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12.08.2015
The Regional Railway Museum situated near to ICF Chennai is not known by most of people of Chennai too.
Don’t forget to experience the ride with Luxury Trains next time you travel to India, it is one of the memories of lifetime. To know more about the tariff, seat availability, discount details etc, please fill the enquiry form given below, Aspark Holidays expertise will contact you. An '''electric locomotive''' is a locomotive+ powered by electricity+ from overhead line+s, a third rail+ or on-board energy storage such as a battery+ or fuel cell+. Power plants, even if they burn fossil fuels, are far cleaner than mobile sources such as locomotive engines.
Power plant capacity is far greater than any individual locomotive uses, so electric locomotives can have a higher power output than diesel locomotives and they can produce even higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration. Electric locomotives benefit from the high efficiency of electric motors, often above 90% (not including the inefficiency of generating the electricity).
The chief disadvantage of electrification is the cost for infrastructure: overhead lines or third rail, substations, and control systems. In Europe and elsewhere, railway networks are considered part of the national transport infrastructure, just like roads, highways and waterways, so are often financed by the state.
The first known electric locomotive was built in 1837 by chemist Robert Davidson+ of Aberdeen+. The first electric passenger train was presented by Werner von Siemens+ at Berlin+ in 1879.
Much of the early development of electric locomotion was driven by the increasing use of tunnels, particularly in urban areas. The first use of electrification on a main line was on a four-mile stretch of the Baltimore Belt Line+ of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad+ (B&O) in 1895 connecting the main portion of the B&O to the new line to New York through a series of tunnels around the edges of Baltimore's downtown. The first practical AC+ electric locomotive was designed by Charles Brown+, then working for Oerlikon+, Zurich. In 1894, Hungarian engineer Kalman Kando+ developed a new type 3-phase asynchronous electric drive motors and generators for electric locomotives. Kando's early 1894 designs were first applied in a short three-phase AC tramway in Evian-les-Bains (France), which was constructed between 1896 and 1898.
In 1918, Kando invented and developed the rotary phase converter+, enabling electric locomotives to use three-phase motors whilst supplied via a single overhead wire, carrying the simple industrial frequency (50 Hz) single phase AC of the high voltage national networks. In 1896, Oerlikon installed the first commercial example of the system on the Lugano Tramway+.
Italian railways were the first in the world to introduce electric traction for the entire length of a main line rather than just a short stretch. A later development of Kando, working with both the Ganz+ works and Societa Italiana Westinghouse+, was an electro-mechanical converter+, allowing the use of three-phase motors from single-phase AC, eliminating the need for two overhead wires.
In Europe, electrification projects initially focused on mountainous regions for several reasons: coal supplies were difficult, hydroelectric power+ was readily available, and electric locomotives gave more traction on steeper lines.
A diesel-electric locomotive+ combines an onboard diesel engine+ with an electrical power transmission+ or storage (battery, ultracapacitor) system. As AC motors were developed, they became the predominant type, particularly on longer routes.
Rectifier+ locomotives, which used AC power transmission and DC motors, were common, though DC commutators had problems both in starting and at low velocities. Electric traction allows the use of regenerative braking+, in which the motors are used as brakes and become generators that transforms the motion of the train into electrical power that is then fed back into the lines. Most systems have a characteristic voltage and, in the case of AC power, a system frequency. The original Baltimore and Ohio Railroad+ electrification used a sliding shoe in an overhead channel, a system quickly found to be unsatisfactory.
Railways generally tend to prefer overhead lines+, often called "catenaries+" after the support system used to hold the wire parallel to the ground. During the initial development of railroad electrical propulsion, a number of drive systems were devised to couple the output of the traction motor+s to the wheels.
Another drive was the "bi-polar+" system, in which the motor armature was the axle itself, the frame and field assembly of the motor being attached to the truck (bogie) in a fixed position. Modern electric locomotives, like their Diesel-electric+ counterparts, almost universally use axle-hung traction motors, with one motor for each powered axle.
The Whyte notation+ system for classifying steam locomotive+s is not adequate for describing the variety of electric locomotive arrangements, though the Pennsylvania Railroad+ applied classes+ to its electric locomotives as if they were steam. UIC classification+ system was typically used for electric locomotives, as it could handle the complex arrangements of powered and unpowered axles and could distinguish between coupled and uncoupled drive systems. Electrification systems used by the JR group, Japan's formerly state-owned operators, are 1,500 V DC and 20 kV AC for conventional lines and 25 kV AC for Shinkansen. Japan has come close to complete electrification largely due to the relatively short distances and mountainous terrain, which make electric service a particularly economical investment. Electrification began in earnest for local railways in the 1920s and main lines electrification began following World War II using a universal 1,500 V DC standard and eventually, a 20 kV standard for rapid intercity main lines (often overlaying 1,500 V DC lines) and 25 kV AC for high-speed Shinkansen+ lines). Keretapi Tanah Melayu+ of Malaysia+ operates 25 kV AC+ electric multiple unit+s, starting from their KTM Komuter+ in 1995. Both Victorian Railways+ and New South Wales Government Railways+, which pioneered electric traction in Australia in the early 20th century and continue to operate 1,500 V DC Electric Multiple Unit+s, have withdrawn their electric locomotives. In both states, the use of electric locomotives on principal interurban routes proved to be a qualified success. Queensland Rail+ implemented electrification relatively recently and utilises the more recent 25 kV AC+ technology with around 1,000 km of the narrow gauge+ network now electrified. In South Australia+, the Seaford railway line+ was electrified in 2013; electric services commenced in February 2014. Diesel locomotives have less power compared to electric locomotives for the same weight and dimensions. Recent political developments in many European countries to enhance public transit have led to another boost for electric traction. Russia+ and other countries of the former USSR+ have a mix of 3,300 V DC and 25 kV AC for historical reasons. The special "junction stations" (around 15 over the former USSR - Vladimir+, Mariinsk near Krasnoyarsk etc.) have wiring switchable from DC to AC. Most Soviet, Czech (the USSR ordered passenger electric locomotives from Skoda), Russian and Ukrainian locomotives can operate on AC or DC only.
For some time, electric railways were only considered to be suitable for suburban or mountain lines.
25 kV AC started in the USSR in around 1960, when the industry managed to build the rectifier-based AC-wire DC-motor locomotive (all Soviet and Czech AC locomotives were such; only the post-Soviet ones switched to electronically controlled induction motors). In 1990s, some DC lines were rebuilt as AC to allow the usage of the huge 10 MWt AC locomotive of VL85. Electric locomotives are used for passenger trains on Amtrak+'s Northeast Corridor+ between Washington, DC+ and Boston+, with a branch to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania+, and on some commuter rail+ lines.
In North America, the flexibility of diesel locomotives and the relative low cost of their infrastructure has led them to prevail except where legal or operational constraints dictate the use of electricity. During the steam era, some mountainous areas were electrified but these have been discontinued.
Agence metropolitaine de transport+ (AMT) operates the ALP-45DP+ dual-mode electro-diesel locomotive+s for the Repentigny-Mascouche Line (AMT)+.
A battery locomotive (or battery-electric locomotive) is powered by on-board batteries; a kind of battery electric vehicle+. In 1928, Kennecott Copper ordered four 700-series electric locomotives with on-board batteries.
Electric locomotive+ An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or fuel cell.


The MG Steam Crane Hercules which was used for emergency relief during accidents in the 1930s, hospital on wheels which has an operation theatre, and a ward, and heritage models of steam engines are among the 42 outdoor exhibits at the museum. Khanna, General Manager, ICF, announced a slew of new additions that will be made to this young museum.
Though the museum's brochure says that an average of 5500 visitors have been coming every month to the museum of late, regular visitors say that it is mostly those who live around the area, and schools that visit it the most. Khanna says that, “The museum must feature prominently in the tourist map of the city, and for that we are in talks with the Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation. The power can come from clean or renewable sources+, including geothermal power+, hydroelectric power+, nuclear power+, solar power+ and wind turbine+s. Additional efficiency can be gained from regenerative braking+, which allows kinetic energy+ to be recovered during braking to put power back on the line. It was built by Werner von Siemens (see Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway+ and Berlin Stra?enbahn+). Smoke from steam locomotives was noxious and municipalities were increasingly inclined to prohibit their use within their limits.
Parallel tracks on the Pennsylvania Railroad+ had shown that coal smoke from steam locomotive+s would be a major operating issue and a public nuisance. Paul and Pacific Railroad+ (the Milwaukee Road), the last transcontinental line to be built, electrified its lines across the Rocky Mountains+ and to the Pacific Ocean starting in 1915. In 1891, Brown had demonstrated long-distance power transmission, using three-phase AC+, between a hydro-electric plant+ at Lauffen am Neckar+ and Frankfurt am Main+ West, a distance of 280 km. The 106 km Valtellina line was opened on 4 September 1902, designed by Kando and a team from the Ganz works.
In 1923, the first phase-converter locomotive in Hungary was constructed on the basis of Kando’s designs and serial production began soon after.
This was particularly applicable in Switzerland, where close to 100% of lines are electrified.
The Japanese Shinkansen+ and the French TGV+ were the first systems for which devoted high-speed lines were built from scratch.
The earliest systems used DC as AC was not well understood and insulation material for high voltage lines was not available.
The resulting three-phase+ current drives induction motor+s, which do not have sensitive commutators+ and permit easy realisation of a regenerative brake+. This system is particularly advantageous in mountainous operations, as descending locomotives can produce a large portion of the power required for ascending trains.
Many locomotives have been equipped to handle multiple voltages and frequencies as systems came to overlap or were upgraded.
It was replaced by a third rail+, in which a pickup (the "shoe") rode underneath or on top of a smaller rail parallel to the main track, above ground level.
The motor had two field poles, which allowed a limited amount of vertical movement of the armature. In this arrangement, one side of the motor housing is supported by plain bearings riding on a ground and polished journal that is integral to the axle. For example, the PRR GG1+ class indicates that it is arranged like two 4-6-0+ class G locomotives coupled back-to-back. Additionally, the mix of freight to passenger service is weighted much more toward passenger service (even in rural areas) than in many other countries, and this has helped drive government investment into electrification of many remote lines.
Because most of the electrification infrastructure was destroyed in the war, the only variances to this standard with significant traffic are a few of the older subway lines in Tokyo and Osaka.
In Victoria, because only one major line (the Gippsland line+) had been electrified, the economic advantages of electric traction were not fully realised due to the need to change locomotives for trains that ran beyond the electrified network.
Due to higher density schedules, operating costs are more dominant with respect to the infrastructure costs than in the U.S.
In some countries like Switzerland, even electric shunters are common and many private sidings can be served by electric locomotives.
High-speed trains like the TGV+, ICE+, AVE+ and Pendolino+ can only be run economically using electric traction and the operation of branch lines is usually less in deficit when using electric traction, due to cheaper and faster rolling stock and more passengers due to more frequent service and more comfort. Locomotive replacement is essential at these stations and is performed together with the contact wiring switching. The first experimental track was in Georgian mountains, then the suburban zones of the largest cities were electrified for EMUs - very advantageous due to much better dynamic of such a train compared to the steam one, which is important for suburban service with frequent stops. In around 1950, a decision was made (according to legend, by Joseph Stalin+) to electrify the highly loaded plain prairie line of Omsk+-Novosibirsk+. The first major line with AC power was Mariinsk-Krasnoyarsk-Tayshet-Zima; the lines in European Russia like Moscow-Rostov-on-Don followed.
The system is 25 kV AC 50 Hz after the junction station of Mariinsk near Krasnoyarsk, 3,000 V DC before it, and train weights are up to 6,000 tonnes. Mass transit systems and other electrified commuter lines use electric multiple unit+s, where each car is powered.
An example of the latter is the use of electric locomotives by Amtrak and commuter railroad+s in the Northeast.
The junction between electrified and non-electrified territory is the locale of engine changes; for example, Amtrak+ trains had extended stops in New Haven, Connecticut+ as locomotives were swapped, a delay which contributed to the decision to electrify the New Haven to Boston segment of the Northeast Corridor+ in 2000. They run as electric while in the poorly ventilated Mount Royal Tunnel+, otherwise they run as diesel locomotives. Such locomotives are used where a conventional diesel or electric locomotive would be unsuitable. Battery locomotives are preferred for mines where gas could be ignited by trolley-powered+ units arcing+ at the collection shoes, or where electrical resistance+ could develop in the supply or return circuits, especially at rail joints, and allow dangerous current leakage into the ground.
Electric locomotive EP1+ Electric locomotive EP1 is a Russian electric locomotive which has been produced by Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant since 1998. T” Deepak Krishnan, General Manager, Southern Railways, , the chief guest, said that the museum could be used on the professional front to familiarise those joining the railways about its rich heritage.
And I have visited the Museum after that with my family members and my sons are enjoyed a lot by getting into different coaches kept over there and also travelled in the TOY TRAIN for a joy ride.
Electric locomotives are quiet compared to diesel locomotives since there is no engine and exhaust noise and less mechanical noise.
Newer electric locomotives use AC motor-inverter drive systems that provide for regenerative braking. This makes possible the large investments required for the technically, and in the long-term also, economically advantageous electrification. Davidson later built a larger locomotive named ''Galvani'', exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts+ Exhibition in 1841. During four months, the train carried 90,000 passengers on a 300-metre-long circular track. The first electrically-worked underground+ line was the City and South London Railway+, prompted by a clause in its enabling act prohibiting use of steam power. Three Bo+Bo+ units were initially used, at the south end of the electrified section; they coupled onto the locomotive and train and pulled it through the tunnels. A few East Coast lines, notably the Virginian Railway+ and the Norfolk and Western Railway+, electrified short sections of their mountain crossings. Using experience he had gained while working for Jean Heilmann+ on steam-electric locomotive designs, Brown observed that three-phase motors+ had a higher power-to-weight ratio than DC+ motors and, because of the absence of a commutator+, were simpler to manufacture and maintain. An important contribution to the wider adoption of AC traction came from SNCF+ of France after World War II+. Similar programs were undertaken in Italy+, Germany+ and Spain+; in the United States the only new main-line service was an extension of electrification over the Northeast Corridor from New Haven, Connecticut+ to Boston, Massachusetts+, though new electric light rail+ systems continued to be built. DC locomotives typically run at relatively low voltage (600 to 3,000 volts); the equipment is therefore relatively massive because the currents involved are large in order to transmit sufficient power. Speed is controlled by changing the number of pole pairs in the stator circuit, with acceleration controlled by switching additional resistors in, or out, of the rotor circuit.


American FL9+ locomotives were equipped to handle power from two different electrical systems and could also operate as diesel-electrics.
Unlike model railroad+s the track normally supplies only one side, the other side(s) of the circuit being provided separately. There were multiple pickups on both sides of the locomotive in order to accommodate the breaks in the third rail required by trackwork. The other side of the housing has a tongue-shaped protuberance that engages a matching slot in the truck (bogie) bolster, its purpose being to act as a torque reaction device, as well as a support. Dual-current WCAM locomotives were used in Mumbai sections which could use both types of power supply; these locomotives still exist but now use only AC power. The Tokaido Main Line+, Japan's busiest line, completed electrification in 1956 and Tokaido Shinkansen+ was complete in 1964. VR's electric locomotive fleet+ was withdrawn from service by 1987 and the Gippsland line electrification was dismantled by 2004. Queensland Rail is currently rebuilding its 3100 and 3200 class locos into the 3700 class, which use AC traction and need only three locomotives on a coal train rather than five. During World War II+, when materials to build new electric locomotives were not available, Swiss Federal Railways+ installed electric heating elements, fed from the overhead supply, in the boilers of some steam shunters+ to deal with the shortage of imported coal. In addition, gaps of un-electrified track are closed to avoid replacing electric locomotives by diesels for these sections. There were some half-experimental small series like VL82, which could switch from AC to DC and were used in small amounts around the city of Kharkov+ in Ukraine+. All other long-distance passenger service and, with rare exceptions+, all freight is hauled by diesel-electric locomotives. New Jersey Transit+ New York corridor uses ALP-46+ electric locomotives, due to the prohibition on diesel operation in Penn Station+ and the Hudson+ and East River Tunnels+ leading to it. An example is maintenance trains on electrified lines when the electricity supply is turned off, such as by the London Underground battery-electric locomotives+. It is the first Russian passenger electric locomotive with the 2o-2o-2o or Bo-Bo-Bo axle arrangement. Do you know how many departments have to co-ordinate and say yes for a wheel to move?” he added. My children enjoy coming here, and often try and relate these coaches to the trains they travel in,” says S. The lack of reciprocating parts means electric locomotives are easier on the track, reducing track maintenance. Electric locomotives are used on freight routes with consistently high traffic volumes, or in areas with advanced rail networks. The seven-ton vehicle had two direct-drive+ reluctance motor+s, with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, and simple commutators+. Railroad entrances to New York City+ required similar tunnels and the smoke problems were more acute there. However, by this point electrification in the United States was more associated with dense urban traffic and the use of electric locomotives declined in the face of dieselization.
The voltage was significantly higher than used earlier and it required new designs for electric motors and switching devices. The company had assessed the industrial-frequency AC line routed through the steep Hollental Valley+, Germany, which was under French administration following the war. Power must be supplied at frequent intervals as the high currents result in large transmission system losses.
The two-phase lines are heavy and complicated near switches, where the phases have to cross each other. The cost of electronic devices in a modern locomotive can be up to 50% of the cost of the vehicle. The EP-2+ bi-polar electrics used by the Milwaukee Road+ compensated for this problem by using a large number of powered axles. Power transfer from motor to axle is effected by spur gearing+, in which a pinion+ on the motor shaft engages a bull gear+ on the axle. The 86 class locomotives introduced to NSW in 1983 had a relatively short life as the costs of changing locomotives at the extremities of the electrified network, together with the higher charges levied for electricity use, saw diesel-electric locomotives make inroads into the electrified network. Queensland Rail is getting 30 3800 class locomotives from Siemens in Munich, Germany, which will arrive during late 2008 to 2009. In addition, governments were motivated to electrify their railway networks due to coal shortages experienced during the First and Second World Wars. The necessary modernisation and electrification of these lines is possible due to financing of the railway infrastructure by the state. Some other trains to Penn Stations use dual-mode+ locomotives that can also operate off third-rail power in the tunnels and the station.
PRR 4859+ PRR 4859 is a GG1-class electric locomotive located in the Harrisburg Transportation Center in Harrisburg in the U.S. It hauled a load of six tons at four miles per hour for a distance of one and a half miles.
Electricity quickly became the power supply of choice for subways, abetted by the Sprague's+ invention of multiple-unit train control+ in 1897. A collision in the Park Avenue tunnel in 1902 led the New York State legislature to outlaw the use of smoke-generating locomotives south of the Harlem River+ after 1 July 1908. Diesels shared some of the electric locomotive’s advantages over steam and the cost of building and maintaining the power supply infrastructure, which discouraged new installations, brought on the elimination of most main-line electrification outside the Northeast. The three-phase two-wire system was used on several railways in Northern Italy and became known as "the Italian system".
After trials, the company decided that the performance of AC locomotives was sufficiently developed to allow all its future installations, regardless of terrain, to be of this standard, with its associated cheaper and more efficient infrastructure. In 1960 the SJ Class Dm 3+ locomotives on Swedish Railways produced a record 7,200 kW. The system was widely used in northern Italy until 1976 and is still in use on some Swiss rack railway+s. QRNational (Queensland Rail's coal and freight after separation) has increased the order of 3800 class locomotives. It was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway+ in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use. Surface and elevated rapid transit+ systems generally used steam until forced to convert by ordinance. In response, electric locomotives began operation in 1904 on the New York Central Railroad+.
Kando was invited in 1905 to undertake the management of Societa Italiana Westinghouse and led the development of several Italian electric locomotives.
The simple feasibility of a fail-safe electric brake is an advantage of the system, while speed control and the two-phase lines are problematic.
In the 1930s, the Pennsylvania Railroad+, which had introduced electric locomotives because of the NYC regulation, electrified its entire territory east of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania+. Further improvements resulted from the introduction of electronic control systems, which permitted the use of increasingly lighter and more powerful motors that could be fitted inside the bogies (standardising from the 1990s onwards on asynchronous three-phase motors, fed through GTO-inverters).
Numerically high ratios are commonly found on freight units, whereas numerically low ratios are typical of passenger engines.
1,500 V DC is still used on some lines near France and 25 kV 50 Hz is used by high-speed trains.



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