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By tapping into the knowledge and enthusiasm of thousands of longtime users of its products, Lego has been able to enhance its product offerings — without increasing long-term fixed costs. Customer-oriented companiespride themselves on their ability to understand the experiences and insights of the marketplace and then integrate the best ideas into future products.1 But what would it be like if you found that you had hundreds if not thousands of knowledgeable users of your products ready and eager to spend nights and weekends acting as extensions of your research and development department?
Lego users have a long tradition of innovation and sharing their innovations with one another — activities that the Internet has made much easier. For the Lego Group, the program has offered exposure to new ideas, new technologies and new business partnerships. For the adult fans, collaborations have allowed them to influence Lego’s business decisions and encourage the company to develop products targeting teens and adults. Through trial and error, Lego has developed a solid understanding of what it takes to build and maintain profitable and mutually beneficial collaborations with users.
Between 2003 and 2011, we engaged in a multisite research program to examine community development and user innovation among adult fans of Lego and to learn about Lego’s experiences and practices in working with external communities. In addition, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and several informal interviews with members of the community, face to face or via email or phone. For decades, Lego’s colorful plastic bricks were developed for and used by children who played alone or with a few playmates.
In developing innovations, adult Lego users tap into a deep understanding and knowledge of the company’s product line, its possibilities and its limitations.
Adult fans have also created hundreds of minor improvements that make the play experience more inspiring, fun and challenging for them and fellow users. Many of the fan innovations have improved and extended the Lego building system or introduced new ways to use it that dovetailed well with how Lego itself thought of its products.
Historically, Lego was an extremely private company that tightly controlled its products and intellectual property. Among Lego employees, there was skepticism about how collaboration with adult users would actually work. The appointment of a new CEO, Jorgen Vig Knudstorp, in 2004 provided the opportunity for Lego to reflect on the meaning of the brand as well as the value of the company’s ties with the user community. About the same time that Knudstorp became CEO, more senior managers began realizing that while many of the innovations adult users initiated were beyond the design capabilities of children, they were not necessarily beyond a child’s adoption capability. Since then, Lego has formalized relationships with the adult fan community through its Ambassador Program. Similarly, adult fans have helped Lego identify new product lines and distribution strategies, including one new line featuring models of architecturally significant buildings. Based on its experience working with dedicated users, Lego management has developed an informed view on the circumstances under which collaborating closely with users works well — and on when it doesn’t.
When It Works Well Collaboration is most successful, Lego management has found, when outside parties have a particular area of expertise, such as architecture or sensor design and manufacture, that individuals within the company don’t have. Cocreating knowledge-intensive innovations with users allows Lego to obtain the skills and knowledge important to these activities. When It Causes Difficulties Collaborating with users has turned out to be less successful in cases where users seek to push the products beyond their intended limits.
The Lego Factory Hobby Train set includes building instructions for one train model; 29 other models can be downloaded from the Lego website.
Various types of robotic sensors User involvement in the development of the Lego Mindstorms NXT led to a technological partnership with Lego enthusiast John Barnes, co-owner of HiTechnic.
The Lego Modular Buildings series The Lego Modular Buildings series was originally suggested to Lego by fans through a poll that Lego organized. Lego Architecture The Lego Architecture line was codeveloped by Chicago architect and Lego enthusiast Adam Reed Tucker “to capture the essence of a particular landmark into its pure sculptural form, especially at this small scale.” The Sears Tower and the John Hancock Building were released in 2008, followed by the Empire State Building, Fallingwater and the Brandenburg Gate, among others. Based on its experiences working with the user community, Lego has developed a set of principles that summarize what it has learned about collaborating and interacting with knowledgeable users.
A newer platform, Lego Cuusoo,6 allows users to upload designs (drawings, photos, etc.) to a Web page where other Lego users and consumers in general can vote on the design.
Cumulatively, the principles we have discussed here help Lego organize collaborations with users in a manner that balances the needs of the company with those of its users. About the AuthorsYun Mi Antorini is an assistant professor of business communication at Aarhus University, in Aarhus, Denmark.
Managing Tensions Between New and Existing Business ModelsStaying competitive may mean exploring new business models — but watch out for internal tensions. Tech Savvy: How Blockchains Could Transform ManagementWhat’s happening this week at the intersection of management and technology. Companies can improve collaborations with universities by giving more thought to relationship structure. The high-speed passenger train that revolutionized rail travel comes to layouts everywhere courtesy of Bachmann industries.
For the Lego Group, a maker of children’s creative construction toys based in Billund, Denmark, this close bond with the user community — not just children but a large coterie of adults who have been using its products for years — is not a pipe dream but a reality. As Lego managers became more aware of innovations by the company’s adult fans, the managers realized that at least some of the adult fans’ ideas would be interesting to the company’s core target market of children. In some cases, Lego has decided to back businesses that produce products related to its own. In what follows, we will examine the emergence of Lego’s user communities, how management’s involvement with user groups has evolved and the core principles that Lego has formulated for successful interaction with its user groups. For example, they have developed completely new strategy games, new modular building standards and specialized software. It enabled people (often adult fans) to buy specific (often huge) quantities of Lego pieces online. An early example of this was LDraw, a freeware computer-aided design program released in 1995.

For example, user innovations made it possible to customize Lego Minifigures, build themes that better mirror personal interests and combine Lego pieces in new ways to make unique expressions and functions. The company’s public position was “We don’t accept unsolicited ideas.” However, things began to change in the late 1990s following the introduction of a new line of kits called Lego Mindstorms, which contained software and hardware to create small customizable and programmable robots. After all, many of the adult users didn’t know or care about designing products for the company’s target market — children. Knudstorp, who joined the company in 2001, concluded rather quickly that the benefits of collaboration were unmistakable. For example, vice president (then marketing director) Soren Lund recalled working closely with a community liaison to get adult fans to contribute to the design of the Lego Factory sets that were introduced in 2005.
Representatives, drawn from across the community of Lego user groups, provide a fast and direct way for Lego managers to get in contact with adult fans who may have new product or marketing ideas or be interested in providing feedback on products currently in development.
In developing these products, the company worked closely with Chicago architect and Lego enthusiast Adam Reed Tucker to represent such structures as the Empire State Building, the White House, the Brandenburg Gate and Frank Lloyd Wright’s landmark Fallingwater residence in Pennsylvania. Other reasons to consider partnering are when the target market is too small or a partner’s cost structure is much lower (as was the case with the electronic sensors). In addition to ad hoc collaborations, in recent years Lego has hired more than 20 adult fans. To achieve extraordinary results, adult Lego fans sometimes promote building techniques that go beyond the parameters of what the products were designed for.
Without exception, the adult users who collaborate with the Lego Group have busy lives that involve full-time jobs, studies, hobbies, families and so on. In collaborating with very engaged and skilled users who were contributing their ideas, it was easy for the company to focus on “getting the job done,” forgetting that the users had needs that sometimes diverged from those of Lego employees and that the collaborations themselves needed to be rewarding experiences for the users. Lego employees involved with the user community learned early in the process that while participants were indeed committed to the Lego brand and the Lego brick, they were also attracted to the sense of community they experienced with other adult fans.
Lego also learned early on that different users prefer different modes of communication, and different types of innovations call for different environments. If a design receives 10,000 votes, Lego agrees to consider it for possible production; if the design is commercialized, innovators receive 1% of the total net sales for their product.
Typically, these restricted forums gather input from very skilled users on complex, long-term projects.
To protect confidential and proprietary information, companies customarily ask collaborators to sign nondisclosure agreements. Also, the authors thank Paal Smith-Meyer and his colleagues in the Lego New Business Group, and the many Lego enthusiasts who over the years have shared their knowledge and insights with us. As an official Amtrak licensee of the Acela® Express train, Bachmann is proud to present this model in our award-winning Spectrum® line. Bachmann is ranked #1 in model train sets, followed by Life-Like, New Bright, Kato USA Inc, and 10 other manufacturers.
In 2005, Lego created the Ambassador Program to provide a fast and direct way for the company and its fans to get into contact with one another.
Indeed, the company has found ways to expand into new market areas without having to sustain long-term fixed costs. The conventions were attended by between 50 and 400 adult fans, who displayed their innovations and took part in presentations, workshops, competitions, auctions and round-table discussions. During the research process, the lead author became a member of the Danish Lego User Group and made presentations and led round-table discussions at North American adult user conventions. These user-created innovations have expanded the Lego play experience and pushed the use of Lego materials into new and virtual media, enabling creative possibilities that weren’t previously possible. Auczilla’s successor, BrickLink, which began in 2000, sells pieces through more than 5,800 online shops. The program allowed computer users to develop, test, render and document designs based on Lego parts before constructing the models and sharing the designs, much the way architects and industrial designers rely on CAD professionally. In addition, fans have shared thousands of Lego-inspired movies on YouTube, with the top five movies attracting more than 64 million views. Sophisticated users found ways to hack into the code and adapt the new products; they talked about their innovations on independent websites. To make things simple, the company put a small team of Lego employees in charge of reviewing fan input to make sure that it was properly aligned with the company’s marketing goals.
For example, during the development of a new version of the Lego Mindstorms programmable robotics kit in 2004, tech-savvy users advised management that the new product would provide many more design opportunities if it worked with a larger selection of sensors. After a pilot of the new line was conducted in Chicago, the architectural kits are now sold around the world in outlets such as museums, souvenir shops and bookstores. In such circumstances, Lego has benefited from having passionate fans with deep and specialized knowledge of Lego building along with their own specific expertise. By hiring experienced users, Lego can benefit from the extensive knowledge and skills these users have accumulated over the years.
From Lego’s perspective, the concern is that while many of these techniques add quite stunning expressions and functions, they challenge quality and in most cases are too hard for younger users to build.
The sensors, designed and manufactured by HiTechnic, greatly expanded the possibilities for using Lego Mindstorms.
Fans participated in the development of the sets, providing input at stages from the prototypes to the completed designs. When Lego began collaborating with adult fans, there were very few stated rules or expectations about how the process should work.
In fact, it is the relationship with other fans and the input and encouragement they offer that strongly motivate these users to keep raising the creative bar and keep searching for new and better ideas and solutions. In 2011, the Minecraft project received 10,000 votes worldwide within 48 hours.7 It has also received 30,000 “likes” on the Lego and Minecraft Facebook pages and was tweeted about more than 4,000 times.
For example, hundreds of beta test users proposed improvements to and reported flaws in the Lego Mindstorms NXT, and several thousand user posts appeared in the virtual project room for Lego’s Hobby Train set.

That’s what Lego did when it launched its Lego Ambassador Program and began collaborating with adult fans. Instead of regarding collaboration as something that needs to be managed exclusively by the company, it is fruitful to think of it as an ongoing dialogue between two allies. Our Acela® Express features the latest in technology and tool making, and its powerful locomotive can reach scale speeds of 150 mph or more. Ho train sets ranks as the most popular of the twelve model train sets categories, then N scale train sets, Thomas-the-tank electric cars, G scale train sets, Thomas-the-tank electric accessories, and Thomas-the-tank electric train sets. Many of the findings presented in this paper have been previously shared with adult users at community events and online forums, thus offering the community opportunities to comment on the findings and conclusions. The largest secondary marketplace for Lego sets and elements, it recently had about 200,000 registered members and offers more than 134 million Lego elements for sale. Although the developer, James Jessiman, died in 1997, LDraw’s impact on the Lego community endures. Cumulatively, the fan activity represents a vast library of free ideas available to anyone. This presented Lego management with a choice: either pursue legal action against the hackers or invite users to collaborate on new products and applications. This marked the beginning of a new push for openness and collaboration — and innovative products built around the Lego elements. Since many new products fail, having innovations that can be pretested by potential customers helps eliminate bugs and reduce risk.
Whereas the primary end users from Lego’s perspective are children, adult fans often think about developing products for other adults. Lego management learned, as studies of innovators have found, that the intrinsic rewards associated with designing and building products are frequently more motivating than financial rewards.5 Recognizing this, Lego has tended to pay outside collaborators with a combination of experience, access and Lego products. The simplest are polls and electronic idea boxes, which allow users to give input on predefined topics. Lego learned two important things: NDAs were effective at preventing the collaborators from sharing information with third parties, but there were unintended consequences.
Tormod Askildsen is senior director of community engagement and events at the Lego Group in Denmark. The Acela® Express set comes complete with: dual locomotives (one powered, one non-powered), a first class passenger car, business class passenger car, and cafe acela car.
The company concluded that litigation would be difficult and costly — and also that there could be significant advantages to collaborating with users. Meanwhile, Lego experienced a turbulent period from 1998 to 2004 (unrelated to its involvement with the user community), characterized by escalating competitive pressures and financial losses.
By partnering with Barnes’ company, Lego was able to offer 12 different types of advanced sensors with Mindstorms NXT, which greatly expanded its capabilities over prior models. Fans complained about being asked to consider cost and complexity when developing their designs and to adhere to building techniques that met the company’s tight quality and safety standards. However, users who participate in long-term projects or who provide services that are more like “work” are given a choice: they can receive free products or a more conventional stipend. As a result, members should be treated as passionate, experienced and talented individuals. A more advanced platform, Lego Digital Designer, allows users to design virtual Lego models and create digital building instructions that can be shared with other users. Because Ambassadors took the NDAs seriously, they didn’t share their ideas with other adult fans who hadn’t signed NDAs. Frequently, the two sets of resources complement each other and advance the conversation and collaboration. Also included are a 22?? radius, 63?? x 45?? nickel silver E-Z Track® oval, Spectrum® power pack, and video with assembly instructions.
And by February 2012, there were more than 150 known user groups, with over 100,000 active adult fans worldwide. LDraw allows users to export and import Lego parts lists from their designs to online shops listed on the BrickLink site, enabling them to identify and order the exact elements they need to create their models. Although the sensors were designed and manufactured by Barnes’ company, they were marketed through the Lego online shop, making them the first components dedicated to a Lego product to be manufactured by an independent vendor. Lego employees complained that adult fans pushed the limits of the company’s rules and regulations and that coordination was difficult because most of the adult fans had full-time jobs and worked on their Lego projects after business hours, at night.
In business partnerships between Lego and users (for example, in cases such as the architecture project and the sensors), various long-term, fee-based partnership agreements have been negotiated.
Today, Lego uses NDAs more sparingly, to limit information sharing with third parties only in narrowly defined situations — thus ensuring that collaborators are able to interact with each other to the maximum extent. The forums addressed community membership, Lego hobby activities and tastes and practices related to adult Lego users’ innovations. Without Barnes’ involvement, it is unlikely that Lego would have been able to create a profitable business case for the development and sales of the additional sensors. Lego learned that it had to be more specific about its expectations upfront, including when its projects would begin and end. The company also learned that adult users were more cooperative when they negotiated expectations with the Lego employees directly involved, rather than with Lego managers who were not directly engaged in the work. For example, it posts detailed descriptions of the criteria for and responsibilities of Lego Ambassadors on its own home page and on several community websites. And the company supports community initiatives aimed at improving idea sharing among community members and advancing innovation.

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