Nyc subway maintenance schedule jetta,subway nyc sunday lunch,cars for sale in tolland ct,transportation new york lawrence ma 01843 - New On 2016

Recently, we decided to call the phone numbers on the doors in the New York City subway and the result was…pretty funny. Part of Third Rail Operations, in addition to sending the direct current into the third rail, also found a way for trains to send power back into it when the train brakes. The New York Times had a piece on the technology in 2002, pioneered on the L train. The particular Signal Room door at 14th Street is notable mostly because it’s rather wide. While most of the subway tracks are underground, the above-ground tracks aren’t impervious to the weather.
For heavier construction work, crane cars (pulled by locomotives) lift sections of tracks, and flat cars can carry up to 30 tons of equipment. Other cars include signal supply cars that install new track signals, weld cars that transport new rails for installation and ballast regulators that spread ballast (a stabilizer) on the tracks.
With the continual increase of rolling stock necessary to carry the traffic on the lines of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, has come a pressing need for more adequate shop facilities. To secure additional space and provide facilities for receiving materials the bulkhead line along the Harlem River is being extended by permission of the War Department.
The buildings now nearing completion constitute the third addition to the 148th Street shop. The original shop and the first and second additions are now being used for maintenance work. A new administration building for use of the transportation, mechanical, electrical and track departments is being constructed at the northeast corner of Seventh Avenue and 147th Street. The third addition to the general repair shop will be of steel and reinforced concrete construction. Sixteen 3-ton floor-controlled bridge cranes will be installed in the truck overhauling shop.
A small open transfer table will be provided along the east end of the truck and wheel shops. One of the outstanding features of this shop design is the absence of transfer tables for the shifting of cars.
The lighting' circuits for the machine shop have been laid out in two ways to include both alternating and direct current circuits.
In addition to this general lighting, drop lights and hand lighting is provided at machine tools.
Just east of the third section of the repair shop is a three-story building, which has been designated as Service Building No.
The foregoing details of building construction give a general idea of the extensive provision that is being made to take care of maintenance work for the subway division of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. Preliminary tentative layouts of the tools and equipment for the enlarged shop have been made, but are not as yet ready for publication.
Location of Inspection Buildings, Storage Yards and 148th Street Shop of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. Inspection of Elevated and Subway Cars on the Interborough Rapid Transit Railway Is on the Basis of 1,000 Miles for Motor Cars and 1,200 Miles for Trail Cars-- The Work Is Thoroughly Planned-- A Bonus Is Paid to Finders of Trouble of Vital Importance. Work has recently been completed on a new inspection shed of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company at 180th Street. Each day the mileage clerk makes out a list, giving the numbers of the cars that are due for inspection, with the number of trips or mileage that each of the individual cars on the list has made since the date of its last inspection.
As soon as a car is put in the inspection shed for inspection and repairs, the car checker compares the car numbers with his inspection list and puts a white inspection or work card on each car that is due for regular inspection.
When all of the various classes of workmen have completed their work on a train and have properly signed the inspection cards, the train is pumped up, air brakes are tested, and brake rigging is adjusted, etc. After these reports are filled out in the inspection shed, they are sent to the assistant to the general manager weekly.
At the 180th Street inspection shed as many as 144 cars per day are inspected and for this work nearly 250 men are employed.
Although the work of changing wheels is usually done only at the main repair shops at 148th Street, some of this work is done at the inspection sheds when it seems desirable.
The storeroom at the inspection sheds carries a very complete supply of replacement parts, but only a week's supply normally is kept on hand as the supply car makes a trip to the various locations every day. The work of inspection is also greatly helped by information received from the transportation department. In addition to the methods described for detecting trouble, the company follows the unusual plan of paying bonuses to employees for discovering vital defects. When this system of discovering defects is combined with the system described by which every man working on a car personally signs the inspection card for each part of the equipment he inspects and passes, assurance is made doubly sure that all defects are discovered and the necessary repairs are made.
Inspection Routine on the Interborough (These regulations are referred to on page 239) Contactors. The Assistant General Foreman assists the general foreman and takes over his work when he is absent. The Assistant Carhouse Foreman's duty is to check up all cars reported by the transportation department as in bad order, also to check up the men working on the control circuits and to assist in making repairs. The Storeroom Tender receives and cares for all material and sees that there is an adequate supply of material on hand at all times.
The Motor Cleaners clean the retaining rings, brush-holder insulators, and the inside of the motor shell, fields and connections. The Air-Brake Foreman is in charge of all air-brake and mechanical work, car body, brake and draft rigging, trucks, wheels, axle box, journal lubrication and packing. The Air-Brake Inspectors inspect all work done by the brakemen and helpers on the inspection of cars.
The Electrical Inspector and Trouble Repairmen make the repairs to the electrical equipment and check the inspection of electrical apparatus. The Truck Inspector inspects all trucks for cracks on the side frame and in the transoms, equalizer bars, wheels, swing hangers, etc., for all cars going through barn. The Wheel Inspector inspects all wheels, trucks, car body bolsters, king pins, drawbars and carriers, center casting and bolts, outside and inside equalizer bars. The Wheel Inspector (Night) inspects all wheels, trucks, drawbars, shoe beams and general equipment. The Valve-Room Men clean and test all feed valves, clean and grind the compressor heads, clean the compressor strainers and make minor air-valve repairs. The Brakemen and Helpers inspect and renew brakeshoes, brake rigging, side bearings and truck chafing plates, pedestal and equalizer bars, etc., inside and out. The Car Inspectors will keep in touch with dispatchers and will report promptly when called by the train crews. Trolleymen and foremen are the only ones allowed to apply the trolley to a train or to trolley a train out of the barn.
As the Train Enters the Building a Clerk Places a Colored Tag on Each Car Indicating Kind of Inspection Needed.
The City of New York Is Building Six Storage Yards and Inspection Buildings to Provide for 2,266 Cars of the Interborough Rapid Transit System These Will Provide for the Full Capacity of Present Lines of the Subway Division The Two Completed Are Described. Two modern inspection buildings have recently been completed and placed in service by the subway division of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York City.
The capacity of the new inspection facilities is intended to be adequate not only for the present rolling stock, but also for such increases as are anticipated within the early future.
The work contracted for under the Transit Commission includes only the shell of the building, with whatever conduits, steam piping and plumbing are necessary as permanent features of the construction.
The locations of the six inspection buildings and yards were shown on a map published on page 238 of the issue of this paper for Aug. The subway division of the Interborough at present comprises 222 miles of single track, and there are accommodations for storing approximately 2,000 cars in temporary sheds and on third track. Each of the inspection projects has its individual characteristics, on account of the varying physical layout and the number of cars to be handled, but the cost of the 180th Street development, which amounted to approximately $2,540 per car, including those in the yard and over pits, is considered most representative. These figures do not include the cost of engineering, superintendence during construction, or interest on the investment during the construction period. The stock room, carpenter shop, transformer room and office are located on the main floor along one wall of the building, while above these on the mezzanine floor are located the washroom, locker room and toilets, and a recreation room for the men has been provided on the second floor above the mezzanine, as these buildings are located in outlying districts of the city.
Entrance to the building is made at one end, eight tracks branching off from a ladder outside the structure. Low-pressure steam for heating is supplied from a boiler located adjacent to the main building.
Typical Cross-Section Through Pits Showing the Pits Under Each Track and the Saw-Tooth Roof Construction. This article describes the nature and extent of the repair problem, the methods followed in carrying out repairs and the organization by which this work is conducted in the shops of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company of New York. The immensity of the task of maintaining the rolling stock of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company can be gathered from a few statistics of the traffic conducted, as compared with trunk-line railroads. The extent of the operations of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company can be indicated in another way. It is not only in number of passengers carried and car-miles run that the performance of the Interborough Rapid Transit lines is remarkable. Finally, unlike most surface lines, rapid transit lines exist only where population density is high and where, in consequence, real estate is very expensive. In the meantime, of course, the company has not been able to wait for these new facilities and has had to conduct both inspection and repair work as best it could. Table II shows car-miles operated on the two divisions for the 14 months ended with February, 1925.
The company makes a distinct separation between its inspection work and its repair and overhaul work.
The repairs, except such light repairs as are carried on at the inspection sheds incident to inspection, are done at one of the two repair shops of the company. At these shops each car on the system is thoroughly gone over at least once a year, at which time all necessary repairs are performed.
The principal causes for which cars are sent from the road to the repair shop, except at overhauling times, are: Armature and field trouble, wheel turning, worn journals or truck repairs, heavy car-body repairs and painting.
When a car comes into the repair shop, regardless of the nature of the trouble, a careful inspection is also made of the car body, including brake rigging, interior of body, platforms, roofs, sills, body bolsters, and control apparatus.
The controllers are inspected, and if any worn fingers are found they are changed and new fingers are installed and adjusted. All contactors are tested and inspected, and all worn or burnt contact tips, arc chutes, shunts, interlock fingers and worn mechanism base plates are replaced with new parts. The line switches are tested, and all worn, burnt or broken tips, levers, arcing horns and arc chutes are cleaned or replaced with new parts.
The coupler sockets are inspected, particularly for loose or cracked insulation blocks and for loose or broken contact fingers and covers.
All switches and fuse base and connection boxes are inspected, particularly for loose parts, and all connections are tightened.
Before any car is allowed to leave the repair shop the electrical wiring on the car is given a high-tension test of 1,200 volts, for break-down of insulation, short and open circuits and grounds. While the car bodies are going through the body repair shop, the trucks, brake rigging, air compressors, air brake equipment and trip devices are sent to a separate department where they are thoroughly inspected and the necessary repairs are made. Because of the high speed and the limited clearance of the cars with parts of the subway structure, good axles are even more of a necessity than on most electric railways. The wheels and axles are removed from the trucks, and all rust and scale are removed from the axle. As motors go through the shop all field coils and armatures are inspected and tested for defects. The method of turning wheels at the 147th Street shop was described in an article on page 443 of the issue of this paper for March 17, 1923, with some particulars of the piece-work system employed for practically all the repair and maintenance work of the company.
In one respect the repair situation of the company is complicated in that it has to care for the maintenance and repair of two entirely different kinds of cars, namely, wooden cars, as used on the Manhattan elevated division, and all-steel cars as used on the subway division. Oiling of all moving parts is done at each car inspection, which is at intervals of 1,000 miles for motor cars and 1,200 miles for trail cars, but at the end of every tenth inspection the cars receive what is known as a general oiling. As already explained a great deal of attention is given to lubrication because of the hard service which the equipment has to perform and the knowledge that adequate lubrication is one of the greatest means of reducing maintenance.
To insure proper lubrication on the road, a representative of the Galena company pays a visit at least one a month to all depots and shops, taking up with the carhouse foremen their last lubrication report and inspecting the oil housings, tanks and filters with which the various shops and carhouses are provided. To stimulate interest in better lubrication copies of the monthly reports of the lubrication expert to the superintendent of car equipment are sent to every division superintendent. The cars on the subway and elevated divisions are treated from a painting standpoint in an entirely different manner.
An important feature in the paint shop is the use of the piece-work system, which was adopted in 1905. The lower view shows the new shops and the office building at 147th Street and Seventh Avenue. The Five Illustrations on This Page Show the Methods of Inspecting Wheels by the Vibration Test and Magnifying Glass. The Five Illustrations on This Page Show Babbitting, Pinion Testing and the Safety Features of Mill Practice.
View 5 is of a circular saw and also shows a guard so arranged that it cannot be removed from the machine. The machine in View 4 is a device for winding brass wire into the form of spiral armor for motor and other leads. Electrical Tests for Car Wiring and Armatures Detect Open Circuits, Short Circuits and Grounds. Body Exterior — Motor, or trail car, burn off enamel with burning machine, sand and putty, letterboards, side and end window posts, window stops, post battens, pier panels, window stools, aprons, sheathings, panels, battens, end body doors, end door posts and headers, door post battens, body corner posts and battens, bulkhead panels, hood bows, hood sheathing, and end stationary sash.
Trimming — Manhattan Motor Car curtain or blind type, when not equipped with Dahlstrom posts. Electric Railway Journal, McGraw Hill Company, Digitized by Microsoft, Americana Collection,
The new Coney Island Shops for the maintenance of rapid transit equipment are located between the Sea Beach and Culver Lines and extend from Avenue X south to Coney Island creek.
The new shops replace the former inadequate shops located at 39th Street, and East New York. The building construction consists of complete structural steel frames with brick walls, steel sash, concrete roof slabs covered with five-ply roofing.
The Electrical Repair Shop was the first building to be constructed as it was needed to replace the old shop at 52nd Street.
The other main buildings were placed under contract at a later date than the Electrical Repair Shop and are now completed and in service. The west side of the Main Shop building, known as the Intermediate Repair Shop, will be used for truck and running repairs. In order to keep the shop as clean as possible, cars before entering the repair shop are cleaned in the cleaning room at the southeast corner of the building. As this shop is essentially a steel car Repair Shop, the Wood Mill and Carpenter Shop are of minor importance as compared with the usual Repair Shop. The north end of the building is devoted to truck overhauling, machine and blacksmith work and miscellaneous repair. Truck Overhauling, Cleaning and Painting, 120 feet by 200 feet, with one 15-ton and nine 5-ton cranes. The northeast corner of the building which is nearest the entrance provides accommodations for employees consisting of a Wash and Locker Room on the ground floor and a half mezzanine. East of the Main Shop there is a two-story fire proof Store House, 60 feet by 300 feet, and designed for a future third story. The Office Building is fireproof, 50 feet by 110 feet, two stories in height and planned for a future third story. Heating is provided from a central heating plant located in a separate building, the equipment consisting of two 400 HP Heine water tube boilers equipped with Bethlehem-Dahl oil burners and capable of operating at 200% of rating.
For shops covering so much ground as these, adequate handling and transportation facilities are of prime importance. Although the buildings are either fire proof or of non-burnable construction and the shops are to be used for repairing steel cars, fire protection has been given consideration by the provision of an 8 inch water main looped around the shops and connected to the city mains. The Wheel and Axle Department the Coney Island Shops includes the heaviest and most expensive machinery in the plant. The equipment was selected by the tool Committee after careful study of the various machines offered by the manufacturers. The wheel lathe and the gap type journal truing lathe are located at the south end of the shop adjacent to the Transfer Bay, where mounted wheels coming from the Truck Shop and Intermediate Repair Shop are received.
The wheel lathe which is made by the Sellers Company of Philadelphia, is the most expensive single piece of equipment in the entire plant.
The tools are eight in number, of high grade cutting metal, and four are mounted ready for work in a turret in front of each wheel. The car wheel borer is also made by the Sellers Company and will bore and face new wheels to fit the axles.
There are two American gap lathes with double carriages which will true the journals with mounted wheels of 40 inches diameter.
A new feature of car maintenance work in the Metropolitan district is provided by the Landis Tool Company's axle grinding machine for grinding journals and armature shafts which insures better workmanship and reduces maintenance costs. The shop equipment also includes special trucks for handling axles and storage battery trucks for transporting and towing the special axle trucks. The building is 60 feet by 200 feet with equal yard space alongside the building for storage of wheels, axles, etc.
The working conditions in this shop are of the best and in keeping with the high class of equipment which has been installed. A new activity has been added to the variety of enterprises that go on at Coney Island at night time.
At the present time the night force at Coney Island Inspection Shop inspects an average of 71 cars each night and in addition receives approximately 6 cars nightly from the intermediate repair shop to be prepared and inspected before being released for road service.
The inspection shop is located at the western end of the buildings that house the Coney Island Shops. By concentrating the inspection work on the subway cars for the southern division at Coney Island and doing the major part of the work there at night, it has been possible to develop the system of specialization of the work of individual workers to a greater degree than at any other inspection shop.
The pits at the inspection shop are specially designed and one of the outstanding features of the pits is the provision for the safety and convenience of the men at work in them. The oil supply for use in the inspection shop is provided for by two stationary Bowser tanks of 115 gallons capacity each. There are two pulpit offices in the shop, each one of which has facilities for two sets of foremen.
The inspection work itself is divided into four major classifications with a foreman supervising the work of each classification and the general foreman at the head of the entire shop organization. As each car comes into the shop, four inspection cards are marked with its number, the date and the shop name. To give an idea of the degree of specialization of work, the manner in which the electrical equipment is subdivided may be briefly outlined. With the work of the various inspectors classified in this way it is possible for the shop to handle a large number of cars each night and the work of the various groups of inspectors is so planned that there is little or no interference between groups whose work is located in the same part of the car. A brief summary of some of the inspection work would be as follows: The truck inspectors examine the brake rigging, axles, wheels and brake shoes. The men assigned to the above work also include in their activities the inspection of train line cables, jumpers and receptacles, as well as the hangers from which they are suspended. The batteries are removed on every mileage inspection and refilled with the required amount of distilled water. On the 2000 series subway cars which are equipped with door operating button boards, the covers are removed from the button boards in the master or operating car every mileage inspection. The main panel board which includes the light, heat, fan, battery and compressor, switches and also the various fuses used in connection with these switches is examined on every mileage inspection, as well as the control and door operating circuits. Tower A, the first of the towers that will control car movements in and out of the Coney Island Shop Yards and the adjoining sections of main line tracks was placed in service on February 19th [1926]. The interlocking machine has a capacity for 88 positions in the frame but at the present time only 57 are in use. On the new machine, the "call on" control, by which a towerman can instruct a motorman to key by a signal set against him if necessary, is located in the front of the machine. The forges and anvils in the Coney Island Shops are the only tools which link this plant with the "smithy" of our boyhood days and, in fact, carry the craft back to the days of Tubal Cain. Forgings, which are too heavy for hand work, are handled on three air hammers, one of 1200 pounds capacity and two of 900 pounds each.
Other large metal working tools include two Ajax Bulldozers, one of long stroke, slow speed for bending heavy work, the other of high speed short stroke and stop motion for light work. A 72 x 96 inch car type annealing furnace and a 24 x 60 inch furnace are used for heat treating. Welding is an important item of repair work and in this shop both electric and gas welding is provided for. Radial jib cranes are provided to serve the hammers and forges, and over the welding benches there is a five-ton floor-controlled electric traveling crane. Bar and sheet iron, gas cylinders, etc., are stored in racks under a shed roof in the yard. Like all smith shops the floor is of cinders but trucking aisles of concrete have been provided. The visitor to the Coney Island shops is attracted by the array of new tools in the machine shop. Near the center of the shop is the six-foot American Tool Works multiple duty radial drill and near by are located a group consisting of a two spindle bolt threading machines and five drills with single, double and triple spindles for light work. Along one side of the shop are located a Brown and Sharp milling machine, a group of four engine lathes, a Warner and Swazey heavy duty turret lathe and two screw machines. There are two power hack saws for cutting bar stock; wet and dry tool grinders are also provided and placed at convenient locations. A tool room, 20 feet by 40 feet and a tool crib 18 feet by 33 feet are located in the machine shop.
For handling materials the machine shop has a five-ton crane of 57 feet span and the air-brake shop has a two-ton crane of 18 feet span; the latter crane is controlled and operated from the floor.
The tool room with its equipment is a complete machine shop in itself; the equipment comprises milling and shaping machines, cutters, tool and surface grinding machines, drills, lathes and drill pointer. Much valuable material is stored in the tool crib whence it is issued on tool checks through serving windows on three sides of the room. The machine shop and its equipment does the machine work on repair parts for trucks, journal boxes, motor shells, draw bars, brake rigging, safety gates, parts of compressors.
Next to the machine shop is the air brake shop where the air equipment is overhauled, repaired and tested. The Electrical Repair Building Is the First of the New Coney Island Repair Shops to Be Used by the Rapid Transit Division of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation Ultra-Modern Equipment Installed for Making Repairs Quickly and Efficiently. Carefully fitted out with the latest types of machine tools and other equipment needed for electrical repairs, the first unit of the new Coney Island repair shops of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation is in use. The framework of the electrical repair shop is of steel and the walls of tapestry brick with a concrete foundation.
Unit heaters are located at intervals around the shop and wall radiators where required in rooms, etc.
All electric lighting fixtures are arranged to conform to the latest practice in shop lighting. All wire is run in conduit in the ceilings, floors and walls with pull boxes at convenient intervals. Pipe trenches are provided for the distribution pipes for steam, air, gas, electricity and water. Electric railway maintenance men will find the new electrical repair shop of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation of particular interest because of the modern equipment provided. In planning the department of electrical repairs, particular attention was given to grouping departments and equipment so that the part being repaired will move progressively from one operation to the next and all interference, cross-routing and back-tracking of parts will be eliminated. An accompanying plan shows the shop divided into sections so as to illustrate the efficient manner in which work of similar character is grouped.
Section 3, with a track over which cars can be brought into the shop, is used for the receipt and shipping of all equipment and material. Three soldering furnaces mounted permanently alongside the winding stands are used to heat irons for soldering the rear ends of some types of armature windings which cannot be dipped for soldering.
Suction to remove the dust and loose particles is provided by a motor-driven fan mounted on the balcony, which serves as a roof for the cleaning room.
To show the particular uses to which the various pieces of equipment are put in the department of electrical repairs would require a detailed description of each maintenance operation.
With the compound properly heated and mixed, the valve between the two tanks is opened and the compound runs into the impregnating tank. But, there were a lot more doors we’ve been taking photos of over the past few months. Unlike the other cars, they had bars on the windows and travelled with armed guards and an irregular schedule. Seven years ago, these cars were replaced by armored trucks that take the roads instead of the tracks.
When a storm approaches, workers spray the subway doors with anti-freeze, remove moisture from brake lines to prevent freezing and attach special rail shoes to trains. With 24-hour service, isn’t it hard to send crews onto the tracks to pick up loose papers, cans and other trash? The yellow and black fleet probably keeps to construction areas and subway yards, but it’s a fun scavenger hunt to try to spot them at central stations during odd hours. A large amount of heavy supplies come by water, such as castings, rails, ballast, sand, car wheels and timber. The equipment in these portions at present will be rearranged as soon as the third addition is completed.
In addition, an overhead telpher system will serve the truck shop at either end and connect with adjacent departments. This will be used only for moving trucks and supplies for the wheel and truck shop and is not intended for shifting cars.
There are alternating rows of 100-watt lamps with the wiring capacity arranged so that 200-watt lamps can be used if required.
Considering the space for buildings and yards, this will be one of the largest electric railway shops in the world. The general arrangement, however, has been planned with the object of permitting the greatest possible economy of operation by a minimum movement of men and materials.
This is part of an extended plan for expanding the inspection and repair facilities of the company. A careful record is kept of the mileage made each day by each car, and motor cars are inspected every 1,000 miles and trail cars every 1,200 miles.
The blue inspection card is attached to those cars in a train in the inspection shed which are not due for inspection, not having completed the mileage of 1,000 for motor cars and 1,200 for trail cars between inspections. It is used for regular inspection in the same way as the white card illustrated, but its color indicates that axle boxes, journals, etc., on the car are due for general oiling in addition to the inspection required on the rest of the car.
Space will not permit a reproduction of all the various blanks used, but one other is shown on page 240 and a brief reference will be made to the other more important forms. They are then tabulated and graphs are plotted showing the recurrences of different troubles, life of parts, etc. Outlines of the duties of the inspection force and of the work performed are given in the two lists, printed on pages 241 and 242. These men work one shift of nine hours, some coming on duty at six in the morning and others at seven.
The work performed at the inspection shed is constantly being followed by a corps of special inspectors.
This bonus is paid to any employee, regardless of his classification or his rate of pay, who discovers and reports cracked or broken parts of the running gear of any car. Heavy repair work is performed at the 148th Street shop for the subway division and the shop at 98th Street and Third Avenue for the Manhattan division.
Inspect and change when necessary, all arc chutes, contactor bases, auxiliary fingers, finger blocks and auxiliary contact plates. Inspect and clean the switchboards and examine fuse clips, fuses, switches, etc., on each inspection, including the main switches. Open the cabinets in all clocks (coasting recorders) and see that they are wound and supplied with tape. Test the electric brake and control circuits from each controller and the brake valve in the train, using the electric brake key to determine whether the electric brake master switch is operating correctly and the electric brake fuse is in place. Inspect and repair all manually and air-operated doors, draft rigging, car body, interiors, platforms, fitting, etc.
Clean the high-pressure portion of the UE-5 valve and clean the brake cylinder pressure limiting valve on a 30-day basis.
The General Foreman is in full charge of the inspection barn and of all men assigned to the barn.
The duties of the assistant general foreman are to run the floor, to check up on work of men, to see that trains are pulled out of the barn when turned over to transportation department, to inspect personally all cars that are cut out for the shop and all trains reported for trouble, and to see that all cars are properly tagged for the shop and are recorded in the log book. They take care of all correspondence and see that the time cards are properly registered and the time recorded.
He, also checks the bad-order list for bad-order cars and reports on the trouble to the assistant general barn foreman. These inspectors also have charge of the general inspection of the "non-inspection" cars and give special attention to the toggle bar, brake pin, special lock washers and cotter keys. They should keep a close check on the motorman's book and sign up when the repairs are made. They should inspect the tail lamps on all trains each trip and should see that all lay-up trains are equipped with freshly trimmed lamps at both ends. These buildings, which embody the latest practices for facilitating inspection of rapid transit cars, along with the adjoining storage yards, are part of a plan under which the city of New York, under the direction of the Transit Commission, is adding to the inspection and storage facilities of the Interborough. The locations of these inspection buildings are at the ends of the lines and adjoin the storage yards so as to reduce dead car mileage to a minimum. The operating company supplies the conduits and wires for lighting and power; lighting fixtures, cranes, testing apparatus, storeroom bins and other similar equipment which is not considered a part of the actual building. On account of the operating demands the company has constantly been increasing the number of its cars, and this means that there should be corresponding increase in adequate storage space and inspection facilities. In the entire plan for shop and storage facilities for the Interborough Rapid Transit Railway approximately $10,000,000 is being spent, which averages a little more than $4,000 per car. The real estate was obtained by the city some years ago through condemnation proceedings, and when the value of property in the vicinity was somewhat lower than at present.
The inspection building at 180th Street is typical, both as to cost and general appearance, of those contemplated for the four other locations. In the building at 180th Street a separate rolling steel door is provided for each track, 16 ft.
In this room are coal storage facilities and a small repair shop for maintenance of the steam heating equipment. A different construction was adopted at the Livonia inspection building, as the entire yard and structure were placed on a heavy fill. Under a Most Exacting Service, an Efficient System of Car Maintenance Has Been Built Up, by Which Delays per 1,000,000 Car-Miles Have Been Kept to a Low Figure. Previous articles on the repair shops, inspection methods and inspection shops of this company appeared in the issues of May 3, 1924; Aug.
During the calendar year of 1922, the last year for which statistics of this kind are available, the entire revenue-passenger business on the steam railroads or trunk-line railroads of the country (Classes I, II, and III) reporting to the Interstate Commerce Commission amounted to exactly 989,509,000 passengers, and it is estimated that the few small roads outside the jurisdiction of the commission would not be sufficient to make an aggregate of 1,000,000,000 passengers.
This means that the repair shops and maintenance shops have to be designed to permit the smallest amount of space per car with which the maintenance department can get along.
In these circumstances, the low record of the company in delays per 1,000,000 car-miles from mechanical and electrical causes, as shown in the upper chart on page 444, is remarkable.
The car equipment department of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company is headed by a superintendent of car equipment, who is also assistant to the general manager. The inspection is conducted in nine special inspection shops, located at different points in the system, as described in the previous articles mentioned. The subway rolling stock goes for all repairs except painting to the shops at 147th Street and Lenox Avenue, now being doubled in size. In addition, the heavy repairs, which, because of their character, are such that they cannot be advantageously performed at the inspection and running repair shops, are also carried on in these shops. The control apparatus and car wiring are subject to the following inspection and tests as cars go through the shop. If any controller cylinders are found with worn or loose segments, they are removed and sent to the machine shop for repairs. All worn or burnt fingers or segment boards are replaced All wire connections are tightened.
At this time, broken or burnt insulators are replaced and the insulating collars are cleaned and shellacked. The interval for the truck trolleys is every 18 months and that for the motor leads every 24 months. All drawheads, pins and coupling links and also all pinions and gears are checked up for wear with a limit gage.
The advantages of this system as a means of saving investment are perhaps no more prominently exhibited than in the work of turning wheels. It is therefore in a position to be well acquainted with methods of maintenance and repair for both kinds of rolling stock and can offer to others the valuable experience it has gained in doing this work side by side with two distinct classes of equipment. Owing to the exacting character of the service, special attention is given on both divisions of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company to proper and adequate lubrication.
At this time, the waste is removed from the motor axles and journal boxes, which are then repacked. At this time the superintendent of car equipment calls the attention of the division superintendents to any special points in the lubrication report which seem to call for consideration.
Records are kept in the main office showing the date on which each car was last in the paint shop, the time when it should return to the shop if not called in earlier and the kind of painting called for.
The elevated cars, being very conspicuous from the street, are painted an orange color with black striping and considerable lettering.

These shops, yards and storage space, when completed, will extend along the Harlem River from 145th Street to 151st Street, with western frontage for part of the property on Lenox Avenue and for part of the property on Seventh Avenue. As explained in the text, a great deal of study has been given by the engineers of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company to methods of testing wheels, axles and pinions.
It is very similar to the method used for testing wheels, as described on the opposite page.
These powerful lathes for turning steel wheels have been of enormous help in keeping the cars used in New York rapid transit service supplied with wheels. Clean and paint rheostat frames and hangers, contact boxes, fuse boxes, junction boxes, compressor and cradle, brake cylinder, air reservoirs, pipes, cleats, rods, clamps, asbestos, linings, truss rods, posts, needle beams and needle-beam truss rods, end caps and nuts.
Remove varnish with remover and revarnish advertisement sign and window moldings, window cappings, pier panels, wainscotings, wire moldings at cross-seats, blind stops, cross and side seat framing and risers, end bulkhead partitions, end stationary sash, swing sash, switch boxes, cab partitions both sides, end doors, cab doors both sides, all wood trim not removed from car. Trim as follows: Apply window guards, signal bells, bell cord, anchors, hooks and eyebolts, emergency cords, anchors, hooks and eyebolts, end doors, casings, locks, lock keepers, chafing plates, anti-rattlers, rubber bumpers, cab doors, locks, lock keepers, seat rests, and lock stile brace plates, cab upper and lower sashes, lifts, locks, lock stops, casings and partings, cab seats, swing sash catches and keepers, upper and lower body sashes, blinds, curtains, sash and blind lifts, partings and casings, sash locks and stops, notice signs, cross and side seat backs, fire extinguisher box complete, destination sign box and sign blade brackets.
Connections are provided to the Culver, Sea Beach and West End lines and through the Coney Island terminal to the Brighton Beach Line.
They are designed to maintain 2000 subway cars in service and liberal provision is made for the expansion of each department to meet the future demands. Most of this area was filled with subway excavation to a depth of 7 feet to 12 feet, a number of years ago, The settlement of this fill had displaced the underlying mud in many places and had formed mud waves which made an unsatisfactory foundation condition for the buildings and equipment. The buildings have large side wall sash and the roof, which is flat, consists of alternate high and low panels supported on the bottom and top chords of the roof trusses. The Inspection Shed on the west side of the group is connected at the north end to the Sea Beach Line and at the south end to the yard. This building is 80 feet wide by by 480 feet long with two tracks connected to the yard at each end.
It is divided into three 75-foot bays extending east and west with 10-foot trucking aisles between the same.
This work is accommodated in a one-story building 40 feet by 230 feet, directly east of and connected to the Paint Shop and Transfer Bay. Between these departments and the Scheduled Car Repair Shop there is a Cross Transfer Bay, 40 feet wide and 640 feet long, served with two 15-ton cranes at a height of 30 feet. This room is equipped with 32 circular Bradley wash fountains each capable of accommodating eight to ten men at one time. The second story is connected to the Main Shop by a bridge on the Mezzanine level by which truck loads of material can pass through the mezzanine of the Main Shop and over a second bridge into the Inspection Shed. The Oil House is a one-story and basement building, the basement being devoted to tank storage of lubricating oils with space for waste, etc.
This is located close to the entrance gates and now houses the offices and drafting room of the Mechanical Department.
The first installation consists of two 720 cubic feet electric driven Westinghouse air compressors with automatic control which maintains a pressure of 90 to 100 pounds at the receivers. This is provided for by 28 overhead electric traveling cranes located as previously mentioned. In addition to the yard hydrants, interior stand pipes with hose are provided throughout the Shop. In this department wheels are bored, axles turned or straightened, defective wheels replaced and worn wheels are turned or replaced.
The latest improvements in machine tool design with automatic features are included, which insures good workmanship and low maintenance and labor costs.
Three tracks are provided on which mounted wheels are stored as they move to and from the machines. When the roughing tool has finished its work the operator releases the tool and turns the turret so that the next finishing tool is in position for instantly commencing its work. This machine eliminates draw filing and burnishing of finished surfaces and reduces the time required to 30 minutes where 3 hours are required by older methods. The new activity is an essential one so far as New York City is concerned, which is something that cannot be said of many of the activities at Coney Island. It occupies a building 86 feet wide and 600 feet long in which are located four specially designed pits, each with a capacity for eight regular subway cars or four of the Triplex car units.
This of course results in a greater proficiency at their special tasks by the individual workmen and also in increasing the output of the shop force as a whole. The tracks at the pits are raised clear of the floor and mounted on cast steel chairs, so that there is a clear space of 9 inches between the floor and bottom of the rail.
There are 10 work benches of metal frame construction with wooden tops over which there is a sheet steel surface.
These tanks are supplied directly from the storage tanks in the main oil house by means of pipe line connections.
The foremen of the car body inspectors and the truck inspectors occupy one pulpit office, while the foremen of the electrical inspectors and the pneumatic inspectors occupy the other.
These four major classifications of inspection work are electrical, car body, truck and pneumatic. Groups whose work might interfere because of a common location of the parts of the equipment to be inspected by the two groups usually start working from opposite ends of the pits so that they cross each others path but once while working on 24 cars. If there are any adjustments of brake equipment required that make it necessary to send the truck into the Intermediate Repair Shop, the inspector notes this on the prescribed form and arranges to have the truck transferred to the other shop. The brake rigging and all movable parts oil the truck are lubricated every mileage inspection, about once a week for each subway car on the average.
The surrounding parts of the armature and brush holders are examined to discover any accumulation of dust and compressed air is used to blow out the dust where necessary. This work is done on every mileage inspection and where necessary the required adjustments or replacements are made. The covers are removed, the electrical contacts and fingers inspected, the interiors wiped out and lightly lubricated. The water used in the batteries is distilled in special stills, provided for this purpose in the Electrical Repair Shop. The buttons, carbons, contacts, key switch mechanism, door indicators, contact studs, terminals, leads, etc., are carefully inspected, adjusted, and necessary renewals or replacements made.
The switches and circuits are tried out for proper operation, the fuses checked to insure that the proper size fuse is inserted in the proper fuse clips.
The tower is equipped with the most modern devices and its 88 lever machine makes it one of the three largest towers in the system; only Tower No.
There are 22 switch levers, 25 home signal levers, 6 approach signal levers and 4 dwarf signal levers. The second floor is equipped for the use of the towermen and maintainers while the ground floor is devoted to the storage of materials for use in the tower and entire interlocking plant it controls. Many of our readers remember some village shop and a brawny smith with bare arms and leather apron.
The bellows are replaced with electric driven blowers and smoke is removed by an exhaust fan connected through underground ducts to hoods over the fires.
Each furnace is specially selected for its particular service, some are single and some are double ended.
It is stored in two 5,300 gallon underground tanks in the yard, whence it is pumped through underground pipes with branches, to each furnace. When bar stock is brought into the shop it is cut to length in a powerful triple punch and shear which can also split plates. Unlike many smith shops the building has splendid natural light and ventilation from the roof skylights. The Gray planer is an open side machine 26 feet long with a table 12 feet long and four feet wide.
There are also two heavy duty swing drills, a 20 inch heavy duty shaper and a 12 inch slotting machine for cutting keyways, etc. The work done in the tool room consists of making and repairing tools for shop use and the work is enclosed by a heavy wire screen directly connected to the tool crib. This equipment includes the car compressors, parts of door engines, brake valves, feed valves, compressor governors, triple valves, reservoir tanks, air hose and many similar minor parts. Compressor armatures are removed and the compressors cleaned in potash and water tanks before repairs. When completed the entire group will form the largest and best equipped electric railway inspection and repair shops in the world. 4, while the railway company provides the equipment, including heating, lighting, power, machine tools, cranes, elevators, etc. Pedestals are placed along each side of the central section of the shop devoted to stripping and winding of armatures. The shop is arranged to handle the largest as well as the smallest item of electrical repair work rapidly and efficiently. Provision for expansion and installation of equipment to meet future increased requirements has been made. Armatures, the repair of which constitutes a large part of the work done at this shop, are inspected as they are received and are divided into two general classes first, those that require complete rewinding, and, second, those that can be repaired without rewinding. To these are brought pipes containing gas and compressed air and the conduit with wires for connection to both alternating and direct-current supply sources. Each soldering furnace has a gas connection and burner of sufficient size so that two soldering irons can be heated at one time. Compressed air is played on the armature and a vacuum system sucks away all loose particles.
The refuse material is drawn from the receptacles up through the vertical pipe to a Cyclone separator, in which large particles and any heavy material drop down and through an 8-in.
Unless a commutator is in very bad condition it is the practice to replace the same one on an armature.
The principal repairs made to an armature, however, will illustrate the need for much of the equipment.
The winder puts in the bottom coils and tapes them down to hold them in position, properly lined up. From the foregoing outline it will be seen that drying and baking ovens are used extensively. Peepholes in the top covers of these tanks permit the operator to watch the compound as it rises and shut off the valve when the equipment has been covered over to a depth of from 18 in. For repairs to controller equipment, contactor boxes, switch groups, line switches, magnets and door equipment.
Just a note however, that all the different phone numbers, like this Station Dept number actually lead to one place: the Rail Control Center. While most New Yorkers are intimately familiar with the silver-colored passenger cars, there’s another 350 or so lesser-known cars that make the commutes, errands and excursions possible. When completed an area of 265 acres will be occupied by the present and new shops, office buildings, service buildings and storage yards. The location of the yards along the Harlem River is particularly convenient for receiving such supplies. The second was an addition to the south side of the shop throughout its entire length to provide facilities which, with the new arrangement, will be used as a blacksmith shop, mill room, wheel shop and repair shop for wrecked cars. The arrangement shown on the accompanying drawing is for the shop as it will ultimately be equipped. The location of machines and equipment for the wheel and axle department, which is adjacent to the truck shop, has not been definitely decided, but wheel press and wheel lathe locations have been laid out and double-track connections perpendicular to the sides of the shop are being arranged to each machine. Inside the shop the tracks are provided with pits, with the floor between pits constructed flush with the top of the rails.
After the mileage clerk makes out his list of cars to be inspected, one copy is sent to the shop department and another copy to the train dispatcher. The back of the card contains space for record of the inspection of the storage batteries, as each car on the system carries a battery for emergency lighting. Nevertheless, while these cars are in the shops, the company does give the more important parts, such as running gears, air brakes, draft rigging, and contact shoe devices a thorough inspection, and the parts of lesser importance a superficial inspection.
The company has an arrangement with the oil companies whereby an oil tank truck delivers the supply direct to the inspection buildings. These men drop into the various inspection sheds at unexpected times and check up the work and methods being employed. The entries in this book are filled out by the motorman and conductor for every car that has trouble on the road. This system of stimulating the detection of defects to the vital parts of the equipment keeps the men keyed up and is considered by the company the best possible insurance against serious road trouble happening. When the controller is in "on" position, let go of the button and make a test of the pilot and "E" valves. He also is responsible to see that the motorman's report book is checked, that the repairs called for in this book are made and that the book is signed to indicate that the repairs have been made.
On these and all other matters in which he is in doubt the chief clerk is to consult with the general foreman and assistant general foreman. He also reports all defects which he discovers to the night barn foreman and leaves a written report for the general foreman.
Trolleyman will test brakes (electric and pneumatic) on all cars, but the brake adjustment is done by the air-brake inspector, as already described.
Altogether there are six projects of this sort, including the two which have just been finished.
In all the work of design the engineers of the railway company naturally worked closely with those of the commission, so that the finished shops represent the ideas of both. The trackwork within the building, however, is classified along with that outside and it is installed by the city. The two which are completed are those at 180th Street, the Bronx Park terminus of the Lexington Avenue line, and at Livonia Avenue in Brooklyn, at the end of the Eastern Parkway line. It is estimated that with 222 miles of track the maximum number of cars that can be operated is 3,000. This figure does not include the $5,000,000 required for the general overhaul and repair shops nearly completed at 148th Street on the Lenox Avenue branch of the Seventh Avenue line, and which were described in ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL May 3, 1924, page 688. The total construction cost is, therefore, somewhat less than the cost would be to duplicate the project today, although the building was only recently finished.
The building is classed as semi-fireproof, being constructed without wood, but not having the steel work encased in concrete.
About 50 per cent of the wall area, however, is taken up with windows having steel sash and wire glass.
Radiators are placed along the side end walls of the main shop, and additional steam coils are suspended from the roof trusses.
Although the yard tracks were very conveniently supported directly on the fill, it was considered inadvisable to place the building on such an unstable foundation as was offered by the filled ground.
This mileage is more than that which would be taken by the operation of a subway car 20 times around the circumference of the earth at the equator every day for a month. Added to all of these conditions which face the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the city of New York, which is responsible for providing the necessary shop and inspection facilities under the dual contracts, is far behind in this part of its program.
The fact that the head of the mechanical department is thus also in close official connection with the highest councils in the company shows the importance in which good maintenance is held on the Interborough and the authority which it is realized he should have.
In these shops all cars are inspected on a mileage basis, the motor cars after every 1,000 miles and the trail cars after every 1,200 miles. The cars for the elevated system are repaired at the shops belonging to the Manhattan Elevated Railway at 98th Street and Third Avenue.
The finger blocks and arc chutes are thoroughly cleaned and any necessary repairs are made.
The operating magnet valves are overhauled and pin valve seats are ground on a six months basis. The flexible jumper connections between the cars, on which the reliability of the service depends to a large extent, are removed on a time basis of 18 months. Wire is purchased by the company only from certain manufacturers who have been found able and willing to make wire that meets the company's specifications. Before a car is returned to service the air brakes, control and motor circuits are tested and the brakes are adjusted.
The original axles were annealed, but many years ago specifications were changed to call for higher-grade heat treatment such as is now used in the best automobile practice.
It is then thoroughly wiped clean with waste, after which it is put in a hot bath of oil at a temperature of 240 deg.
Axle cap bolt lock washers are of the type known as parallel washer, made of high-powered steel. Previous to its development, less than 20 years ago, steel tires were used, but owing to the high rates of braking they were not satisfactory. Under the piece-work system the men have a strong incentive for speeding up, and the output of the lathes is correspondingly increased. While the same methods are followed in maintaining both the steel and wooden car bodies, the body repairs of each type require entirely different types of shop machinery. The methods employed represent an extended experience of the engineers of both the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Galena Signal Oil Company, which has a yearly contract with the railway company for the lubrication of car equipment at a guaranteed cost per 1,000 car-miles. Thus a record of an excessive amount of oil used is a reason for asking for an explanation of the conditions which brought about such a condition. The use of so light a color is not considered necessary in the subway, so the cars on the subway division are painted a Pullman green with no lettering except the word "Interborough" on the letterboard, and the number of the car on each side at each end.
Other figures with typical blanks used in the shops of the company were published in the issue of this paper for March 17, 1923. It is between 98th and 99th Streets on Third Avenue and occupies the greater part of two city blocks. The five accompanying views show the processes used when the wheels come into the repair shop. The babbitt furnaces, the pyrometer and the racks for bearings of different sizes are at the right. The outside of a pair of journal brasses is being finished in View 1 and the inside in View 3. Side and end window posts, window stops, post battens, pier panels, window stools, aprons, sheathings, panels, battens, end body doors, end door posts and battens, body corner posts and battens, end stationary sash.
Letterboards, lower deck crown moldings, end door headers, bulkhead panels, hood bows, hood sheathing and battens. Upper deck sill and plate posts, panels moldings and sash stops, car ends, roof sheathing at eaves, and hood sweep panels. Sand and putty, letterboards, side and end window posts, window stops, post battens, pier panels, window stools, aprons, sheathing panels, battens, end body doors, end door posts, and headers, post battens, bulkhead panels, bows, head sheathing, end stationary sash, upper body side end sash.
Includes: fit and drill all holes, replace all broken or missing parts found on inspection.
Before construction commenced, the site was graded, the surcharge being moved into the low and unfilled portions. At each truss there is a continuous line of top hung sash inclined at an angle of approximately 27 degrees to the vertical thus distributing ample natural illumination to all parts of the buildings.
The building, 86 feet wide by 600 feet long, has four tracks with pits, bench space and storage room. Each track will be equipped with a drop type transfer table by which damaged trucks can be removed and good order trucks replaced under cars. This Transfer Bay furnishes cross movement and direct access to every department of the Shop. Space is also provided for 1000 of the transit company's standard metal clothes lockers, which are 12 inches by 15 inches by 6 feet high.
Elevators of 10,000 pounds capacity are provided in the Store House, Main Shop and Inspection Shed. Sea grade fuel oil is used and storage is provided in three 8500-gallon tanks buried in the yard.
The feeders enter through underground ducts to the switchboards, located in two fireproof switchboard rooms in the Transfer Bay. Air distribution is provided to all parts of the shop through underground pipes in the pipe trenches and through branch pipes in the concrete floors to outlets in floors and on columns. These cranes were built to the transit company's specifications by the Box Company and are arranged for cage or floor control depending upon the service required. In the Oil House there is also provided high pressure steam pipes with outside control valves for smothering fire inside of the building.
All machines are driven by direct connected electric motors using the 600-volt railway current. Car loads of mounted wheels coming from the Inspection Shops and other points on the System will enter at the north end of the Shop where they will be unloaded and moved to the Storage tracks by the overhead cranes. This machine which is of the most modern design will be operated by one operator with a helper who will be able to turn out three or more pairs of mounted wheels per hour. The 400-ton wheel press made by the Chambersburg Engineering Co., is used for mounting and demounting wheels on axles. The pressure used in mounting wheels is recorded on a hydrauligraph, thus keeping a record of the pressures and insuring uniformity of work. The main shaft and most of the moving parts are enclosed thus adding to the safety of operation. Three of the pits are used at night for routine inspection work while the fourth is reserved for cars going to or coming from the intermediate Repair Shop or for cars which have been found on inspection to require special attention or repairs by the inspection shop force.
The pits are illuminated with special enameled white porcelain reflectors at frequent intervals, with the lamp sockets placed at the top of the reflector at an angle that will provide a maximum of light on the mechanism beneath the floor of the car.
Each bench is equipped with a vice, and has eight drawers for the storage of tools, materials, etc. The inspectors in each classification take care of the inspection of that part of the car equipment as it goes through the shop.
The second will inspect and lubricate the electric brakes and inspect the plug switches, "Power On" Recorder, relay and toggle switch. The waste on the journal boxes has to be inspected and a packing iron applied to make certain the waste is properly located under the journal seat.
The operating magnet valves are tried out individually and as to final train operation from the master switch. The trips are then reassembled and gauged for proper adjustments above the running rail and as to the proper centering of the trip arm after being applied.
All of the vent caps on the batteries are cleaned of scale and then oiled, before being replaced in the battery boxes. After the board has been reassembled, the operation of the door circuits is tried out from the board. 1 at East New York exceeding it in size and the Coney Island Creek Tower being on a par in size with Tower A. The interlocking machine is the latest improved all-electric interlocking type and was built and installed by the General Railway Signal Company. In the old type machines this "call on" control was in the back of the machine and the towerman bad to go behind the machine to operate a special lever to give the "call on" signal to the motorman. Tower A eventually will be supplemented by another tower to be known as Tower B, in controlling car movements in and out of the vicinity of Coney Island Shop Yards.
What a fascination the smoky place with its creaking bellows, glowing fire, hot iron and clanking anvil had for the youngsters who gathered around the door to see the horses shod. The hammers rest on timbers supported on concrete foundations and separate cushioned foundations are provided under the anvil blocks.
There is also a double chamber tool furnace for tempering the special steels used in the shop tools; a pyrometer attached to this furnace records the furnace temperatures and insures the right working temperature for each kind of steel. The furnaces were made by the Mahr Manufacturing Company and each one has its own electric-driven blower. Each of the latter is in a separate enclosure to protect other workmen from the glare of the welding arc. Drinking fountains and shower baths will add to the comfort of the shop force, especially in hot weather.
This machine, which has two heads on the cross rail and one on the side housing, is driven by a 25 H.
The bins are arranged to form the room enclosure and heavy wire mesh forms a ceiling, preventing entrance to the room except through the, door or tool room. These parts pass through the machine shop in small quantities requiring a shop which is quite different from a manufacturing plant where quantity production keeps each machine continuously engaged on one operation. This is necessary because of features in its control apparatus that are different from other subway or elevated cars. The four small pictures show close-ups in the corresponding corners of the bay, which is spanned by a 5-ton traveling crane and two traveling wall jib cranes.
Seven buildings are now in the course of erection, with a total floor area of nearly 13 acres.
The building now used for the department of electrical repairs is the first one to be completed and the city is now proceeding with the construction of the remainder of this comprehensive group of repair and inspection shops.
From this the circuits run to separate lighting and power panels at convenient points in the shop. Quick repairs to electric car equipment are necessary, not only to keep the maximum number of cars in service continually, but also to minimize the number of spare parts that must be stocked. Plenty of space has been left around machine tools so that equipment can be handled efficiently without interference. All armatures are moved into section 4 by cranes or trucks and are placed on adjustable stands manufactured by the Columbia Machine Works. Any sharp corners or rough edges in the slots that might cause damage to the coils are filed and the slots are cleaned carefully to receive the insulating material for the core. While armature repairs constitute a large part of the work done, the different steps in rewinding and the order in which the work is completed differ somewhat with the various types of armatures.
The armature is then placed in one of the baking ovens for two or three hours, in order to heat it up. These are located in a separate room in section 11, adjacent to which is another room with a complete dipping and impregnating installation. Devine Company, also equipment for dipping armatures by the rolling method and a very complete overhead I-beam hoist system for handling heavy pieces of equipment. Motors and control equipment are tested with high potential apparatus and certain types are given an actual running test. Winding room for armatures, magnets and all other small coils, steam coil presses installed so that armature coils can be completed except for dipping and baking. Tests of all material for electrical, maintenance and general repair shops for physical and chemical properties.
At about 224 feet long, each train has one car with a vacuum-blower, two cars that filter and store the trash, and two cars with 475-horsepower engines to run it. The new buildings will extend from 147th Street to 151st Street between Seventh Avenue and the Harlem River, and additional storage space will be available between Lenox Avenue and the Harlem River as far south as 145th Street. The third addition, which is now under construction, consists of the general repair shop, an administration building, section for electrical and machine repairs, together with two service buildings, one for the stores department and the other for the way and structures department.
The general shape of the office building is that of an L, which extends along Seventh Avenue for a distance of 105 ft. The telpher system, which is to serve this department, has been laid out so as to provide a continuous movement of material without interference. There are 26 cells, and the gravity, height of electrolyte, volts per cell, and total volts are recorded.
The men sign up this card for work done in the same manner as with the white inspection card. The entries on this card are printed somewhat closer together to allow for blanks covering the lubrication attention required. Storage tanks capable of holding two weeks' supply of the various oils used are to be found in the oil room.
This report gives the number of the car, minutes delayed, time taken out of service, nature of trouble, names of conductor and motorman, etc.
Clean out the coupler sockets and clean and spread and tighten all terminals in sockets and jumpers.
See that all pipe clamps are in place and tight and that all bolts in the air-hose clamps are tight. He also sees that full service at all times is available for the transportation department. In case of any train trouble or delay on the division to which the inspector is assigned he will give a detailed report of such trouble in the car inspector's book, which is provided for such reports. Under the contract between the company and the city, the latter is responsible for supplying to the company all necessary facilities of this kind.
Including the existing storage yard, the contemplated plans will only suffice to provide facilities until this number is reached.
These provide a sufficiently high temperature so that the men may work in the shop during the winter time without requiring extra clothing. Every second row contains single fixtures, each holding a 200-watt, 125-volt lamp, supplied from the 125-volt a.c. The building was, therefore, mounted on steel columns, with the main floor supported on steel girders to bring it level with the yard. 31, 1922, the number of passengers carried by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company was 1,001,730,481. Frequently on the subway individual cars average more than 5,000 miles per month, and during this time they have to make from 12,000 to 15,000 starts and stops. It is true that now, after long delay, the shop and inspection facilities of the company are being extended by the city, as described in the previous articles referred to, and an especially needed extension of the repair shops at 147th Street and Lenox Avenue for the subway division is now in course of construction.
All mechanical parts such as shafts, pinions, gears and levers are repaired and readjusted, where this is needed.
The old jumper cable is scrapped and new cable is used so that the jumpers will be in 100 per cent condition. Since the adoption of these specifications there has never been an axle failure under any of the Interborough cars. The back of the card contains space for further remarks, as well as a duplicate illustration of the field coil or armature.
The heat from the action of the brakes used would tend to loosen the tire and special means had to be adopted to correct this trouble. The result of this is that at the 147th Street shop only three wheel lathes are required, each wheel lathe operated by one man turning out an average of 15 pairs of turned wheels per day. The steel cars are repaired at 147th Street and Lenox Avenue subway shop, which is equipped with the necessary iron-working machinery for making all classes of steel body repairs. A typical report showing the method of tabulating the amount and cost of lubrication is that reproduced in the accompanying table, which shows the lubricant chargeable to cost per 1,000 miles during March, 1924, for the subway division. The oil is then carefully strained through several layers of cheese cloth and is then used again for lubricating journal bearings, while the refuse is retained for greasing drawbars, brake riggings, side bearings sector bars, etc. Side and end window posts, window stops, post battens, pier panels, window stools, aprons, sheathing, panels, battens, end body doors, end door posts and battens, end stationary sash, upper body side and end sash.
The preliminary plans were developed by the transit company with the assistance of the engineering firm of Dwight P. This building provides for the inspection of trains from the Brighton Beach, Sea Beach, Fourth Avenue and West End Lines. During this operation the car body will be held up by special overhead cranes equipped with suspension hooks which will engage the underside of the car sills. Each trolley is equipped with removable hooks by which car bodies can be lifted off trucks and spotted for repairs or painting, the crane lift of 30 feet being sufficient to transport car bodies over other cars standing on the floor. The cranes north of the Transfer Bay are at a lower level and extend into the Transfer Bay for ready exchange of loads from one crane to the other. Directly south of the Wash and Locker Room a First-Aid room is provided which is equipped with the usual First-Aid Room facilities. An entrance gate house at the yard entrance is also provided at which there is stationed a watchman, a waiting room and employment office.
The boilers are connected through overhead flues to an 8 foot by 200 foot radial brick stack. From these switchboards the current is distributed through separate feeders in underground conduits for lighting, crane operation, testing, and welding sets and machine tool power. Floor outlet boxes with hinged covers are set in the floor at frequent intervals where air hose connections can be made as required.
In addition to the overhead cranes, the shop equipment includes a number of Ellwell-Parker storage battery trucks of various types for different services. Further consideration will be given to the necessity of sprinklers in the Wood Mill and Paint Shop where the risk may warrant their installation. Incoming mounted wheels which require journal truing will be set in the gap type journal truing lathe by the overhead jib crane on which there will be mounted a two-ton electric hoist.
The auxiliary motor is controlled by a reversing controller which automatically locks the tailstock by an electric brake when the controller is turned back to the "off" position. The use of the two cranes is a considerable time saver as it enables the operator to pick up one wheel while the machine is working upon another. Through the use of the double head it is possible to either mount or remove one wheel, a gear and wheel or both wheels at the same operation. The press is also equipped with compressed air by which the rams are quickly pulled back after the pressure stroke thus materially speeding up the work. By keeping one track in reserve for the work of an unusual character, the movement of cars over the inspection pits is maintained without unnecessary delay and thus a maximum number of cars can be handled by the inspection force.
These light sockets have special cut-out switches and plugs that enable the workmen to cut out any individual light they desire and plug in their hand lamps when necessary without the bother of even removing the bulb from the pit socket. There is one carpenter bench which is also of metal frame construction, but has no steel sheet over the wooden top. They are removed at regular intervals on Hi-lo trucks and empty ones provided, the loaded receptacles being transported to a central point for the disposal of waste and rubbish. The work under each of the major classifications is further specialized, so that the electrical equipment, for instance, is subdivided into eight groups to each of which one inspector and his assistants devote their particular attention.
Each card has three columns, one in which the items are listed, the second for the signature of the inspector who has examined each item specified and the third for the signature of the assistant foreman who has checked the inspectors' work.

A third will take care of the inspection of the buzzers, switches, door operating boxes and incidental magnets, interlocks, signals, cutout and "Hubbell Plug". The oil in the armature and motor axle hearings is measured by a gauge provided for that purpose and the required amounts as indicated by the gauge are supplied.
The contact shoe beams are given thorough inspections to determine their condition, and any needed adjustments of the suspension bolts are made.
The action of the electro-pneumatic valve used in this circuit is tested as to its proper operation at this time. The connections on each individual battery are also tried out to make sure they are tight after they have been replaced in the battery boxes, or cradles, after which the battery readings are taken to determine whether proper connections have been made and the batteries are in proper condition for service. The outside emergency door push buttons, which are located on the outside of the car at the center side doors and bulkhead doors are removed, the contacts inspected and their interiors wiped off. The key operated light ground switch is checked and tested as is also the emergency light relay. The new tower is a three-story brick structure standing about 300 yards northeast of the shop buildings and a short distance south of the 86th Street station of the Sea Beach Line.
The new machine also has the ammeter and voltmeter on top of it in full view of the towerman so that be can tell at a glance just how the machine and switches are operating.
The flivver has replaced the smithy with the service station, but forges will be used as long as metal must be worked.
Soft coal is used as fuel but the exhauster pulls the smoke away from the fires, leaving the air clear and fresh. The operator feeds a hot bar into the machine and at each push on the foot pedal a completed rivet drops into the pit. The smith shop is only one unit of the Coney Island Repair Shops, but with its high-class equipment and good working conditions it should give the other departments a hard run for the efficiency record of the shops. The storage battery truck runs its platform under the stand, lifts it up and transports the stand with its load where desired. At the north end of the shop are the benches for valve repairs with compressor and separate testing racks for each type of valve. The car, one of the most modern of its kind, is equipped with a two-ton circular crane that facilitates the loading and unloading of the car. It easily lifts and lowers material that formerly had to be loaded and unloaded upon flat cars or in box cars by manual labor when transported from one shop to another.
It is equipped with hand operated control that moves the car as soon as the controller is notched. They comprise a main repair shop, an inspection shop, the electrical repair shop, which is the subject of this article; a two-story storehouse, a two-story office building, an oil house, and a boiler house. The yards for these shops occupy the entire space between the Sea Beach and Culver lines of the railway at Avenue X and extend south to Coney Island Creek. Steam is now supplied from a temporary boiler, but as soon as the main boiler house is completed connection will be made to this.
These control panels are provided with Westinghouse safety switches mounted in steel cabinets with hinged doors. If it is evident that an armature can be repaired without rewinding, it is sent to the cleaning room before dismantling. The armatures are next moved to section 5 and the commutators are tested with 3,000 volts to ground and 550 volts between bars.
With the commutator again in place, the armature is brought back to section 5 for rewinding. Sticks are then put in on top of the coils and temporary bands are applied while the armature and coils are hot. The core of the armature is then painted and the tape band is given its final coat of varnish.
At present six ovens have been installed and there is space for an additional one when the volume of work demands it. After closing the communicating valve the vacuum is relieved and air pressure is supplied by the shop air compressor at from 50 to 55 lb. Here’s a look at all the funny shapes, sizes and signs on the doors within the subway system. The Lenox Avenue subway has a station at 145th Street and two tracks will run from this into the shop yards. The accompanying plan shows the arrangement of the shops and yards and indicates the various additions.
The first floor will be taken up by a storeroom, a yardmaster's office and lunch, locker and washrooms.
The fact that the inspection card carries a list of the jobs to be done relieves the individual workman from a great deal of bookkeeping, because he has simply to make his entries on this card. A separate entry on this card is made for motorman valves, feed valves, armature bearings, air compressors, center plates, triple valves, journal bearings, axle bearings and gears, and draft brake rigging and side bearings.
Two books of this kind are kept at each of the terminals, these books being used on alternate days. Inspect and clean the inside of motor shell, fields, commutator and brush-holder and replace worn brushes, etc.
The other four projects are at the end of the Jerome Avenue line, 239th Street at the end of the White Plains Road line, Westchester at the end of the Pelham line, and Corona at the end of the Flushing extension of the Corona line in Queens. Of the detail views accompanying this article those on pages 442 to 445 inclusive were taken at the 98th Street shops, and those on pages 447 to 449 inclusive were taken at the 147th Street shops. This number was divided approximately two-thirds on the subway division and one-third on the elevated division. Again, if a car develops a defect after it has been put in service in a train, it cannot easily be cut out and put on a siding or hauled on a branch track to the repair shop, as would be the case with a line operating on the surface.
Doyle, has charge of all of inspection, maintenance, construction and engineering of rolling stock on both the elevated and subway divisions.
A considerable number of the executives connected with the maintenance department of the company have their offices at the shops at 98th Street and Third Avenue, and here also is the office of the superintendent of car equipment. Although the use of this heat-treated material appears to be entirely safe, the company has always taken the extra precaution of having axles rigidly inspected at the mills before installation and subsequently tested periodically in service. Bad order tag cards for field coils are printed on white stock, those for interpole fields on blue stock and those for armatures on buff stock. The development of the rolled-steel wheel was therefore very acceptable to the operators of the rapid transit lines in New York. All wooden cars are repaired at the 98th Street and Third Avenue shops, which have a full equipment of wood-working machinery.
These guards are so arranged that while they can be raised they cannot be removed from the machine.
The concrete piles, which were driven in groups under the building columns were tied together by reinforced concrete beams which form the supports for the building walls. All ventilating sections of windows and skylights are arranged to be operated from the floor. The building is 127 feet wide by approximately 300 feet long consisting of a high central bay 64 feet wide with overhead cranes and side bays with mezzanines for coil winding, dipping and baking rooms, etc.
Cars leaving the Repair Shop will also pass through the Inspection Shed for final inspection and adjustment of brake rigging, etc., before entering service.
The central bay of this building, 43 feet wide, will be used for truck overhauling and repairs and is equipped with two 15-ton cranes.
The tracks in this building are 20 feet apart allowing ample working and trucking space between cars. Between the Transfer Bay and the Scheduled Car Repair Shop is an area 60 feet wide by 560 feet long with a mezzanine floor 40 feet wide above.
The upper floor over the Wash and Locker room, 60 feet by 200 feet, and which is on the same level as the Shop Mezzanine, is allocated for Lunch Room and recreation purposes. Part of this floor also is used for the renovation of waste, the treatment of journal box packing, and paint and paint brush storage.
Steam is generated at 160 pound pressure and distributed at this pressure through mains to pressure reducing valves where the pressure is reduced to 3 pounds. Overhead lighting is provided of sufficient intensity to dispense with the use of individual tool lights. These include, in addition to the standard trucks, special tractor cranes of 4000 to 6000 pounds capacity and Hi-Lo tractors for lifting and transporting loads on skids, etc.
This jib crane will place the mounted wheels leaving the lathe on the track extending across the shop to the wheel lathe.
A separate motor is provided for the rapid power traverse of the boring bar spindle and the machine is equipped with the Davis boring bar for roughing and finishing. All interior walls and ceiling are painted in light colors thus giving maximum diffusion of light.
Alongside each pit is a metal enclosed cable with outlet receptacles approximately every 67 feet for use by the inspection force when they require power to test various parts of the electrical equipment of the cars on the pits. For the use of car body inspectors in preparing glass to replace windows, etc., in the cars as they go through the inspection shop, there is a specially designed glass cutting bench with the dimension lines carried across the entire top of the bench. These are transported to and from the inspection shop on Hi-lo electric storage battery trucks which are used to great advantage throughout the entire series of shops, to handle the transporting and lifting of heavy supplies and equipment.
The pneumatic equipment is likewise divided into six groups with special inspectors for each group. The inspector certifies that he has "inspected this car and have left items opposite my signature in good condition for service".
The fourth one devotes his attention to the inspection of contact shoes, and beams with the incidental fuses, shunts, fuse boxes, springs and leads. The packing used in the motor-axle bearings and journal bearings is removed and re-treated every 6 months. Attention is also given to the shoe fuses, terminals, flash boxes, contact shoe leads and jumpers, repairs and renewals made where necessary and the contact shoe then gauged and adjusted to the proper height. Where it is found necessary to replace the resistances, these changes are most generally made by a repair crew, as a separate activity from the regular inspector's work. Where the adjustments or renewals are required on the trip equipment they are most generally made by the inspector who examines them.
This inspector's duties also include the checking of the main car emergency and destination sign lights, and making the necessary replacements or repairs. It controls the main line tracks of the Sea Beach Line between 86th Street and Coney Island Creek, the lead off tracks from the main line into the yard and eleven tracks in the yard.
With the old type machines, the ammeter and voltmeter are mounted on a switchboard located in various places about the tower so that the towerman could not read their indications in many cases without shifting from their posts in front of the machine. The air brake shop makes the periodic overhaul of 1,100 car compressors, portions of 14,000 door engines, and valves and other parts in proportion.
The car is housed at the Coney Island Shops and makes that shop its focal point in the distribution of materials to the various shops of the System.
Now, one shopman in each shop is instructed in the operation of the crane and it is his task, on the arrival of the car, to operate it. The electrical repair shop occupies the northeast corner of this area immediately adjacent to the Avenue X station of the Culver line and but a short distance from the 86th Street station of the Sea Beach line.
Where repairs to the commutator are necessary these are made and the commutator is tightened carefully. Compressed air is also used in forcing the compound out of the impregnating tank and into the mixing tank, the maximum pressure used being not more than 5 lb. The first and second are now completed, the third is under way and will be finished by midsummer. The basement will be taken up by storerooms and an instruction room for the car equipment department. The second floor will be occupied by the stationery and lost property departments and the third floor will be used as a storeroom. The first floor will contain a plumbing and tinsmith shop, a paint room, blacksmith shop and provision for the lighting department, track department and road engineers' offices.
On roads of the size of the Interborough where several hundred men are employed on inspection and repair, it is considered very essential that each individual should be held directly responsible for the work he performs. Test the balance circuit by cutting in one balance switch and noting if all the compressors are working. They should also make any necessary minor repairs to doors, signal circuits, markers and light circuits and control circuits. The reinforced concrete roof has saw-teeth extending across the entire width of the building, although the steel trusses which support it do not run entirely across, but are supported at one end on a row of columns set up between two of the tracks. This arrangement was adopted to facilitate the work of the men who handle the lubrication of journals and side bearings. The fixtures in the other rows each contain five 40-watt lamps, operated from the 600-volt d.c.
If it breaks down entirely it delays not only its own train but every other train on the same track behind it and means a large loss of fares, as well as discomfort to the travelers. The Interborough company was the first to co-operate with the manufacturers in the introduction of the rolled-steel type of wheel for heavy traction work. A safety feature of this hammer is that the operator must use both hands on the machine while the hammer descends. The view at the right shows the method of telephone testing armature and commutator connections to show short circuits and grounds. The preliminary plans were turned over to the Board of Transportation where the building plans and contracts were prepared under the direction of Mr. In some places where mud waves existed under the new fill it was found necessary to drive concrete piles for the support of shop floors.
On the ground floor are located rigging, sheet metal work, electrical construction work, pipe-fitting and shoe beam work, these departments thus being located close to the car repair work.
Toilet facilities are provided in rooms on the mezzanine with direct stairway access from the main floor.
The distribution of the lubricating oils to this large plant has been given special study and the Bowser system used throughout. The shops are heated by 71 unit heaters containing heating coils and electrically driven fans.
Plug outlets are provided on columns, walls, etc., for extension lights to be used in cars and for plugging into car lighting systems.
At the intersection of this cross track with the storage tracks, special air lifts have been provided which act like a turntable for lifting and turning the wheels at right angles onto the storage tracks.
The flooring is of creosoted wood block on a concrete base which will resist wear from the wheels and other heavy loads. All of the subway cars operated on these lines are sent through the inspection shop at Coney Island on the average of once a week.
In addition to this power supply for test purposes there is a compressed air pipe line alongside each pit with cut-in valves approximately every 20 feet for use by the inspection force when testing the pneumatic portions of the car equipment or for cleaning purposes. These portable tanks contain denatured alcohol and the three varieties of oil used for lubricating special parts of the equipment.
As the brake shoes are removed from the cars, the foremen indicate which are to be scrapped and which are to be saved, and those to be salvaged are collected separately so that there is no possibility of their being carried away with those to be scrapped.
As a final check on the work, the foreman of each major classification signs each card for his class of work to indicate that he has examined the card and "believes this car is O.K.
The fifth inspector specializes in coupler equipment: slides, fingers and shunts, together with the cable hangers and clamps and the junction boxes, jumpers receptacles and covers.
On the electrical portion of the Westinghouse H2A couplers, the couplers are dropped at the present time on every second mileage inspection, the slide contacts pads are removed, the contact fingers wiped off, and the interior of the housing cleaned out. The marker, tail and running lights are also tested by this inspector as well as the door signal lights. The switches and signals in this controlled territory are interlocked with the tower machine so that all train movements in this territory are regulated and governed by the towerman in charge at Tower A. The new machine is provided with a combination polarized relay and circuit breaker on each switch machine lever so arranged that electrical trouble, such as a short circuit, in the control circuit for one switch unit will electrically disconnect the defective unit from the interlocking machine without interrupting the main current supply to other units as would happen with the old models of the machine. Safe working brakes on the subway cars and smooth, quick acting doors are the result of the skilled work in this department.
The car itself is different in appearance than anything that has been seen on the Company's lines.
The new car is also equipped with compromise type contact shoes that permit its operation over both the "L" and subway lines.
Some further details as to the construction of these stands and the convenience for various classes of work will be given in connection with the shop equipment. The wall jib cranes serve the machine tools so that the traveling crane can be used for longer movements and for placing material conveniently to machines.
One is bolted securely to the floor, while the other is left free to be moved so that adjustment can be made to take care of various lengths.
The pipe from each receptacle has a damper so that one can be shut off while the other is in use. The hood from the pipe fits over the top of the steel drum and is held in close contact by a large steel ring so that there is no tendency for the dirt to fly about the room. Should there be short circuits or grounds inside or at the rear end which cannot be repaired properly with the commutator in place it is pressed off.
This bay will be partitioned off for use as an air room, a machine shop and a department of electrical repairs. This the work card illustrated allows, because it has listed all of the various parts of the equipment with space for the signature of the man who does the work. The clerk makes a copy of the book each day and returns it to the terminal so that it will be available for the following day. Inspection tracks with pits, extending the full length of the building, provide accommodations for 80 cars. Pre-cast concrete slabs with wire mesh reinforcement cover the sloping sides of the roof, with a finish of roofing tile laid over roofing paper. In each pit side wall are recesses for electric lamps and receptacles for attaching extension cords.
The figures of passengers carried by the Interborough for 1923 and 1924 are given in Table I.
This demands that, in spite of the tremendously arduous railway conditions prevailing in subway operation, breakdowns from mechanical defects and pull-ins have to be kept practically to zero. It is then vibrated and carefully examined with a magnifying glass for evidence of detail fractures.
Since its introduction the company has carefully followed up all later developments and performances of this type of wheel in heavy traction service. In general, the floor, which was placed on the fill after the site bad been graded, consisted of an 8 or 9-inch concrete slab heavily reinforced, top and bottom with rods in each direction. Track doors are rolling steel shutters and where these doors will be subjected to frequent operation, they are electrically operated with push button control. The mezzanines and space under them are well lighted by large windows in the side walls and the central bay is covered by a saw-tooth roof with additional roof lights consisting of large tile with insert glass. Isolated toilet facilities are provided at frequent and convenient locations on the main floor throughout the shop. Oils are received in tank car shipments, unloaded through fill pipes to tanks in the basement and then pumped by motor driven pumps to various stations throughout the shop where the oil must be drawn for use. In general, air is drawn in to the heater near the floor and blown out above head height at a temperature of about 120 degrees.
In the Inspection Shop in addition to overhead lighting, pit lights are provided with enameled iron reflectors and so located as to illuminate the underside of the cars over the pits. These air lifts consist of an air cylinder below the floor and with saddles on the ends of the piston rods which engage the axles and form pivots on which the wheels can be easily swung around to the new position. With these special features this machine can be operated by one man where two were formerly required. At frequent intervals along the sides of the pits are toe-hold niches to enable workmen to get in and out of the pits without having to go to either end, where stairs are provided.
Each one of these cabinets has 12 drawers, each drawer with a separate lock, so that individual workmen may be assigned their own tool drawers in the cabinets. In addition to these large receptacles, smaller waste cans are placed at convenient locations throughout the shop and there is a regular schedule for the removal of rubbish from these cans.
Before this tower was placed in service, train and car movement on these yard tracks were controlled by handswitches and movements on the main line tracks and lead-offs into the yard were controlled from a temporary manually operated interlocking plant using semaphore signals.
An electrically operated extension may be projected from the arm if it is necessary and then drawn back inside the arm when the crane is ready to be swung back into the car. A hinged door the full size of the front of each receptacle is provided and to support the door as it is being opened a castor is fastened to the bottom corner farthest from the hinged side. Insulation is then inserted above the bottom coils and the top coils are placed in position. A large lecture room is provided on the first floor, which will be used for general instruction purposes, when it is necessary to assemble a considerable number of men. In addition to the entries made by the trainmen, this book contains a space in which the shopman making the repairs enters the nature of the trouble actually found and the repairs made. Inspect the leads and see that they are properly insulated and that the connections are tight. The vertical faces of the saw-teeth are fitted with steel sash glazed with clear glass, the sections being arranged to swing open.
As the pits are not open on the sides, no attempt has been made to provide storage for parts and tools on the pit floor.
Each fixture has a dome type reflector to throw the light down to cover the floor with as little overlapping as possible.
The equipment plans and specifications, including selection of machines, were made by the transit company. It was also planned to have this floor slab support the machine tools and other equipment with the exception of the heavier units which required pits and where cushions were required under hammer foundations.
The need of this excellent natural light is apparent when it is noted that all of the armature stripping, winding and banding is done in this central bay. Adjacent to this track and occupying the west end of the building are nine tracks, or space for 27 cars, provided for repairs to damaged cars and for car construction work. The locations of the heaters and the direction of the blasts are such that the warm air is distributed to all parts of the shop.
Another stops it by disconnecting the current and applying at the same time a powerful electric brake. This attachment will face, turn and groove the hubs at the same time the wheel is being rough bored.
To make it unnecessary for shop employees to jump pits when going from one side of the building to the other, cross planks with metal angles to keep them firmly in place are also provided at frequent intervals. In addition, for the use of the workmen whose trade requires tool boxes, there are 4 cabinets designed to hold 30 tool boxes each.
For use by the window cleaners, there is a storage bin for red sand which is used with pumice in the cleaning of the window and door glass of the subway cars. These cards are made part of the official shop records and provide an easy and accurate source of information as to who inspected any individual item of equipment on a car in the event that it becomes necessary to ascertain that fact. The compressor switch, main switch, resistance and leads, line switch with its fuse, resistance, overload trip and operating relay, together with the interlocks, magnets, switches and drums of the switch group are inspected by a seventh man, who also lubricates the overload trip and line breakers, the breaker, potential and accelerating relays, control cylinders and controller contacts. A switch near the motorman's cab controls the power for the operation of the crane so that it cannot be operated unless this switch is thrown in place.
Light particles are drawn through this and to the exhaust side of the fan, where they are blown outside the building. A 200 - ton horizontal - hydraulic press made by the Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company and a Watson-Stillman vertical press of 50 tons capacity do most of this work. The armature then goes into the oven a second time for heating up and again sticks are placed over the coils and temporary bands force the coils down into position.
The purpose of having the two systems of lighting is so that if one should fail the shops would not be in darkness. There are two other cards somewhat similar to the inspection card, as will be described later. Arcing plates are to be removed when loose, cracked or broken, and are to be cleaned on all inspections. Owing to the necessity of being economical of room because of the high value of real estate the clear spacing of the tracks is only 12 ft. The alternating-current circuit may be supplied either from the Interborough's line or the New York Edison Company's service, both of which operate on 33,000 volts.
The same test of being cleaned and oiled, then coated with whiting and vibrated, is applied to the wheels and also to the swing hangers, equalizer bars, king pins, car-body brake rods, pinions and axle cap bolts on all trucks when they are passing through the repair shop. The buildings comprise the Inspection Shed, Main Repair Shop, two-story Store House, Oil House, Boiler House, Office Building and Electrical Repair Shop. Under the wheel lathe, air compressors and similar equipment, wood piles were driven under the concrete foundations, the piles being cut off with the tops in ground water. The flooring in the Wash and Locker Room, Inspection Shed, Store House, Toilet Rooms, etc., are cement finished with sanitary coved base.
The supply of oil from the Oil House to these small tanks is controlled by remote control valves at each tank. If an especially hard spot on the wheels is encountered, a third push button at the operator's touch automatically slows down the machine. For the use of men at work in the pits, short step ladders are kept in the pits so that there is no excuse for men standing on boxes or other makeshift ladders when their work requires them to get up close to the floors of the cars on the pits.
This also affords protection for the tool boxes and equipment owned by the individual employees.
This combination of sand and pumice is used in damp form and is required to cut the grease which collects on the window and door glass of the rapid transit cars. A 60-ton horizontal hydraulic press is used for tightening collars, putting tension on commutators while the nuts are tightened and for removing pinions. When cold, the armature is again placed on stands and the temporary bands are cut and the sticks taken out.
Both tanks are surrounded by an elevated platform so that workmen can reach all parts without difficulty. The foreman of car-body inspectors will make a personal inspection of all cars passing through the barn. With these three sources of light it is considered improbable that the building will at any time be in complete darkness. They have a total floor area of 546,000 square feet, or about 13 acres; the approximate cost of the entire plant as provided by the City of New York and including the contribution of the transit company, under the so-called Dual Subway contract is estimated in the first instance to approximate $12,000,000, but when all extensions have been provided for, the ultimate cost will be considerably greater.
A system of pipe trenches built into the floor slab provide space for the air, oil and gas mains also for the return piping of the heating system. For this purpose the cars enter the shop from the south on the stripping track, the car bodies are then removed from the trucks by the overhead cranes and placed upon specially designed steel horses which are high enough to permit ready access to the equipment under the car body and without the use of pits. When necessary to replenish the supply of oil in a distribution tank the operator opens the remote control valve which automatically starts the oil pump in the Oil House.
The heating system is operated on the vacuum principle, condensation being collected by five vacuum pumps which return the condensate to the feed water heater in the Boiler House. Other special equipment along this side of the shop includes 4 storage bins for glass with 12 compartments in each bin. After the cards leave the custody of the foremen and before they are filed each is checked by the office staff to make sure that there is individual certification as to the inspection and checking of each item of equipment and also the general certification by the foreman on every card.
After reassembly, the electric portion is tested for proper operation, as well as the automatic drawbar locking devices. Near the planer is located the Giddings Lewis horizontal double spindle, adjustable boring, milling and tapping machine. There are also separate circuits for watchmen's lights, fire apparatus, fire alarm and hydrant designation lights. The four sides are provided with proper fittings so that connection can be made quickly for gas, air, direct current and alternating current.
Their floors are arranged to come flush with the shop floor so that trucks can be rolled-directly inside.
This distinguishes them from the general inspection card reproduced in the first illustration because it is white. See that the screws in the controller top and water cap, controller handle and reverser cap are tight. The interior of the shop is painted throughout; the side walls and ceilings are painted white with a gray tint.
The trucks then continue through on the stripping track to the truck shop in the north end for overhauling. Oils that are used in small quantities are transported in drums or portable tanks on storage battery trucks. All of the glass used in the inspection shop is stored in these bins so that it is quickly available for use when required. On every inspection where the electric portion is not disassembled for inspection, the slide pad is pressed in so as to make an inspection of the contact fingers and where an unusual condition is observed, the housing is disassembled and the required adjustments made.
This machine has special attachments designed for the railroad company which permit both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the boring bars so that armature housing bearings and axle bearings in motor shells can be bored in one operation. Particular attention has been devoted to providing large central sawtooth skylights and an unusual amount of wall space for windows so as to make the interior of the shop exceptionally light throughout the daylight hours and a most attractive place in which to work.
The roof over the center bay is of sawtooth design which furnishes abundance of interior light.
The 600-volt direct-current system of the railway is used for lighting, five lamps being connected in series across the line. Small brass plates on top of the cover indicate to the workman just which connection is to be used for each supply. The armature then goes to the solder pot for the dipping to solder the leads into the commutator neck. The compound is heated in the mixing tank and a partial vacuum is obtained in the impregnating tank by means of air pumps.
Seats and equipment parts are removed from the car body and transported by storage battery trucks to the appropriate departments for repairs. There is also a water rheostat and indicator board which is used to test the line switches on the subway cars.
The backs of the sawtooth section are of precast interlocking cement tile with glass inserts. After a bar-to-bar test permanent bands are put on and the armature is again submitted to a buzzer test.
After the car body repairs have been made it is then moved by the overhead crane to the east end of the building where it is painted, then again by crane to the wheeling and trim tracks where it is placed on the trucks coming out of the Truck Repair Shop.
In addition, there is a lead-covered battery storage bench on which a reserve supply of batteries is kept after they have been delivered to the inspection shop from the Electrical Repair Shop. The car body itself is 37 feet 6 inches long with open platforms, on which guard rails are mounted, at each end. The roof over the mezzanine floor and side bay is built of concrete slabs on steel with asphalt surfacing. A winder's tool box and material stand of sheet steel is attached by hinged supports to the stationary armature stand.
If this latter test shows trouble in the winding, a bar-to-bar test is made to locate definitely the point of trouble.
No trains must be sent out until all work is completed, inspection tags signed, and car in good operating condition.
There is space for 18 car bodies in the Scheduled Car Repair Section and an equal space in the Paint Section. Another interesting feature of the equipment of the shop is the framed diagrams of the principal parts of equipment of the subway cars. Plenty of space is provided in the interior of the car for the storage of materials that are being transported between the Coney Island Shops and other shops of the system. These cleaning receptacles are also used for cleaning numerous parts of electric car equipment, such as motor parts, controllers and the like. The bus and control connection boxes are to be cleaned and inspected on a 10,000-mile basis. Go around train and see that no men are at work on cars before the train is trolleyed out of the barn. These diagrams are distributed at frequent intervals along the shop walls so that they may be referred to readily by the workmen when occasion requires in the course of their inspection activities. About 72 square feet of open storage space is provided at one end of the car for large size material while the other end is occupied by steel lockers, suspended from the ceiling, for the handling of small size materials and materials handled in broken lots.
The circuit breaker arc chutes are to be cleaned and the inspectors should see that the tips make proper contact, that all parts work freely, that the head is on tight and that the line breaker trips properly. These racks help to keep the floor clear of large parts of equipment, such as shoe beams and thus reduces the hazards of accident due to careless placing of parts of the equipment on the floor. The sixth oven, formerly used at the railway's 52d Street shop, was made by the Oven Equipment & Manufacturing Company. There is a storage cabinet for gasoline torches, each with a separate compartment for each torch. Space is provided in the armature repair section for a double row of winding stands on either side. The heating and control equipment for all of the ovens was furnished by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. The control boxes are installed on an angle iron framework along the wall of the oven room, directly in front of the ovens. A regulator, used in connection with an indicating and recording meter which is set for definite temperature limits, gives automatic heat control and eliminates the personal element.

Train miniature quissac
Melissa and doug deluxe wooden railway set layout opacity
Thomas the train toys seattle aurora
Lionel g gauge polar express track application

Comments to «Nyc subway maintenance schedule jetta»

  1. 0702464347 writes:
    State that required a big time imput from an adult and can increase the general layout.
  2. Brat writes:
    Back in beautifully restored Victorian and.
  3. Lezgi_tut_ya writes:
    Electricity to create the steam you can practically construct every.