Plymouth k cars for sale,model train sales melbourne private,new york city economic development corporation employee salaries - How to DIY

Tiempos de 0-100km eran aproximadamente 10 segundos para el cambio manual y 13-14 segundos para el cambio automA?tico de tres velocidades.
The Plymouth Caravelle was originally a rebadged Dodge Diplomat for Canada a€”A in the United States, it was called the Plymouth Gran Fury.
The K-based E bodies, brought out in 1983, included a new, front-wheel-drive Caravelle a€” but only in the United States, for the moment, since the rear-wheel-drive Caravelle was still being sold in Canada. Guy Coulombe of the Chrysler K-Car Club reported that there were indeed Canadian K-car Caravelles at the same time as the E-bodies, starting in 1983.
Caravelle had an optional precision-feel rack-and-pinion power-assisted steering with a quick ratio of 14 to 1 in place of the standard 18 to 1 ratio; it used a higher rate power steering pump. The Caravelle was replaced in 1988 by the Plymouth Acclaim, a more purpose-built extended K-car with an optional Mitsubishi V6. Over the years, I have had the pleasure to experience a variety of repairs with this vehicle.
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For the first time in decades, a domestically-engineered car from Chrysler Corporation did not use torsion bars; the front suspension had more in common with imports and Chrysler Europe cars, using the now-de-rigeur MacPherson struts along with rack and pinion steering.
The A pillar on the new K body was designed to cut wind noise and improve visibility; the shape of the hood and grille reduced the drag coefient by 6%.
Wheels were the base a€?dog disha€? hubcaps, a rally road wheel that could be painted in a body color to match the car, standard 13 inch hubcaps, and 14 inch hubcaps found mostly on SE models. The early K-cars had many unique features, including the hood ornament on the Plymouth Reliant, a pentastar with the Plymouth badge inside it; after the 1981 model year, this was replaced with Chryslera€™s pentastar. Early K-cars were prone to rust in their later years, making it difficult to find one in good condition in salt-using climates.
Throughout the years K-cars got cheaper in trim, losing chrome around the fenders, losing the metal dashboard, and dropping unique options; this is what makes the 1981 model year it is, now rare, unique, and cheap fun for the entry level automobile enthusiast. With a stick-shift, the K-cars were sprightly; and even with an automatic transmission, the fast-opening throttle and torque bias gave a feeling of power and responsiveness, even compared with some current cars boasting much more peak power. Many people are caught up in the world of muscle cars and exotic cars; the little K-car gets swallowed up in the midst of all the high performance, but they served many owners and companies well through the years. The original K-cars, the Plymouth Reliant and Dodge Aries, had a smartly integrated front wheel drive layout that represented a new breed of American automobile.
The public quickly snapped up hundreds of thousands of the a€?K-cars,a€? despite lingering doubts about Chrysler. The cars were a combination of traditional American architecture and the modern European style (pioneered by SIMCA, Chryslera€™s subsidiary in Europe), with solid-beam rear axles, rack and pinion steering, MacPherson front suspensions, and transverse-mounted four-cylinder engines with front wheel drive. Even small details of the new cars were explored; the Aries and Reliant ended up with the least door closing effort of any Chrysler vehicle, regardless of price, thanks to a new door latch, which was also more resistant to freezing.
Over 320 hours of wind tunnel testing helped designers to cut drag by 20% from the original designs, cutting back on wind noise and wind resistance, and helping highway mileage. Thomas Mize wrote that the 1981-82 Reliant and Aries both had a factory sunroof option, though production numbers are unknown. The Ks bowed for 1981 as the Dodge Aries and Plymouth Reliant a€”A and, in Mexico, the Dart a€”A with a two door coupe, four door sedan, and four door wagon. By 1982, Plymouth had the Reliant patrolling the streets of America in full police car trim. While the K-car eventually ranged from sporty compact to minivan, most of that proliferation was not originally in the plans, which makes it all the more impressive.
We have no tests of the a€?hota€?A Reliant (five-speed manual transmission and 2.5 liter engine). Thanks to the Relianta€™s and Ariesa€™A light weight, none of the engines felt sluggish with the three-speed automatic; hill climbing (gradability) was better than most competitors. To keep costs down while providing a bigger-car ride, the rear suspension was not fully independent, but had a new flex arm system; the front suspension used struts with rack and pinion steering, finally leaving the torsion bar suspensions Chrysler had used since 1957. Wagons were on the same wheelbase as other cars, keeping their weight down so acceleration was sprightly and gas mileage was surprisingly good; these were some of the last wagons made by Chrysler until the ill-fated Dodge Magnum, with their place taken first by minivans and then by crossovers.
Two new electronically tuned radios made by Chrysler in Huntsville were optional on all Chrysler, Plymouth, and Dodge cars and trucks for 1982. The Chrysler LeBaron version, essentially a higher trim Plymouth, was added to the lineup for 1982. New 14 inch Sport wheel covers became standard on the LE, while a new cloth with vinyl center armrest interior became standard on SE sedans.
For 1988, the Reliant and Aries had a redesigned roll-down window mechanism for rear doors. For 1989, the front suspension was improved by using larger bushings on the lower control arm, and a position-sensitive strut design.
One reason for the carsa€™ success was the well designed 2.2 liter (135 cid) four cylinder powerplant. Unlike the slant six, still in production at the time, the 2.2 was not starved by a a€?cost consciousa€?A carburetor.
The first 2.2 used a cast iron block with aluminum pistons, overhead camshaft and valves, and an aluminum cylinder head.
When the 2.2 gained fuel injection, it used a single-point throttle-body fuel injector, though multiple-point fuel injection had become common by then, to cut costs. A 2.5 version of the motor, always fuel injected, put out 100 hp (135 lb-ft) a€”A more power and torque than the Mitsubishi.
Burton Bouwkamp wrote: a€?The Chrysler K car and E Body were high trim level Plymouths, but it was the only way we could afford to give the Chrysler brand a new car.

The K-based LeBarona€™s name was taken from a rear wheel drive car, derived from the Volare, which then became the Fifth Ave. The front drive LeBaron came out in 1982 in sedan, wagon, or coupe, with a convertible added soon after.
The K platform spawned almost all of Chryslera€™s products for the 1980s, and sales of the car were strong enough to bring Chrysler back from the brink of bankruptcy.
Looking at the wagons, one can see that the K-car was not much smaller inside than the F-body wagons. The K-cars provided nearly the same interior space and ride as the M-body Gran Fury and Diplomat, at much lower cost, with much better mileage; and they afforded a five-speed manual transmission option to get quicker acceleration and even better gas mileage. Yes, the Gran Fury had its strengths - a tough structure, loads of torque, and a plush, attractive interior - but its dated engineering, which dated back to the 1950s with major updates roughly every ten years until the mid-1970s, and the basic architecture limited its attractiveness to the average buyer, as did the unaerodynamic shape. Eran los segundos coches con tracciA?n en las cuatro ruedas vendidos por Chrysler, pero los primeros a€“ los Omni y Horizon a€“ fueron construidos en gran parte en Francia y Inglaterra, por Chrysler Europa.
Eran caros y bastante fiables, y funcionaban como prometieron, con transporte econA?mico para 6 personas. Las carburadores de retroalimentaciA?n podA­an ser temperamentales, especialmente en los motores de 2,6 litros. El motor de 2,5 litros tenA­a una golpe mA?s largo para menos potencia, a costa de RPM alto. I always tried to be there for the pre-meeting with Hal Sperlich and then keep in the background at the actual approval meeting. One of the early, if not the original, Plymouth brand logos was a sailing ship a€” as used by the Plymouth Brethren a€” a caravelle. The three-speed automatic transmission was the main culprit of the relatively poor mileage; owners of stick-shift turbos (and standard engines) got substantially better numbers. The quick ratio steering was included with the optional Sport Handling Suspension on Caravelle models.
It served as a daily driver and pizza delivery car when I got it; it ran well and never failed to start, even in the cold Winnipeg winters.
I removed the chrome trim from around the wheel wells and took off the side bump stripes when I had the car repainted. In the fall of 1980, K-car #1 rolled out of the production plant a€” a tan 1981 Plymouth Reliant coupe, base model. Admittedly more suited to the size and weight of the car, these may have been chosen largely because buyers saw them as requirements and hallmarks of modern cars.
Created for American drivers and cars, it produced 84 horsepower and 111 lb-ft of torque, using an electronically controlled Holley 6520 carburetor. The stick-shift dramatically reduced 0-60 times; the three-speed Torqueflite-based transaxle could not keep up with the manual, either in acceleration or gas mileage, but the powertrain was responsive under normal driving, especially when compared with some of the more anemic cars then being sold.
Chrysler followed suit on Citationa€™s non-roll-down rear windows, an unwelcome feature on 1981 models.
The Dodge Aries did not have a hood ornament at all, relying instead on a badge placed on the grille, presumably a a€?sportiera€?A way of doing it. The latter had woodgrain embedded into the wheel, where it could not easily be worn out by handling.
The rocker panels were doomed once the car got to be about 10 years old; some models like the SE had a silver rocker cover that hid the rust.
Gas mileage was identical (city cycle) with four-speed manual and three-speed automatic; as adjusted for 2008 standards, there was a 1 mpg highway difference.
The early K-cars are beginning to gain some respect from the public, and now that they are the rarest of the run, especially in the northern climates, the public is beginning to take another look on this piece of automotive history. They were not as fully a€?moderna€?A as the companya€™s own Horizon and Omni, especially given their solid-beam rear axles, but they had a more solid feel, a smoother ride, and a distinctive American flavor. Reviving a term used in the past, it was called the Reliant Scout Car; it joined the midsized Gran Fury Pursuit and the Voyager van in law enforcement.
These times have to be considering in the context of straight-six Fords and Chevys, as well as tiny-engined Nissans, Datsuns, Hondas, and Toyotas. With their function-over-form exteriors and their mundane mechanicals, the Ks were worthy sucessors to the 1970s Darts and Valiants, even if they were not quite as bulletproof. These were the Quartz Lock radios, which some claim had a high defect rate; they had numerous grounds to the radio chassis designed in, making them harder to work on. Then, for 1984, the Reliant and Aries were given a minor facelift, though retaining their squarish looks. Rear windows used a light plastic gear, saving 60% of the weight of conventional manual height assemblies. The rollers improved idle quality and fuel economy by reducing friction between the camshaft and the older followers, and increased engine life, especially in colder climates (or with owners who put in lower-quality oil).
New packages included Protection and Popular Equipment Discount; neither was available on the base model, which also made do with fully manual rack and pinion steering (not a major drawback on this light car). However, high demand for the K-cars kept them in production for two more years; they gained a stainless steel exhaust (a corporate standard now) and standard front bucket seats.
Instead, the company sprang for a modern two-barrel electronic feedback carburetor with a progressive opening a€”A opening the secondary bore only when needed a€”A churning out 82 hp when launched. The feedback carburetors could be temperamental, especially on a cold motor (a problem on most vehicles of the period). Just one year after its launch, numerous tuning changes were made, so that the 1982s had the underhead flast removed from exhaust valve, with different cam centerline and sprockets and exhaust valve seats; the new a€?Da€? intake manifold, with shorter runners and a larger plenum, was phased in as a running change. This version turned out 93 hp (129 lb-ft); more important, it solved the starting and idling woes of carbureted versions, as well as the inability of some spark-control computers to hold the timing steady as they aged.

Its balance shafts made it somewhat smoother and quieter than the 2.2, but it was only available with the automatic at its launch in 1986. They were cheap, reasonably reliable, and delivered economical transportation for six people. La computadora que controlaba las chispas se negaba frecuentemente a estabilizar el encendido mientras envejecA­an. Se vendA­an mal al principio; anuncios trataban de vender el bajo precio, pero Chrysler construA­a coches llenos de extras. The other cars in this series were the Chrysler E-Class (which used similar tail-lights) and Dodge 600. Unfortunately, only Dodge and Chrysler owners were able to get a turbocharged engine with a five-speed.
It helped to use the 'headlights on first' trick to get some juice on those really cold days.
I wanted it done to match the factory PA1 silver but the shop put on a grey colour which ended up being okay because some lesser-knowing people think ita€™s a Mercedes or BMW from a distance. These cars would, though none at Chrysler knew it at the time, become the basis for nearly the entire product line, spanning the gamut from sport (G24 Daytona) to Eurosport (LeBaron GTS) to van.
In back, the leaf springs so familiar to owners were replaced by a beam axle with trailing arm rear suspension, using independently mounted dampers and coil springs. Trim levels for both Plymouth and Dodge in 1981, were Base, Custom, and SE, and all were sold as four door sedans, two door coupes, and station wagons. Another problem area is the front floor pans, which typically fail due to water getting into the carpet, or if the car was not undercoated.
Most of that proliferation was not originally in the plans, which makes it all the more impressive. Many Volare and Aspen buyers found the K-cars to be an upgrade; and, compared to most imports of the day, they were better suited to American roads and tastes. Rear seats folded down to form a level platform and to increase cargo space from 35 to 68 cubic feet. The SE provided upscale interior appointments (cloth seats and center armrest, generous standard equipment). The mid-range models were dropped (SE for Plymouth), but the top and bottom levels remained. Two computers (designed, built, and calibrated by Chrysler itself) controlled the electronic ignition, spark timing, and electronic feedback carburetor. Stock was added to the block between the cup plugs, below the manifolds, and they switched to the a€?teacupa€? oil filter. The V8 in the 1981 LeBaron and 1982 Fifth Avenue was, by contrast, producing just 130 horsepower, albeit with far more torque (230 lb-ft). The LeBaron GTS, a five-door hatchback identical in most respects to the Dodge Lancer, was made with different styling, from 1985 to 1988. And in the wake of the rather disastrous tenure of GMa€™s X-bodies, they led the American automotive world into an era of small, space- and fuel-efficient FWD cars, a tradition that continues on GM, Ford, and Chrysler showrooms today. In return, drivers got a car two feet shorter, bumper to bumper, making parking easier; and roughly doubled their gas mileage. The Gran Fury was actually narrower inside than the K-car, while managing to be four inches wider outside. Un coupe de 2 puertas, un turismo de 4 puertas, y una camioneta de 4 puertas eran disponibles. When the unique Canadian product was being launched for the 1978 model year, there was a staff suggestion run for a suitable name and one smart young secretary, who was into sailing and knew the logo, suggested Caravelle - and Canada begat Caravelle. The three-speed automatic was not a good match for the turbocharged engines, which may have been one reason the V6 series was phased in (along with the marketing truth that six cylinders are better than four, regardless of power). The top of the line SE model included a vinyl roof, deluxe wheel covers, white wall tires, cloth bench seat with an armrest, and digital clock. The Town & Country, a high-end K-car wagon spurred by Lee Iacocca himself, hit the market. Together, the steps cut friction by 20% and increased city driving economy for both engines by 3%-4%. Perhaps the largest change was dropping all models except the Reliant America and Aries America. The 2.2 still made 84 horsepower in 1982, but there were many differences from the first to second year. The dashboard was originally taken from the K (not unlike the first-generation minivan) but in 1986 was replaced by a more upscale version. The coupe and sedan had approximately 15 cubic feet of luggage space; the wagons, 35 cubic feet with rear seat up and about 70 feet when folded. We were with carburetors and that seemed like what we were going to have forever, at least on the highest volume of our engines.
There was only one place we could go and that was down below the crankshaft because it was the only room available.

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