor skating rink.


The Conde Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers.
This situation led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of bridges and tunnels.
Their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. The name of the settlement would eventually become New York in 1664, when the British took control of the colonies.
Along with the city’s power to budget, tax, and condemn property, zoning is a key tool for carrying out planning policy. Intrusions like these and the impacts of rapid growth added urgency to the calls of reformers for zoning restrictions separating residential, commercial and manufacturing uses and for new and more effective height and setback controls for all uses. The new ordinance became a model for urban communities throughout the United States as other growing cities found that New York’s problems were not unique. In the city’s business districts, it accommodated a new type of high-rise office building with large, open floors of a consistent size. Today, tower-in-the-park developments, set back far from the city street, are often viewed as isolating and contrary to the goal of creating a vibrant urban streetscape. Bronx Park(3), almost the same size as Central Park, is divided between the New York Botanical Garden and the Bronx Wildlife Conservation Park (Bronx Zoo). Adjoining Bowling Green, where Peter Minuit reputedly bought Manhattan Island from the Algonquin Indians in 1626, stands the former U.S. Located here are the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and many of the nation’s largest commercial banks.
Also on Wall Street is Federal Hall National Memorial, site of Washington’s inauguration as first President of the United States. Among the village’s most notable landmarks are Washington Arch, in Washington Square at the foot of Fifth Avenue, and Grace Church, built in 1846 in Gothic Revival style. From its observation deck on top there is a magnificent view of the city, especially at dusk.
Along upper Fifth Avenue are numerous town houses built around 1900 and now housing institutes and organizations.
The interdenominational Riverside Church, on Riverside Drive at 122nd Street, is Gothic also. It was the scene of a Revolutionary War conference in which conciliatory proposals made by Admiral Richard Howe of Great Britain were rejected by members of the Continental Congress. Notable in the Bronx are the Van Cortlandt Mansion (1748) and the Bartow-Pell Mansion (1836-42).
The air-delivery system provides 50% more fresh air than is required by New York City Building Code, and a number of recycling chutes serve the entire building. Nearly all of the city’s major bridges and several of its tunnels have broken or set records. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and the first steel-wire suspension bridge. Manhattan and Staten Island are on separate islands, and Brooklyn and Queens are on Long Island. New York City has been a pioneer in the field of zoning since it enacted the nation’s first comprehensive zoning ordinance in 1916.
The last, still vacant areas on the city’s edges needed to be developed at densities that recognized the new, automobile-oriented lifestyle.
Elsewhere in the city, the 1961 Zoning Resolution dramatically reduced residential densities, largely at the edges of the city. The Port Authority is a joint New York State-New Jersey agency that directs transportation between the two states and also manages most international facilities.
There are smaller botanical gardens in Queens(4) and Brooklyn(5), and smaller zoos in Queens, on Staten Island, at Prospect Park in Brooklyn, and in Central Park. The World Financial Center, a complex where some of the world’s largest financial-services companies have headquarters, is here. A few blocks away, near Gramercy Park, is the birthplace and boyhood home of Theodore Roosevelt. The Chrysler Building, rising 1,046 feet (319 m), was also the world’s tallest at one time. Patrick’s a magnificent Gothic cathedral built during the latter part of the 19th century. Being the first project of its size to undertake these features in construction, the building has received an award from the American Institute of Architects, as well as AIA New York State. All five boroughs are connected by a complex system of tunnels, bridges, and ferry-boat lines.
Also, demands to make zoning approvals simpler, swifter and more comprehensible were a constant. Battery park(6) on the southern tip of Manhattan is one of the oldest of the city’s parks.
It presents a monumental facade of gray granite adorned with statuary, including Daniel Chester French’s The Four Continents. It is a national historic site and contains many items relating to the President’s career and travels.
A block west, built above part of Grand Central Terminal, is the MetLife Building, one of the world’s largest in commercial office space. Diagonally across the drive is the General Grant National Memorial, where the former President and his wife are entombed.
George Washington worshiped here, and his pew, with the Great Seal of the United States above it, is preserved.




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