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The new Coney Island Shops for the maintenance of rapid transit equipment are located between the Sea Beach and Culver Lines and extend from Avenue X south to Coney Island creek.
The new shops replace the former inadequate shops located at 39th Street, and East New York. The building construction consists of complete structural steel frames with brick walls, steel sash, concrete roof slabs covered with five-ply roofing. The Electrical Repair Shop was the first building to be constructed as it was needed to replace the old shop at 52nd Street. The other main buildings were placed under contract at a later date than the Electrical Repair Shop and are now completed and in service. The west side of the Main Shop building, known as the Intermediate Repair Shop, will be used for truck and running repairs.
In order to keep the shop as clean as possible, cars before entering the repair shop are cleaned in the cleaning room at the southeast corner of the building. As this shop is essentially a steel car Repair Shop, the Wood Mill and Carpenter Shop are of minor importance as compared with the usual Repair Shop.
The north end of the building is devoted to truck overhauling, machine and blacksmith work and miscellaneous repair. Truck Overhauling, Cleaning and Painting, 120 feet by 200 feet, with one 15-ton and nine 5-ton cranes. The northeast corner of the building which is nearest the entrance provides accommodations for employees consisting of a Wash and Locker Room on the ground floor and a half mezzanine. East of the Main Shop there is a two-story fire proof Store House, 60 feet by 300 feet, and designed for a future third story.
The Office Building is fireproof, 50 feet by 110 feet, two stories in height and planned for a future third story.
Heating is provided from a central heating plant located in a separate building, the equipment consisting of two 400 HP Heine water tube boilers equipped with Bethlehem-Dahl oil burners and capable of operating at 200% of rating.
For shops covering so much ground as these, adequate handling and transportation facilities are of prime importance.
Although the buildings are either fire proof or of non-burnable construction and the shops are to be used for repairing steel cars, fire protection has been given consideration by the provision of an 8 inch water main looped around the shops and connected to the city mains. The Wheel and Axle Department the Coney Island Shops includes the heaviest and most expensive machinery in the plant. The equipment was selected by the tool Committee after careful study of the various machines offered by the manufacturers.
The wheel lathe and the gap type journal truing lathe are located at the south end of the shop adjacent to the Transfer Bay, where mounted wheels coming from the Truck Shop and Intermediate Repair Shop are received. The wheel lathe which is made by the Sellers Company of Philadelphia, is the most expensive single piece of equipment in the entire plant.
The tools are eight in number, of high grade cutting metal, and four are mounted ready for work in a turret in front of each wheel. The car wheel borer is also made by the Sellers Company and will bore and face new wheels to fit the axles.
There are two American gap lathes with double carriages which will true the journals with mounted wheels of 40 inches diameter. A new feature of car maintenance work in the Metropolitan district is provided by the Landis Tool Company's axle grinding machine for grinding journals and armature shafts which insures better workmanship and reduces maintenance costs. The shop equipment also includes special trucks for handling axles and storage battery trucks for transporting and towing the special axle trucks. The building is 60 feet by 200 feet with equal yard space alongside the building for storage of wheels, axles, etc.
The working conditions in this shop are of the best and in keeping with the high class of equipment which has been installed. A new activity has been added to the variety of enterprises that go on at Coney Island at night time. At the present time the night force at Coney Island Inspection Shop inspects an average of 71 cars each night and in addition receives approximately 6 cars nightly from the intermediate repair shop to be prepared and inspected before being released for road service. The inspection shop is located at the western end of the buildings that house the Coney Island Shops. By concentrating the inspection work on the subway cars for the southern division at Coney Island and doing the major part of the work there at night, it has been possible to develop the system of specialization of the work of individual workers to a greater degree than at any other inspection shop.
The pits at the inspection shop are specially designed and one of the outstanding features of the pits is the provision for the safety and convenience of the men at work in them. The oil supply for use in the inspection shop is provided for by two stationary Bowser tanks of 115 gallons capacity each.
There are two pulpit offices in the shop, each one of which has facilities for two sets of foremen. The inspection work itself is divided into four major classifications with a foreman supervising the work of each classification and the general foreman at the head of the entire shop organization. As each car comes into the shop, four inspection cards are marked with its number, the date and the shop name. To give an idea of the degree of specialization of work, the manner in which the electrical equipment is subdivided may be briefly outlined. With the work of the various inspectors classified in this way it is possible for the shop to handle a large number of cars each night and the work of the various groups of inspectors is so planned that there is little or no interference between groups whose work is located in the same part of the car. A brief summary of some of the inspection work would be as follows: The truck inspectors examine the brake rigging, axles, wheels and brake shoes. The men assigned to the above work also include in their activities the inspection of train line cables, jumpers and receptacles, as well as the hangers from which they are suspended. The batteries are removed on every mileage inspection and refilled with the required amount of distilled water.
On the 2000 series subway cars which are equipped with door operating button boards, the covers are removed from the button boards in the master or operating car every mileage inspection. The main panel board which includes the light, heat, fan, battery and compressor, switches and also the various fuses used in connection with these switches is examined on every mileage inspection, as well as the control and door operating circuits. Tower A, the first of the towers that will control car movements in and out of the Coney Island Shop Yards and the adjoining sections of main line tracks was placed in service on February 19th [1926].
The interlocking machine has a capacity for 88 positions in the frame but at the present time only 57 are in use.
On the new machine, the "call on" control, by which a towerman can instruct a motorman to key by a signal set against him if necessary, is located in the front of the machine. The forges and anvils in the Coney Island Shops are the only tools which link this plant with the "smithy" of our boyhood days and, in fact, carry the craft back to the days of Tubal Cain.
Forgings, which are too heavy for hand work, are handled on three air hammers, one of 1200 pounds capacity and two of 900 pounds each. Other large metal working tools include two Ajax Bulldozers, one of long stroke, slow speed for bending heavy work, the other of high speed short stroke and stop motion for light work.
A 72 x 96 inch car type annealing furnace and a 24 x 60 inch furnace are used for heat treating. Welding is an important item of repair work and in this shop both electric and gas welding is provided for. Radial jib cranes are provided to serve the hammers and forges, and over the welding benches there is a five-ton floor-controlled electric traveling crane. Bar and sheet iron, gas cylinders, etc., are stored in racks under a shed roof in the yard. Like all smith shops the floor is of cinders but trucking aisles of concrete have been provided.
The visitor to the Coney Island shops is attracted by the array of new tools in the machine shop. Near the center of the shop is the six-foot American Tool Works multiple duty radial drill and near by are located a group consisting of a two spindle bolt threading machines and five drills with single, double and triple spindles for light work. Along one side of the shop are located a Brown and Sharp milling machine, a group of four engine lathes, a Warner and Swazey heavy duty turret lathe and two screw machines. There are two power hack saws for cutting bar stock; wet and dry tool grinders are also provided and placed at convenient locations. A tool room, 20 feet by 40 feet and a tool crib 18 feet by 33 feet are located in the machine shop. For handling materials the machine shop has a five-ton crane of 57 feet span and the air-brake shop has a two-ton crane of 18 feet span; the latter crane is controlled and operated from the floor. The tool room with its equipment is a complete machine shop in itself; the equipment comprises milling and shaping machines, cutters, tool and surface grinding machines, drills, lathes and drill pointer.
Much valuable material is stored in the tool crib whence it is issued on tool checks through serving windows on three sides of the room. The machine shop and its equipment does the machine work on repair parts for trucks, journal boxes, motor shells, draw bars, brake rigging, safety gates, parts of compressors.
Next to the machine shop is the air brake shop where the air equipment is overhauled, repaired and tested. The Electrical Repair Building Is the First of the New Coney Island Repair Shops to Be Used by the Rapid Transit Division of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation Ultra-Modern Equipment Installed for Making Repairs Quickly and Efficiently. Carefully fitted out with the latest types of machine tools and other equipment needed for electrical repairs, the first unit of the new Coney Island repair shops of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation is in use. The framework of the electrical repair shop is of steel and the walls of tapestry brick with a concrete foundation. Unit heaters are located at intervals around the shop and wall radiators where required in rooms, etc. All electric lighting fixtures are arranged to conform to the latest practice in shop lighting. All wire is run in conduit in the ceilings, floors and walls with pull boxes at convenient intervals. Pipe trenches are provided for the distribution pipes for steam, air, gas, electricity and water.
Electric railway maintenance men will find the new electrical repair shop of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation of particular interest because of the modern equipment provided. In planning the department of electrical repairs, particular attention was given to grouping departments and equipment so that the part being repaired will move progressively from one operation to the next and all interference, cross-routing and back-tracking of parts will be eliminated. An accompanying plan shows the shop divided into sections so as to illustrate the efficient manner in which work of similar character is grouped. Section 3, with a track over which cars can be brought into the shop, is used for the receipt and shipping of all equipment and material. Three soldering furnaces mounted permanently alongside the winding stands are used to heat irons for soldering the rear ends of some types of armature windings which cannot be dipped for soldering.
Suction to remove the dust and loose particles is provided by a motor-driven fan mounted on the balcony, which serves as a roof for the cleaning room.
To show the particular uses to which the various pieces of equipment are put in the department of electrical repairs would require a detailed description of each maintenance operation. With the compound properly heated and mixed, the valve between the two tanks is opened and the compound runs into the impregnating tank. Wikipedia says that it doesn't have anything that exactly matches "broadway_(njt_station)".
We've scoured the Internet for all kinds of New York City maps and distilled the results down to the best of each type. Maps has two advantages over MapQuest: better printed quality and you can view a larger area.
You can grab the map and drag it to pan and you can also drag the cursor anywhere on the thumbnail map to quickly jump to another area. There is a freeware PalmPilot program, X-Man, which is a Manhattan street address locator similar to the one above. Connections are provided to the Culver, Sea Beach and West End lines and through the Coney Island terminal to the Brighton Beach Line. They are designed to maintain 2000 subway cars in service and liberal provision is made for the expansion of each department to meet the future demands. Most of this area was filled with subway excavation to a depth of 7 feet to 12 feet, a number of years ago, The settlement of this fill had displaced the underlying mud in many places and had formed mud waves which made an unsatisfactory foundation condition for the buildings and equipment. The buildings have large side wall sash and the roof, which is flat, consists of alternate high and low panels supported on the bottom and top chords of the roof trusses.
The Inspection Shed on the west side of the group is connected at the north end to the Sea Beach Line and at the south end to the yard. This building is 80 feet wide by by 480 feet long with two tracks connected to the yard at each end. It is divided into three 75-foot bays extending east and west with 10-foot trucking aisles between the same. This work is accommodated in a one-story building 40 feet by 230 feet, directly east of and connected to the Paint Shop and Transfer Bay. Between these departments and the Scheduled Car Repair Shop there is a Cross Transfer Bay, 40 feet wide and 640 feet long, served with two 15-ton cranes at a height of 30 feet.
This room is equipped with 32 circular Bradley wash fountains each capable of accommodating eight to ten men at one time.
The second story is connected to the Main Shop by a bridge on the Mezzanine level by which truck loads of material can pass through the mezzanine of the Main Shop and over a second bridge into the Inspection Shed. The Oil House is a one-story and basement building, the basement being devoted to tank storage of lubricating oils with space for waste, etc.
This is located close to the entrance gates and now houses the offices and drafting room of the Mechanical Department. The first installation consists of two 720 cubic feet electric driven Westinghouse air compressors with automatic control which maintains a pressure of 90 to 100 pounds at the receivers. This is provided for by 28 overhead electric traveling cranes located as previously mentioned.
In addition to the yard hydrants, interior stand pipes with hose are provided throughout the Shop.
In this department wheels are bored, axles turned or straightened, defective wheels replaced and worn wheels are turned or replaced. The latest improvements in machine tool design with automatic features are included, which insures good workmanship and low maintenance and labor costs. Three tracks are provided on which mounted wheels are stored as they move to and from the machines.
When the roughing tool has finished its work the operator releases the tool and turns the turret so that the next finishing tool is in position for instantly commencing its work.
This machine eliminates draw filing and burnishing of finished surfaces and reduces the time required to 30 minutes where 3 hours are required by older methods. The new activity is an essential one so far as New York City is concerned, which is something that cannot be said of many of the activities at Coney Island. It occupies a building 86 feet wide and 600 feet long in which are located four specially designed pits, each with a capacity for eight regular subway cars or four of the Triplex car units. This of course results in a greater proficiency at their special tasks by the individual workmen and also in increasing the output of the shop force as a whole. The tracks at the pits are raised clear of the floor and mounted on cast steel chairs, so that there is a clear space of 9 inches between the floor and bottom of the rail. There are 10 work benches of metal frame construction with wooden tops over which there is a sheet steel surface. These tanks are supplied directly from the storage tanks in the main oil house by means of pipe line connections. The foremen of the car body inspectors and the truck inspectors occupy one pulpit office, while the foremen of the electrical inspectors and the pneumatic inspectors occupy the other. These four major classifications of inspection work are electrical, car body, truck and pneumatic. Groups whose work might interfere because of a common location of the parts of the equipment to be inspected by the two groups usually start working from opposite ends of the pits so that they cross each others path but once while working on 24 cars. If there are any adjustments of brake equipment required that make it necessary to send the truck into the Intermediate Repair Shop, the inspector notes this on the prescribed form and arranges to have the truck transferred to the other shop. The brake rigging and all movable parts oil the truck are lubricated every mileage inspection, about once a week for each subway car on the average. The surrounding parts of the armature and brush holders are examined to discover any accumulation of dust and compressed air is used to blow out the dust where necessary.
This work is done on every mileage inspection and where necessary the required adjustments or replacements are made. The covers are removed, the electrical contacts and fingers inspected, the interiors wiped out and lightly lubricated. The water used in the batteries is distilled in special stills, provided for this purpose in the Electrical Repair Shop.
The buttons, carbons, contacts, key switch mechanism, door indicators, contact studs, terminals, leads, etc., are carefully inspected, adjusted, and necessary renewals or replacements made.
The switches and circuits are tried out for proper operation, the fuses checked to insure that the proper size fuse is inserted in the proper fuse clips. The tower is equipped with the most modern devices and its 88 lever machine makes it one of the three largest towers in the system; only Tower No. There are 22 switch levers, 25 home signal levers, 6 approach signal levers and 4 dwarf signal levers.
The second floor is equipped for the use of the towermen and maintainers while the ground floor is devoted to the storage of materials for use in the tower and entire interlocking plant it controls.
Many of our readers remember some village shop and a brawny smith with bare arms and leather apron.
The bellows are replaced with electric driven blowers and smoke is removed by an exhaust fan connected through underground ducts to hoods over the fires.
Each furnace is specially selected for its particular service, some are single and some are double ended. It is stored in two 5,300 gallon underground tanks in the yard, whence it is pumped through underground pipes with branches, to each furnace. When bar stock is brought into the shop it is cut to length in a powerful triple punch and shear which can also split plates. Unlike many smith shops the building has splendid natural light and ventilation from the roof skylights.
The Gray planer is an open side machine 26 feet long with a table 12 feet long and four feet wide. There are also two heavy duty swing drills, a 20 inch heavy duty shaper and a 12 inch slotting machine for cutting keyways, etc. The work done in the tool room consists of making and repairing tools for shop use and the work is enclosed by a heavy wire screen directly connected to the tool crib. This equipment includes the car compressors, parts of door engines, brake valves, feed valves, compressor governors, triple valves, reservoir tanks, air hose and many similar minor parts. Compressor armatures are removed and the compressors cleaned in potash and water tanks before repairs. When completed the entire group will form the largest and best equipped electric railway inspection and repair shops in the world.
4, while the railway company provides the equipment, including heating, lighting, power, machine tools, cranes, elevators, etc.
Pedestals are placed along each side of the central section of the shop devoted to stripping and winding of armatures.

The shop is arranged to handle the largest as well as the smallest item of electrical repair work rapidly and efficiently. Provision for expansion and installation of equipment to meet future increased requirements has been made.
Armatures, the repair of which constitutes a large part of the work done at this shop, are inspected as they are received and are divided into two general classes first, those that require complete rewinding, and, second, those that can be repaired without rewinding.
To these are brought pipes containing gas and compressed air and the conduit with wires for connection to both alternating and direct-current supply sources. Each soldering furnace has a gas connection and burner of sufficient size so that two soldering irons can be heated at one time.
Compressed air is played on the armature and a vacuum system sucks away all loose particles.
The refuse material is drawn from the receptacles up through the vertical pipe to a Cyclone separator, in which large particles and any heavy material drop down and through an 8-in.
Unless a commutator is in very bad condition it is the practice to replace the same one on an armature. The principal repairs made to an armature, however, will illustrate the need for much of the equipment.
The winder puts in the bottom coils and tapes them down to hold them in position, properly lined up.
From the foregoing outline it will be seen that drying and baking ovens are used extensively. Peepholes in the top covers of these tanks permit the operator to watch the compound as it rises and shut off the valve when the equipment has been covered over to a depth of from 18 in.
For repairs to controller equipment, contactor boxes, switch groups, line switches, magnets and door equipment. Another benefit of this page is that we've found some unusual and interesting maps that otherwise would not be found with normal searching.
Before construction commenced, the site was graded, the surcharge being moved into the low and unfilled portions. At each truss there is a continuous line of top hung sash inclined at an angle of approximately 27 degrees to the vertical thus distributing ample natural illumination to all parts of the buildings.
The building, 86 feet wide by 600 feet long, has four tracks with pits, bench space and storage room.
Each track will be equipped with a drop type transfer table by which damaged trucks can be removed and good order trucks replaced under cars.
This Transfer Bay furnishes cross movement and direct access to every department of the Shop.
Space is also provided for 1000 of the transit company's standard metal clothes lockers, which are 12 inches by 15 inches by 6 feet high. Elevators of 10,000 pounds capacity are provided in the Store House, Main Shop and Inspection Shed.
Sea grade fuel oil is used and storage is provided in three 8500-gallon tanks buried in the yard. The feeders enter through underground ducts to the switchboards, located in two fireproof switchboard rooms in the Transfer Bay. Air distribution is provided to all parts of the shop through underground pipes in the pipe trenches and through branch pipes in the concrete floors to outlets in floors and on columns. These cranes were built to the transit company's specifications by the Box Company and are arranged for cage or floor control depending upon the service required.
In the Oil House there is also provided high pressure steam pipes with outside control valves for smothering fire inside of the building. All machines are driven by direct connected electric motors using the 600-volt railway current. Car loads of mounted wheels coming from the Inspection Shops and other points on the System will enter at the north end of the Shop where they will be unloaded and moved to the Storage tracks by the overhead cranes.
This machine which is of the most modern design will be operated by one operator with a helper who will be able to turn out three or more pairs of mounted wheels per hour. The 400-ton wheel press made by the Chambersburg Engineering Co., is used for mounting and demounting wheels on axles. The pressure used in mounting wheels is recorded on a hydrauligraph, thus keeping a record of the pressures and insuring uniformity of work. The main shaft and most of the moving parts are enclosed thus adding to the safety of operation.
Three of the pits are used at night for routine inspection work while the fourth is reserved for cars going to or coming from the intermediate Repair Shop or for cars which have been found on inspection to require special attention or repairs by the inspection shop force.
The pits are illuminated with special enameled white porcelain reflectors at frequent intervals, with the lamp sockets placed at the top of the reflector at an angle that will provide a maximum of light on the mechanism beneath the floor of the car. Each bench is equipped with a vice, and has eight drawers for the storage of tools, materials, etc. The inspectors in each classification take care of the inspection of that part of the car equipment as it goes through the shop. The second will inspect and lubricate the electric brakes and inspect the plug switches, "Power On" Recorder, relay and toggle switch. The waste on the journal boxes has to be inspected and a packing iron applied to make certain the waste is properly located under the journal seat.
The operating magnet valves are tried out individually and as to final train operation from the master switch.
The trips are then reassembled and gauged for proper adjustments above the running rail and as to the proper centering of the trip arm after being applied. All of the vent caps on the batteries are cleaned of scale and then oiled, before being replaced in the battery boxes. After the board has been reassembled, the operation of the door circuits is tried out from the board. 1 at East New York exceeding it in size and the Coney Island Creek Tower being on a par in size with Tower A. The interlocking machine is the latest improved all-electric interlocking type and was built and installed by the General Railway Signal Company. In the old type machines this "call on" control was in the back of the machine and the towerman bad to go behind the machine to operate a special lever to give the "call on" signal to the motorman.
Tower A eventually will be supplemented by another tower to be known as Tower B, in controlling car movements in and out of the vicinity of Coney Island Shop Yards. What a fascination the smoky place with its creaking bellows, glowing fire, hot iron and clanking anvil had for the youngsters who gathered around the door to see the horses shod.
The hammers rest on timbers supported on concrete foundations and separate cushioned foundations are provided under the anvil blocks. There is also a double chamber tool furnace for tempering the special steels used in the shop tools; a pyrometer attached to this furnace records the furnace temperatures and insures the right working temperature for each kind of steel. The furnaces were made by the Mahr Manufacturing Company and each one has its own electric-driven blower. Each of the latter is in a separate enclosure to protect other workmen from the glare of the welding arc. Drinking fountains and shower baths will add to the comfort of the shop force, especially in hot weather. This machine, which has two heads on the cross rail and one on the side housing, is driven by a 25 H. The bins are arranged to form the room enclosure and heavy wire mesh forms a ceiling, preventing entrance to the room except through the, door or tool room.
These parts pass through the machine shop in small quantities requiring a shop which is quite different from a manufacturing plant where quantity production keeps each machine continuously engaged on one operation. This is necessary because of features in its control apparatus that are different from other subway or elevated cars.
The four small pictures show close-ups in the corresponding corners of the bay, which is spanned by a 5-ton traveling crane and two traveling wall jib cranes. Seven buildings are now in the course of erection, with a total floor area of nearly 13 acres. The building now used for the department of electrical repairs is the first one to be completed and the city is now proceeding with the construction of the remainder of this comprehensive group of repair and inspection shops.
From this the circuits run to separate lighting and power panels at convenient points in the shop.
Quick repairs to electric car equipment are necessary, not only to keep the maximum number of cars in service continually, but also to minimize the number of spare parts that must be stocked. Plenty of space has been left around machine tools so that equipment can be handled efficiently without interference.
All armatures are moved into section 4 by cranes or trucks and are placed on adjustable stands manufactured by the Columbia Machine Works. Any sharp corners or rough edges in the slots that might cause damage to the coils are filed and the slots are cleaned carefully to receive the insulating material for the core. While armature repairs constitute a large part of the work done, the different steps in rewinding and the order in which the work is completed differ somewhat with the various types of armatures. The armature is then placed in one of the baking ovens for two or three hours, in order to heat it up.
These are located in a separate room in section 11, adjacent to which is another room with a complete dipping and impregnating installation.
Devine Company, also equipment for dipping armatures by the rolling method and a very complete overhead I-beam hoist system for handling heavy pieces of equipment.
Motors and control equipment are tested with high potential apparatus and certain types are given an actual running test.
Winding room for armatures, magnets and all other small coils, steam coil presses installed so that armature coils can be completed except for dipping and baking. Tests of all material for electrical, maintenance and general repair shops for physical and chemical properties.
The preliminary plans were developed by the transit company with the assistance of the engineering firm of Dwight P. This building provides for the inspection of trains from the Brighton Beach, Sea Beach, Fourth Avenue and West End Lines.
During this operation the car body will be held up by special overhead cranes equipped with suspension hooks which will engage the underside of the car sills. Each trolley is equipped with removable hooks by which car bodies can be lifted off trucks and spotted for repairs or painting, the crane lift of 30 feet being sufficient to transport car bodies over other cars standing on the floor. The cranes north of the Transfer Bay are at a lower level and extend into the Transfer Bay for ready exchange of loads from one crane to the other.
Directly south of the Wash and Locker Room a First-Aid room is provided which is equipped with the usual First-Aid Room facilities.
An entrance gate house at the yard entrance is also provided at which there is stationed a watchman, a waiting room and employment office. The boilers are connected through overhead flues to an 8 foot by 200 foot radial brick stack. From these switchboards the current is distributed through separate feeders in underground conduits for lighting, crane operation, testing, and welding sets and machine tool power. Floor outlet boxes with hinged covers are set in the floor at frequent intervals where air hose connections can be made as required. In addition to the overhead cranes, the shop equipment includes a number of Ellwell-Parker storage battery trucks of various types for different services. Further consideration will be given to the necessity of sprinklers in the Wood Mill and Paint Shop where the risk may warrant their installation. Incoming mounted wheels which require journal truing will be set in the gap type journal truing lathe by the overhead jib crane on which there will be mounted a two-ton electric hoist. The auxiliary motor is controlled by a reversing controller which automatically locks the tailstock by an electric brake when the controller is turned back to the "off" position. The use of the two cranes is a considerable time saver as it enables the operator to pick up one wheel while the machine is working upon another.
Through the use of the double head it is possible to either mount or remove one wheel, a gear and wheel or both wheels at the same operation. The press is also equipped with compressed air by which the rams are quickly pulled back after the pressure stroke thus materially speeding up the work.
By keeping one track in reserve for the work of an unusual character, the movement of cars over the inspection pits is maintained without unnecessary delay and thus a maximum number of cars can be handled by the inspection force. These light sockets have special cut-out switches and plugs that enable the workmen to cut out any individual light they desire and plug in their hand lamps when necessary without the bother of even removing the bulb from the pit socket. There is one carpenter bench which is also of metal frame construction, but has no steel sheet over the wooden top. They are removed at regular intervals on Hi-lo trucks and empty ones provided, the loaded receptacles being transported to a central point for the disposal of waste and rubbish. The work under each of the major classifications is further specialized, so that the electrical equipment, for instance, is subdivided into eight groups to each of which one inspector and his assistants devote their particular attention. Each card has three columns, one in which the items are listed, the second for the signature of the inspector who has examined each item specified and the third for the signature of the assistant foreman who has checked the inspectors' work.
A third will take care of the inspection of the buzzers, switches, door operating boxes and incidental magnets, interlocks, signals, cutout and "Hubbell Plug".
The oil in the armature and motor axle hearings is measured by a gauge provided for that purpose and the required amounts as indicated by the gauge are supplied. The contact shoe beams are given thorough inspections to determine their condition, and any needed adjustments of the suspension bolts are made.
The action of the electro-pneumatic valve used in this circuit is tested as to its proper operation at this time. The connections on each individual battery are also tried out to make sure they are tight after they have been replaced in the battery boxes, or cradles, after which the battery readings are taken to determine whether proper connections have been made and the batteries are in proper condition for service. The outside emergency door push buttons, which are located on the outside of the car at the center side doors and bulkhead doors are removed, the contacts inspected and their interiors wiped off. The key operated light ground switch is checked and tested as is also the emergency light relay. The new tower is a three-story brick structure standing about 300 yards northeast of the shop buildings and a short distance south of the 86th Street station of the Sea Beach Line. The new machine also has the ammeter and voltmeter on top of it in full view of the towerman so that be can tell at a glance just how the machine and switches are operating. The flivver has replaced the smithy with the service station, but forges will be used as long as metal must be worked.
Soft coal is used as fuel but the exhauster pulls the smoke away from the fires, leaving the air clear and fresh. The operator feeds a hot bar into the machine and at each push on the foot pedal a completed rivet drops into the pit. The smith shop is only one unit of the Coney Island Repair Shops, but with its high-class equipment and good working conditions it should give the other departments a hard run for the efficiency record of the shops. The storage battery truck runs its platform under the stand, lifts it up and transports the stand with its load where desired. At the north end of the shop are the benches for valve repairs with compressor and separate testing racks for each type of valve.
The car, one of the most modern of its kind, is equipped with a two-ton circular crane that facilitates the loading and unloading of the car.
It easily lifts and lowers material that formerly had to be loaded and unloaded upon flat cars or in box cars by manual labor when transported from one shop to another. It is equipped with hand operated control that moves the car as soon as the controller is notched.
They comprise a main repair shop, an inspection shop, the electrical repair shop, which is the subject of this article; a two-story storehouse, a two-story office building, an oil house, and a boiler house. The yards for these shops occupy the entire space between the Sea Beach and Culver lines of the railway at Avenue X and extend south to Coney Island Creek. Steam is now supplied from a temporary boiler, but as soon as the main boiler house is completed connection will be made to this. These control panels are provided with Westinghouse safety switches mounted in steel cabinets with hinged doors.
If it is evident that an armature can be repaired without rewinding, it is sent to the cleaning room before dismantling. The armatures are next moved to section 5 and the commutators are tested with 3,000 volts to ground and 550 volts between bars. With the commutator again in place, the armature is brought back to section 5 for rewinding.
Sticks are then put in on top of the coils and temporary bands are applied while the armature and coils are hot. The core of the armature is then painted and the tape band is given its final coat of varnish. At present six ovens have been installed and there is space for an additional one when the volume of work demands it. After closing the communicating valve the vacuum is relieved and air pressure is supplied by the shop air compressor at from 50 to 55 lb.
The concrete piles, which were driven in groups under the building columns were tied together by reinforced concrete beams which form the supports for the building walls.
All ventilating sections of windows and skylights are arranged to be operated from the floor. The building is 127 feet wide by approximately 300 feet long consisting of a high central bay 64 feet wide with overhead cranes and side bays with mezzanines for coil winding, dipping and baking rooms, etc.
Cars leaving the Repair Shop will also pass through the Inspection Shed for final inspection and adjustment of brake rigging, etc., before entering service. The central bay of this building, 43 feet wide, will be used for truck overhauling and repairs and is equipped with two 15-ton cranes.
The tracks in this building are 20 feet apart allowing ample working and trucking space between cars. Between the Transfer Bay and the Scheduled Car Repair Shop is an area 60 feet wide by 560 feet long with a mezzanine floor 40 feet wide above.
The upper floor over the Wash and Locker room, 60 feet by 200 feet, and which is on the same level as the Shop Mezzanine, is allocated for Lunch Room and recreation purposes.
Part of this floor also is used for the renovation of waste, the treatment of journal box packing, and paint and paint brush storage.
Steam is generated at 160 pound pressure and distributed at this pressure through mains to pressure reducing valves where the pressure is reduced to 3 pounds. Overhead lighting is provided of sufficient intensity to dispense with the use of individual tool lights.
These include, in addition to the standard trucks, special tractor cranes of 4000 to 6000 pounds capacity and Hi-Lo tractors for lifting and transporting loads on skids, etc. This jib crane will place the mounted wheels leaving the lathe on the track extending across the shop to the wheel lathe. A separate motor is provided for the rapid power traverse of the boring bar spindle and the machine is equipped with the Davis boring bar for roughing and finishing.
All interior walls and ceiling are painted in light colors thus giving maximum diffusion of light.
Alongside each pit is a metal enclosed cable with outlet receptacles approximately every 67 feet for use by the inspection force when they require power to test various parts of the electrical equipment of the cars on the pits.

For the use of car body inspectors in preparing glass to replace windows, etc., in the cars as they go through the inspection shop, there is a specially designed glass cutting bench with the dimension lines carried across the entire top of the bench. These are transported to and from the inspection shop on Hi-lo electric storage battery trucks which are used to great advantage throughout the entire series of shops, to handle the transporting and lifting of heavy supplies and equipment. The pneumatic equipment is likewise divided into six groups with special inspectors for each group.
The inspector certifies that he has "inspected this car and have left items opposite my signature in good condition for service".
The fourth one devotes his attention to the inspection of contact shoes, and beams with the incidental fuses, shunts, fuse boxes, springs and leads. The packing used in the motor-axle bearings and journal bearings is removed and re-treated every 6 months.
Attention is also given to the shoe fuses, terminals, flash boxes, contact shoe leads and jumpers, repairs and renewals made where necessary and the contact shoe then gauged and adjusted to the proper height.
Where it is found necessary to replace the resistances, these changes are most generally made by a repair crew, as a separate activity from the regular inspector's work. Where the adjustments or renewals are required on the trip equipment they are most generally made by the inspector who examines them.
This inspector's duties also include the checking of the main car emergency and destination sign lights, and making the necessary replacements or repairs.
It controls the main line tracks of the Sea Beach Line between 86th Street and Coney Island Creek, the lead off tracks from the main line into the yard and eleven tracks in the yard.
With the old type machines, the ammeter and voltmeter are mounted on a switchboard located in various places about the tower so that the towerman could not read their indications in many cases without shifting from their posts in front of the machine.
The air brake shop makes the periodic overhaul of 1,100 car compressors, portions of 14,000 door engines, and valves and other parts in proportion.
The car is housed at the Coney Island Shops and makes that shop its focal point in the distribution of materials to the various shops of the System.
Now, one shopman in each shop is instructed in the operation of the crane and it is his task, on the arrival of the car, to operate it. The electrical repair shop occupies the northeast corner of this area immediately adjacent to the Avenue X station of the Culver line and but a short distance from the 86th Street station of the Sea Beach line. Where repairs to the commutator are necessary these are made and the commutator is tightened carefully. Compressed air is also used in forcing the compound out of the impregnating tank and into the mixing tank, the maximum pressure used being not more than 5 lb. The preliminary plans were turned over to the Board of Transportation where the building plans and contracts were prepared under the direction of Mr.
In some places where mud waves existed under the new fill it was found necessary to drive concrete piles for the support of shop floors. On the ground floor are located rigging, sheet metal work, electrical construction work, pipe-fitting and shoe beam work, these departments thus being located close to the car repair work. Toilet facilities are provided in rooms on the mezzanine with direct stairway access from the main floor.
The distribution of the lubricating oils to this large plant has been given special study and the Bowser system used throughout. The shops are heated by 71 unit heaters containing heating coils and electrically driven fans.
Plug outlets are provided on columns, walls, etc., for extension lights to be used in cars and for plugging into car lighting systems. At the intersection of this cross track with the storage tracks, special air lifts have been provided which act like a turntable for lifting and turning the wheels at right angles onto the storage tracks. The flooring is of creosoted wood block on a concrete base which will resist wear from the wheels and other heavy loads. All of the subway cars operated on these lines are sent through the inspection shop at Coney Island on the average of once a week. In addition to this power supply for test purposes there is a compressed air pipe line alongside each pit with cut-in valves approximately every 20 feet for use by the inspection force when testing the pneumatic portions of the car equipment or for cleaning purposes. These portable tanks contain denatured alcohol and the three varieties of oil used for lubricating special parts of the equipment. As the brake shoes are removed from the cars, the foremen indicate which are to be scrapped and which are to be saved, and those to be salvaged are collected separately so that there is no possibility of their being carried away with those to be scrapped.
As a final check on the work, the foreman of each major classification signs each card for his class of work to indicate that he has examined the card and "believes this car is O.K.
The fifth inspector specializes in coupler equipment: slides, fingers and shunts, together with the cable hangers and clamps and the junction boxes, jumpers receptacles and covers.
On the electrical portion of the Westinghouse H2A couplers, the couplers are dropped at the present time on every second mileage inspection, the slide contacts pads are removed, the contact fingers wiped off, and the interior of the housing cleaned out. The marker, tail and running lights are also tested by this inspector as well as the door signal lights.
The switches and signals in this controlled territory are interlocked with the tower machine so that all train movements in this territory are regulated and governed by the towerman in charge at Tower A. The new machine is provided with a combination polarized relay and circuit breaker on each switch machine lever so arranged that electrical trouble, such as a short circuit, in the control circuit for one switch unit will electrically disconnect the defective unit from the interlocking machine without interrupting the main current supply to other units as would happen with the old models of the machine.
Safe working brakes on the subway cars and smooth, quick acting doors are the result of the skilled work in this department. The car itself is different in appearance than anything that has been seen on the Company's lines.
The new car is also equipped with compromise type contact shoes that permit its operation over both the "L" and subway lines. Some further details as to the construction of these stands and the convenience for various classes of work will be given in connection with the shop equipment. The wall jib cranes serve the machine tools so that the traveling crane can be used for longer movements and for placing material conveniently to machines. One is bolted securely to the floor, while the other is left free to be moved so that adjustment can be made to take care of various lengths. The pipe from each receptacle has a damper so that one can be shut off while the other is in use. The hood from the pipe fits over the top of the steel drum and is held in close contact by a large steel ring so that there is no tendency for the dirt to fly about the room.
Should there be short circuits or grounds inside or at the rear end which cannot be repaired properly with the commutator in place it is pressed off.
In general, the floor, which was placed on the fill after the site bad been graded, consisted of an 8 or 9-inch concrete slab heavily reinforced, top and bottom with rods in each direction.
Track doors are rolling steel shutters and where these doors will be subjected to frequent operation, they are electrically operated with push button control.
The mezzanines and space under them are well lighted by large windows in the side walls and the central bay is covered by a saw-tooth roof with additional roof lights consisting of large tile with insert glass. Isolated toilet facilities are provided at frequent and convenient locations on the main floor throughout the shop. Oils are received in tank car shipments, unloaded through fill pipes to tanks in the basement and then pumped by motor driven pumps to various stations throughout the shop where the oil must be drawn for use.
In general, air is drawn in to the heater near the floor and blown out above head height at a temperature of about 120 degrees.
In the Inspection Shop in addition to overhead lighting, pit lights are provided with enameled iron reflectors and so located as to illuminate the underside of the cars over the pits. These air lifts consist of an air cylinder below the floor and with saddles on the ends of the piston rods which engage the axles and form pivots on which the wheels can be easily swung around to the new position. With these special features this machine can be operated by one man where two were formerly required.
At frequent intervals along the sides of the pits are toe-hold niches to enable workmen to get in and out of the pits without having to go to either end, where stairs are provided. Each one of these cabinets has 12 drawers, each drawer with a separate lock, so that individual workmen may be assigned their own tool drawers in the cabinets. In addition to these large receptacles, smaller waste cans are placed at convenient locations throughout the shop and there is a regular schedule for the removal of rubbish from these cans. Before this tower was placed in service, train and car movement on these yard tracks were controlled by handswitches and movements on the main line tracks and lead-offs into the yard were controlled from a temporary manually operated interlocking plant using semaphore signals.
An electrically operated extension may be projected from the arm if it is necessary and then drawn back inside the arm when the crane is ready to be swung back into the car.
A hinged door the full size of the front of each receptacle is provided and to support the door as it is being opened a castor is fastened to the bottom corner farthest from the hinged side. Insulation is then inserted above the bottom coils and the top coils are placed in position. The equipment plans and specifications, including selection of machines, were made by the transit company. It was also planned to have this floor slab support the machine tools and other equipment with the exception of the heavier units which required pits and where cushions were required under hammer foundations. The need of this excellent natural light is apparent when it is noted that all of the armature stripping, winding and banding is done in this central bay. Adjacent to this track and occupying the west end of the building are nine tracks, or space for 27 cars, provided for repairs to damaged cars and for car construction work.
The locations of the heaters and the direction of the blasts are such that the warm air is distributed to all parts of the shop. Another stops it by disconnecting the current and applying at the same time a powerful electric brake. This attachment will face, turn and groove the hubs at the same time the wheel is being rough bored.
To make it unnecessary for shop employees to jump pits when going from one side of the building to the other, cross planks with metal angles to keep them firmly in place are also provided at frequent intervals. In addition, for the use of the workmen whose trade requires tool boxes, there are 4 cabinets designed to hold 30 tool boxes each. For use by the window cleaners, there is a storage bin for red sand which is used with pumice in the cleaning of the window and door glass of the subway cars.
These cards are made part of the official shop records and provide an easy and accurate source of information as to who inspected any individual item of equipment on a car in the event that it becomes necessary to ascertain that fact. The compressor switch, main switch, resistance and leads, line switch with its fuse, resistance, overload trip and operating relay, together with the interlocks, magnets, switches and drums of the switch group are inspected by a seventh man, who also lubricates the overload trip and line breakers, the breaker, potential and accelerating relays, control cylinders and controller contacts. A switch near the motorman's cab controls the power for the operation of the crane so that it cannot be operated unless this switch is thrown in place.
Light particles are drawn through this and to the exhaust side of the fan, where they are blown outside the building. A 200 - ton horizontal - hydraulic press made by the Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company and a Watson-Stillman vertical press of 50 tons capacity do most of this work.
The armature then goes into the oven a second time for heating up and again sticks are placed over the coils and temporary bands force the coils down into position. The buildings comprise the Inspection Shed, Main Repair Shop, two-story Store House, Oil House, Boiler House, Office Building and Electrical Repair Shop. Under the wheel lathe, air compressors and similar equipment, wood piles were driven under the concrete foundations, the piles being cut off with the tops in ground water. The flooring in the Wash and Locker Room, Inspection Shed, Store House, Toilet Rooms, etc., are cement finished with sanitary coved base. The supply of oil from the Oil House to these small tanks is controlled by remote control valves at each tank. If an especially hard spot on the wheels is encountered, a third push button at the operator's touch automatically slows down the machine. For the use of men at work in the pits, short step ladders are kept in the pits so that there is no excuse for men standing on boxes or other makeshift ladders when their work requires them to get up close to the floors of the cars on the pits.
This also affords protection for the tool boxes and equipment owned by the individual employees. This combination of sand and pumice is used in damp form and is required to cut the grease which collects on the window and door glass of the rapid transit cars. A 60-ton horizontal hydraulic press is used for tightening collars, putting tension on commutators while the nuts are tightened and for removing pinions.
When cold, the armature is again placed on stands and the temporary bands are cut and the sticks taken out.
Both tanks are surrounded by an elevated platform so that workmen can reach all parts without difficulty.
They have a total floor area of 546,000 square feet, or about 13 acres; the approximate cost of the entire plant as provided by the City of New York and including the contribution of the transit company, under the so-called Dual Subway contract is estimated in the first instance to approximate $12,000,000, but when all extensions have been provided for, the ultimate cost will be considerably greater.
A system of pipe trenches built into the floor slab provide space for the air, oil and gas mains also for the return piping of the heating system.
For this purpose the cars enter the shop from the south on the stripping track, the car bodies are then removed from the trucks by the overhead cranes and placed upon specially designed steel horses which are high enough to permit ready access to the equipment under the car body and without the use of pits.
When necessary to replenish the supply of oil in a distribution tank the operator opens the remote control valve which automatically starts the oil pump in the Oil House.
The heating system is operated on the vacuum principle, condensation being collected by five vacuum pumps which return the condensate to the feed water heater in the Boiler House. Other special equipment along this side of the shop includes 4 storage bins for glass with 12 compartments in each bin. After the cards leave the custody of the foremen and before they are filed each is checked by the office staff to make sure that there is individual certification as to the inspection and checking of each item of equipment and also the general certification by the foreman on every card. After reassembly, the electric portion is tested for proper operation, as well as the automatic drawbar locking devices.
Near the planer is located the Giddings Lewis horizontal double spindle, adjustable boring, milling and tapping machine. There are also separate circuits for watchmen's lights, fire apparatus, fire alarm and hydrant designation lights.
The four sides are provided with proper fittings so that connection can be made quickly for gas, air, direct current and alternating current. Their floors are arranged to come flush with the shop floor so that trucks can be rolled-directly inside. The interior of the shop is painted throughout; the side walls and ceilings are painted white with a gray tint. The trucks then continue through on the stripping track to the truck shop in the north end for overhauling. Oils that are used in small quantities are transported in drums or portable tanks on storage battery trucks. All of the glass used in the inspection shop is stored in these bins so that it is quickly available for use when required.
On every inspection where the electric portion is not disassembled for inspection, the slide pad is pressed in so as to make an inspection of the contact fingers and where an unusual condition is observed, the housing is disassembled and the required adjustments made. This machine has special attachments designed for the railroad company which permit both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the boring bars so that armature housing bearings and axle bearings in motor shells can be bored in one operation.
Particular attention has been devoted to providing large central sawtooth skylights and an unusual amount of wall space for windows so as to make the interior of the shop exceptionally light throughout the daylight hours and a most attractive place in which to work. The roof over the center bay is of sawtooth design which furnishes abundance of interior light. The 600-volt direct-current system of the railway is used for lighting, five lamps being connected in series across the line. Small brass plates on top of the cover indicate to the workman just which connection is to be used for each supply.
The armature then goes to the solder pot for the dipping to solder the leads into the commutator neck. The compound is heated in the mixing tank and a partial vacuum is obtained in the impregnating tank by means of air pumps.
Seats and equipment parts are removed from the car body and transported by storage battery trucks to the appropriate departments for repairs. There is also a water rheostat and indicator board which is used to test the line switches on the subway cars.
The backs of the sawtooth section are of precast interlocking cement tile with glass inserts.
After a bar-to-bar test permanent bands are put on and the armature is again submitted to a buzzer test.
After the car body repairs have been made it is then moved by the overhead crane to the east end of the building where it is painted, then again by crane to the wheeling and trim tracks where it is placed on the trucks coming out of the Truck Repair Shop. In addition, there is a lead-covered battery storage bench on which a reserve supply of batteries is kept after they have been delivered to the inspection shop from the Electrical Repair Shop. The car body itself is 37 feet 6 inches long with open platforms, on which guard rails are mounted, at each end. The roof over the mezzanine floor and side bay is built of concrete slabs on steel with asphalt surfacing.
A winder's tool box and material stand of sheet steel is attached by hinged supports to the stationary armature stand. If this latter test shows trouble in the winding, a bar-to-bar test is made to locate definitely the point of trouble. There is space for 18 car bodies in the Scheduled Car Repair Section and an equal space in the Paint Section. Another interesting feature of the equipment of the shop is the framed diagrams of the principal parts of equipment of the subway cars. Plenty of space is provided in the interior of the car for the storage of materials that are being transported between the Coney Island Shops and other shops of the system.
These cleaning receptacles are also used for cleaning numerous parts of electric car equipment, such as motor parts, controllers and the like.
These diagrams are distributed at frequent intervals along the shop walls so that they may be referred to readily by the workmen when occasion requires in the course of their inspection activities. About 72 square feet of open storage space is provided at one end of the car for large size material while the other end is occupied by steel lockers, suspended from the ceiling, for the handling of small size materials and materials handled in broken lots. These racks help to keep the floor clear of large parts of equipment, such as shoe beams and thus reduces the hazards of accident due to careless placing of parts of the equipment on the floor. The sixth oven, formerly used at the railway's 52d Street shop, was made by the Oven Equipment & Manufacturing Company.
There is a storage cabinet for gasoline torches, each with a separate compartment for each torch.
Space is provided in the armature repair section for a double row of winding stands on either side.
The heating and control equipment for all of the ovens was furnished by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company.
The control boxes are installed on an angle iron framework along the wall of the oven room, directly in front of the ovens. A regulator, used in connection with an indicating and recording meter which is set for definite temperature limits, gives automatic heat control and eliminates the personal element.

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