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Granted I have only been to RollerCon once before, I am definitely expecting to see some core derby essentials sported around my favorite desert oasis. I can’t remember the first time I saw them in action, but there is something SO RIGHT about leg warmers and derby. According to Wikipedia, leg warmers were first worn by dancers to keep their muscles from cramping after stretching.
Enter roller derby in the 2000s and the rebirth of many throwback fashion trends, including leg warmers.
I chatted with B Train from Wicked Skatewear about the leg warmer phenomenon to see if there were any solid trends that she could share. Wicked Skatewear is also the maker of the famed Sasquatch warmer that occasionally makes an appearance on the track.
For the last couple of years I have stuck with the classic dancer-style leg warmer but have recently upgraded to a longer warmer with snaps at the foot, which are great for pulling it over the top of my skate boot.
So for now it looks like the leg warmer is here to stay as track fashion – I’m not sure if I would ever sport warmers to a non-derby event or in a non-derby manner, but I do love to see them rolling! OF the four great railways formed in 1923 by the Railways Act of 1921, the London, Midland and Scottish is the largest. Of the constituent companies the London and North Western, generally accorded the title of “the premier line”, was the largest, with a route mileage of 1,807 in 1921.
At the present day the LMS is divided into the Western Division (including most of the former London and North Western Railway), the Midland Division (former Midland Railway), the Central Division (Lancashire and Yorkshire), and the Northern Division (including all the three Scottish lines taken over in 1923). Some idea of the extent of the LMS system may be gathered from the fact that its main lines extend from London to Wick, in the far north of Scotland and 729 miles from Euston. The main line of the former London and North Western Railway runs from Euston to Carlisle, 299 miles distant, by what is known as the West Coast Route. The country of the former North Staffordshire Railway lies to the east of a line drawn from Stafford to Crewe.
From Carnforth, twenty-seven miles north of Preston, the main line of the former Furness Railway skirts the Lake District and runs to Barrow-in-Furness and Whitehaven.
At Carlisle Station the main line of the Midland Division meets that of the former London and North Western.
From Carlisle the main line - formerly belonging to the Caledonian Railway - runs north to Glasgow (102? miles), Edinburgh (101 miles), Perth (150? miles), and Aberdeen (240? miles). The Highland line, uses Perth as its starting-point, though it really begins at Stanley Junction, over seven miles to the north. In conjunction with the Great Western Railway the LMS operates the busy cross-country line from Shrewsbury via Craven Arms to Hereford, for Newport, South Wales, Bristol, and the West of England.
In Ireland the LMS owns and works the Northern Counties Committee (formerly the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway), whose main line is from Belfast to Londonderry. THE EXTENT of the LMS system is indicated on this map, which shows the lines in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. In view of the wide ramifications of the LMS system it is not surprising that its route mileage exceeds that of any of the other great British railways. In addition, the company owns 2,088 parcels and goods road motor vehicles, and over 8,400 horses. Of British railways, the LMS handles the largest passenger and goods traffic, and earns the largest income, its weekly traffic receipts averaging over ?1,000,000.
ARTICULATED BEYER-GARRATT LOCOMOTIVES were introduced in 1927 on the Midland Division of the LMS, for dealing with the heavy coal traffic between the Toton yards and London. The number of trains booked at fifty-five miles an hour and upwards from start to stop is greater than on any other British railway. The locomotives are up to date and efficient, large numbers of passenger and freight engines having been built in recent years. THE BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE across the Menai Straits was built by Robert Stephenson, in 1846-50, on what was then a new principle - that of a bridge made of two parallel rectangular wrought-iron tubes. Although it is the proud and well founded boast of the LNER that, by virtue of ownership of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, it is “the oldest firm in the railway business”, the beginnings of the London, Midland and Scottish system go back nearly a quarter of a century before that September day in 1825 when the first public railway was opened.
The Sirhowy branch of the London and North Western, in North Wales, was originally a plate way - with the unusual gauge of 4 ft 4 in - incorporated as early as 1802, although locomotives were not introduced until 1829. These early lines were more numerous than is generally realised, since no fewer than twenty-three companies obtained powers for the construction of horse operated railways before the Stockton and Darlington was incorporated. Included in the LMS is the Liverpool and Manchester, the second public railway in the world. The real history of the LMS thus begins with the Liverpool and Manchester, which was incorporated in 1826. A FIRST-CLASS CORRIDOR BRAKE of the type used in the formation of the “Royal Scot” and some other famous LMS expresses. But to return to the Liverpool and Manchester - This project arose out of the delays and uncertainties of water transport between the two cities, as well as the excessive tolls charged by the canal companies, which had not yet begun to realise that their former monopoly was passing. Parliament was told that the Moss was too formidable an obstacle to be crossed, while another sceptic said that if it were possible the cost would be well over a quarter of a million.
In 1845 the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was amalgamated with the Grand Junction Railway, which extended from Liverpool and Manchester, via Crewe, to Birmingham, where it linked up with the London and Birmingham line.
The years 1864-67 were known as the “amalgamation years”, because of the number of systems taken over. The nucleus of the Midland Railway system owes much to William Hudson, [sic] the “railway king”.
Hudson was a native of York, where he had made a respectable fortune as a linen draper, and became associated with George Stephenson. The Midland grew in importance, but remained for a time only a provincial undertaking, the London terminus at St. On April 1, 1872, Allport created a sensation in the railway world by announcing that thenceforth the Midland would carry third-class passengers by all trains, thus being the first railway in the kingdom to admit the “penny-a-miler” on terms of equality.
That the Midland was the first to admit third-class passengers to all trains, and to abolish the second-class, is known to everyone who has a smattering of British railway history. This railway was the Sheffield and Rotherham, which was opened in 1838, and was the first to do away with the intermediate class. But although the Midland grew out of Hudson’s amalgamations, the first portion of the system constructed was the Leicester and Swannington Railway, which, as happened with so many of the early lines, was built with the primary idea of cheapening the conveyance of coal. The generally accepted story is that one of its engines, the “Samson”, ran over at a level crossing a cart laden with eggs and butter, and that to avoid a repetition of such accidents, it was suggested to George Stephenson by the manager of the line, who afterwards became the first general manager of the London and Birmingham Railway, that it might be possible to equip the locomotives with a steam-operated whistle. TAKING UP WATER from Bushey troughs, nearly sixteen miles from Euston, on the main line of the Western Division.
The first excursion train was run on July 20, 1840, and was organised by the Nottingham Mechanics’ Institute, whose members desired to visit an exhibition at Leicester. Out of these beginnings there grew the travel business of Thomas Cook (which also originated in an excursion on the Midland) and the whole vast traffic at cheap rates, which in Great Britain today makes up more than half of the main line passenger bookings. When the Midland Railway Company was formed in 1844, it became the largest single undertaking in the country, if not in the world, in point of mileage. The absorption in 1846 of the Bristol and Gloucester Railway enabled the Midland to reach Bristol, the terminus at Temple Meads adjoining that of the Great Western.
UP-TO-DATE SIGNALLING is in operation on the electric suburban lines between London and Watford.
Two years before the Midland was able to work through on the narrow gauge to Bristol, a proposal had been put forward for amalgamation with the London and North Western.
Had the scheme succeeded, it would have saved much competition that while it gave certain benefits to the public, inflicted considerable losses on the stockholders. The germ of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway was the Manchester-Normanton-Leeds section of the Manchester and Leeds, which was opened on March 1, 1841, although it had been incorporated in 1836, and talked about for over ten years before then.
The Lancashire and Yorkshire was a pioneer in electric traction, which was first introduced on the Liverpool-Southport-Crossens section in 1904, the year of the electrification of the North Eastern’s Tyneside lines. The Furness and North Staffordshire Railway, both ranking as constituent companies, were much smaller concerns. The North Staffordshire, which served the “Five Towns”, was the larger and more important of the two minor constituent companies. Mention must also be made of an undertaking that, although small in point of mileage, formed an important link in the British railway system. The original grouping scheme provided for five and not four amalgamated companies, the intention having been to set up a separate group for Scotland. Including joint lines and small subsidiaries, the total route length of the Scottish lines taken over by the LMS was approximately 2,200 miles.
The undertaking out of which this railway developed was incorporated in 1845, for the construction of a railway from Carlisle to Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the company did not obtain its Act of Parliament until after a fierce and lengthy struggle, which cost ?70,000. Carlisle formed the southern terminus of both the Caledonian and Glasgow and South Western systems.
The Highland Railway, as its name implied, was an undertaking entirely confined to the north of Scotland, over which its line spread in the shape of a cross. Of the locomotive works, Crewe has been described as “probably the largest and most celebrated railway establishment in the world”. Second in point of importance on the LMS are the Midland “shops” at Derby, which make carriages and wagons, as well as locomotives, and cover about 210 acres. Famous engines of the nineteenth century, beginning with Stephenson’s “Rocket”, include the “Bloomers”, “Precedents”, and Webb compounds of the London and North Western, the Midland bogie singles and the Caledonian 4-4-0’s. You can read more on “Britain’s Inland System”, “On the Footplate of an Express”, “The Royal Scot Route”, “The West Coast Postal” and “The World’s Most Famous Railway” on this website. Wicked Skatewear (as usual) is producing a few of the scrimmage tees and highly recommend visiting their site to check them out.
I will officially call anyone my personal hero if they have enough resistance to the heat to sport a pair of leg warmers! As I reported in an earlier column mustaches in general are all the rage, so I am forecasting the appearance of mustache everything: Actual fake mustaches, mustache socks, necklaces, tattoos . One of the coolest things about this sport is the room for individuality amongst organization – you see a lot of players who have their signature flair, be it face paint or accessories, the leg warmer is FOR SURE on that list. I’m not sure if there is a legitimate connection, but from my seat it seems like I see certain fashion trends start on the track and move into real non-derby life. From the traditional cable knit solid color leg warmer, to the fuzzy and colorful Sasquatch-style warmer – and everything in between. She said that she probably gets more orders for black warmers because more often then not black matches everything, including uniforms. The express illustrated is the down “Royal Scot”, near Bushey, Herts, sixteen miles from Euston.
The seven constituent companies absorbed in 1923 were the London and North Western, the Midland, the North Staffordshire, and the Furness Railways in England, and the Caledonian, Glasgow and South Western, and Highland Railways in Scotland.
Next in order of length were the Midland, with 1,529, and the Caledonian, with 896 route miles. Some of these railways, even in the days of their independence, were worked by the larger companies. Even this is not the extreme limit of the LMS, as a branch line runs from Wick to Lybster, 742? miles from Euston. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, thirty one and a half miles long, and the nucleus of the LMS, was opened on September 15, 1830.
The North Staffordshire line from Colwich, a junction on the main West Coast Route six miles east of Stafford, provides the shortest route (183? miles) between London and Manchester, though the fastest Euston-Manchester expresses take the five miles longer route via Crewe. Pancras to Carlisle, 310? miles in length, runs via Leicester, Sheffield, Leeds (for Bradford), and Hellifield.
The route of the former Glasgow and South Western Railway from Carlisle to Glasgow, via Dumfries, is thirteen miles longer than the Caledonian route; it is taken by the London-Glasgow expresses via the Midland Division of the LMS.
One of these, however, calls for mention by reason of its length - the Central Wales Line to Swansea from Craven Arms, on the Shrewsbury-Hereford line. In the early days first-class passengers had the choice of travelling in railway coaches or in their own carriages, which were placed on special carriage trucks. It is joint owner with the Southern Railway of the Somerset and Dorset Joint, whose main line runs from Bath to Bournemouth West. The LMS also owns the Dundalk, Newry and Greenore Railway, worked by the Irish Great Northern Railway; and it is jointly interested with the latter company in the narrow-gauge lines of the County Donegal Joint Committee, and of the Strabane and Letterkenny Railway.

It possesses also forty-nine steamboats (four jointly owned), 537 miles of canal, and docks, harbours and wharves, with a total length of approximately 93,000 ft of quay. The historic trial of locomotives at Rainhill, nine miles east of Liverpool, was begun on October 6, 1829. The company has the largest number of long non-stop runs in Britain, one of these - that of the up “Royal Scot” from Carlisle to Euston - being a world’s record for over nine months of the year.
These 4-6-0 locomotives, among the most successful passenger engines ever produced by the LMS or its constituent companies, are officially rebuilt “Claughtons”; but the rebuilding has been so drastic that they are virtually new engines.
In the spring of 1935 the daily mileage at sixty miles an hour and over from start to stop reached the figure of 1,235, all on the lines of the former London and North Western Railway. At the time of writing its schedule is the second fastest in the British Isles, being beaten only by that of the “Cheltenham Flyer”, between Swindon and Paddington.
The tubes are supported by five towers; the central tower, 230 ft high, rests on the Britannia Rock, in mid-channel. 6146, “Jenny Lind”, a 4-6-0 locomotive of the “Royal Scot” class, at the head of an up train.
Another pioneer line now vested in the LMS was the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway, incorporated in 1808 and opened in 1810. Although the traces of most of them have disappeared, some have become embodied in the existing great railways. Within five years of the opening of the line passenger receipts amounted to ten time the promoters’ estimates, and goods earnings to three times as much as had been reckoned on. But this was a year later than the Cromford and High Peak Railway, which was absorbed by the London and North Western in 1887, and, despite its short length, is unusually interesting from both the historical and engineering standpoints. The original scheme was for a line thirty-one miles in length, with a Liverpool terminus at the Wapping Docks. The expense proved to be only ?28,000, and the method adopted was to spread hurdles interwoven with heather so as to form a floating road, and to construct a watercourse (drainage being impracticable) out of empty tar barrels covered with clay. A year later the three undertakings, together with a number of other lines, including the Manchester and Birmingham, became the London and North Western. As late as the eve of its dissolution the “premier line” assimilated two important railways, as stated earlier in this chapter. He was the first to realise, and to put into practice, the idea that railways could best be worked as large-scale undertakings; and that amalgamation, which would yield centralised ownership and management, was therefore necessary.
Among his companies were the York and North Midland and the Midland Counties, and in 1844 these two systems were amalgamated with the Birmingham and Derby, which had become a competitor of the York line. A through Glasgow to Inverness train in one of the picturesque cuttings on the LMS Highland Section near Millburn Junction, Inverness.
Pancras not being opened until October, 1868, although previously Midland trains had reached London over the Great Northern tracks. But it is not generally known that the second-class was abolished many years before 1875 on another line forming part of the system.
But, while under the Allport regime the third-class passenger was given almost the same degree of comfort as the first-class passenger, on the Sheffield and Rotherham he had to be content with “mere trucks with deal forms to sit upon, which were painted green”. It was opened in July, 1832, and one of its original features was a “self-acting incline” near the Bagworth collieries. Stephenson approved the idea; a Leicester musical instrument-maker named Ashlin Bagster devised a “steam trumpet”. The former London and North Western Railway was the first to introduce - in 1860 - the water pick-up apparatus. When the railway company received a list of intending passengers, it arranged to run a special train at half fares, and a week later the Leicester Mechanics’ Institute was granted similar facilities for a visit to an exhibition at Nottingham. Its tracks, then 181? miles long, were partly laid on stone blocks and partly on longitudinal sleepers, with a section a mile and a half long laid on bridge rails.
Kirtley was a pioneer of standardisation; when he took over control he found a stud of ninety-five engines, all of which were four-wheelers. Because of certain legal engagements, the Bristol and Gloucester Railway was for a time obliged to remain a broad-gauge line, and it was not until 1854 that the narrow-gauge track was laid to Temple Meads. The route mileage of the electrified lines of the LMS in the London suburban area is thirty-nine, not including five miles in the Barking area, jointly operated with the London Passenger Transport Board. The latter company was agreeable, and the Midland was eager, since its constantly growing traffic was every year rendering direct access to London a question of greater urgency.
It has been said that the Great Northern (now part of the London and North Eastern Railway) was “pre-eminently a fighting line” during the whole of the first twenty-five years of its life. The large single window has a low waist-line, permitting a better outlook than is possible with the older type of window. In 1838 there was opened the Manchester and Bolton, which began life as a scheme for converting the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Navigation Canal into a railway; it was subsequently considered preferable to build a railway more or less parallel with the waterway. These two companies were thus the first British mainline systems to replace steam by electrical working. The former originated in a line in the Barrow district that was mainly intended for the conveyance of minerals.
One of the LMS express steamers is being prepared for the trip across the Irish Sea to Belfast. Its northern extremity was Macclesfield, and by the exercise of running powers its trains ran also into Nottingham, Derby, Burton-on-Trent, Birmingham, Wolverhampton and Walsall, Wellington, on the Great Western, and Rugby, where the North Western station was its farthest south. This was the North London Railway, which was incorporated in 1846 for the purpose of linking up the London Docks by a line from the North Western’s Camden Town goods station. But the Scottish companies objected on the ground that the small population of the country and the relative lack of industrial development would impose a financial handicap on such a group, and that they therefore preferred to be associated with the English companies. Once powers had been obtained, the work proceeded so rapidly that the first sod was cut on October 11 of the same year, the initial section from Carlisle to Beattock was opened in September, 1847, and trains were running through to Edinburgh and Glasgow in the following February. It began at Gretna Junction, whence its trains ran the eight and a half miles to Carlisle over the Caledonian tracks, and the main line extended to Glasgow, via Dumfries and Kilmarnock. Crewe, in Cheshire, 158 miles from Euston, is the most important railway junction on the Western Division of the LMS. Before 1923 the station was managed by the Carlisle Citadel Station Joint Committee, which had the status of a joint railway company, and it was jointly owned by the Caledonian and the London and North Western. The southern terminus was at Stanley Junction, near Perth, where it linked up with the Caledonian.
The two “races to Scotland”, in 1888 and 1895 respectively, are dealt with in the chapter Locomotive Speed Records, which begins on page 529. They were the invention of John Ramsbottom, a famous locomotive superintendent of the London and North Western Railway. It opened its doors in 1843, when it was owned by the Grand Junction Railway, and has an area of some 160 acres, of which over fifty are covered, In recent years it has undergone extensive modernisation. The twentieth century saw such successful classes as the North Western “George the Fifth” 4-4-0’s and the Midland compounds. So get your checklist out and your suitcase open – We’re packing for RollerCon!!
I expect to see some cheeky-humor (I’m hilarious – just admit it) great displays of derby names, nicknames, favorite sayings and whatever else you can fit on that round bum. I might squeeze a pair into my suitcase, but I have no delusions of actually being able to wear them. Leg warmers, once hard to find outside of dance shops, are more accessible and available in way more options.
What I dislike about these is that you are making your commitment to the warmer and not the sock . Excluding the Irish Northern Counties Committee and certain joint lines, its route mileage is 6,758, and its total length, reduced to single track, is 18,921 miles.
The corresponding figures for the other constituent companies were Highland 485, Glasgow and South Western 449, North Staffordshire 206, and Furness 115.
On the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith, for example, the passenger service was run by the London and North Western, and the freight service by the North Eastern Railway. The most northerly railway station in Great Britain is Thurso, on an LMS branch of the main line to Wick. One of these is the shortest line from Liverpool to Manchester - the oldest part of the LMS system - and its continuation across the Pennines to Leeds. The Cheshire Lines, operating an express route between Liverpool and Manchester, via Warrington, in addition to several branches, belong jointly to the LMS and the LNER.
Although, for example, the Canadian Pacific Railway extends across the North American Continent, its track mileage is not proportionately in excess of that of the LMS. On January 1, 1934 it owned 8,004 locomotives, 24,023 coaching vehicles, 250 electric-motor vehicles, twenty-two steam rail-motors, three Diesel rail-cars, 270,441 merchandise and mineral vehicles, and 15,584 service vehicles.
Of these Barrow, Grangemouth, Fleetwood, Holyhead, Heysham, Garston, Ayr, and Troon are the largest. Five engines competed - George Stephenson’s “Rocket”, the “Novelty”, the “Sans Pareil”, the “Perseverance”, and the horse-worked “Cycloped”; but the “Rocket” was the only locomotive to complete the prescribed journeys and to fulfil all the conditions, thus earning a prize of ?500.
Two high-pressure cylinders, each 15 by 24 in drove the rear pair of driving wheels, and one low pressure cylinder, 30 by 24 in, drove the front pair of driving wheels. The total length of the bridge, which cost ?600,000, is 1,884 ft 9 in ; and the height of the rails above high-water mark is 104 ft. The construction of the bridge completed the final link in the main line from Chester to Holyhead, on the route of the “Irish Mail” from and to Euston.
It was the first railway in Scotland to use a locomotive, which was experimentally introduced in 1817, but withdrawn as its weight was too great for the light plate rails.
Through its ownership of this line, the LMS claims to be “the oldest-established firm in the railway passenger business”. It was built to connect the Midland Counties with Liverpool and Manchester, the mountainous nature of the district making a canal out of the question, and it joined the Cromford Canal with the Peak Forest Canal at Whaley Bridge.
The provision of large windows, giving an uninterrupted view, is rendered possible by placing the entrance doors at the end of the vehicle. Since many of the most eminent engineers of the day still doubted the capabilities of the locomotive, the mode of traction was not definitely decided on. On this foundation the weight of track and trains was not only safely supported, but also the section “eventually proved to be the most satisfactory part of the line”, although its abandonment had at one time seriously been considered because of the difficulties involved.
The first section of the London and Birmingham, between London and Tring, was advertised to open in 1837, and by September in the following year through trains were running the whole distance to Birmingham. The following year the London and North Western leased the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, now an integral part of the West Coast route to Scotland. The fusion of the three, all of which had been incorporated in 1839, was the beginning of the Midland Railway Company.
After the company had come into possession of its own terminus it adopted a progressive policy, largely due to the enterprise of the late Sir James Allport, one of the most celebrated of all English railway managers. One reason for this step is said to have been that in 1874 the company introduced Pullman cars into England, and, since a supplementary fee was charged for their use, the result was in effect to have four classes. The Leicester and Swannington (Leicester was one of the six cities whose coats-of-arms were embodied in that of the Midland) is noteworthy for two innovations; the locomotive steam whistle was first heard on its lines, and it ran the first excursion train on record. When the device was fitted to the “Samson”, it proved so successful that it was not only made part of the equipment of the whole of the company’s locomotive stud, but, was also adopted by every other railway. There are eleven sets of water-troughs on the West Coast main line between Euston and Glasgow. These two trains were so successful that in the following month the railway company ran excursions of its own, one from Leicester and intermediate stations to Nottingham, and the other in the reverse direction. He immediately introduced six-wheelers, although it was not until 1851 that he built his first engine at Derby. Here Kirtley also showed his foresight by building broad-gauge engines designed for ultimate conversion to the narrow gauge. But the scheme fell through, as the North Western, “thinking the bargain safe”, insisted on knocking fifty shillings a share off the minimum price that had been fixed by the Midland chairman. Its inception was attended by a Parliamentary battle with the Midland that has no parallel in British railway history.
In 1845 coal was conveyed from Clay Cross to Rugby, whence it was transferred to the London and Birmingham Railway, to the great disgust of the autocratic general manager of that system, who complained that his line would next be called on to carry manure. This line was amalgamated in 1846 with the Manchester and Leeds, and in the following year the two companies and five others, of which the Manchester and Leeds was the must important were fused into a new undertaking, the Lancashire and Yorkshire.

The North Staffordshire was one of the systems whose history virtually began with amalgamation.
A close working arrangement always existed between the two railway companies, and the North London head offices were at Euston Station, where its stockholders’ meetings also used to be held.
The scheme was amended accordingly, the general basis being that the lines forming the Scottish section of the West Coast route became part of the LMS, while those on the East Coast went to the LNER.
It had the longest main line of all the Scottish companies, extending from Carlisle to Perth and Aberdeen, via Coatbridge, with offshoots to Edinburgh and Glasgow.
When the company obtained its first Act there was a general belief that traffic possibilities would never warrant the construction of more than one trunk line between England and Scotland, and the railway history of the period is coloured by the fight between the advocates of the West Coast and East Coast routes. Another line ran along the west coast of Scotland, serving Ayr and Ardrossan, and connecting with the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Railway, an east to west line in which the company had a joint share with no fewer than three other systems - the Caledonian, London and North Western and Midland. Here the Euston-Carlisle main line is joined by lines from Shrewsbury, Chester, Manchester, and Stoke-on-Trent. Five other railways - the Midland, Glasgow and South Western, North Eastern, North British, and the little Maryport and Carlisle - made use of it as tenants. It extended northwards to Wick and Thurso, and the centre of the system was Inverness, through which passed the lines to the east and west coasts.
Their use has permitted the introduction of the long non-stop runs which are a prominent feature of modern British railway working. Modern LMS locomotives include the “Princess Royals”, the “Royal Scots”, the “Baby Scots”, and the Stanier two-cylinder and three-cylinder 4-6-0’s.
It’s my required after party accessory – It holds your hair in place while you get down. Shops like American Apparel (aka derby central) have helped to re-birth the leg warmer back into accessible existence. Many of the others, as might be expected, once belonged to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, these include another line from Liverpool to Manchester, which also is continued across the Pennines. Another joint LMS and LNER line is the Midland and Great Northern Joint, extending from Saxby and Peterborough to King’s Lynn, Cromer, Yarmouth, and Lowestoft. Under the last heading are included ballast wagons, coal and coke wagons for the use of the locomotive department, gas holder trucks, travelling cranes, tool vans, timber, rail, and sleeper trucks and breakdown cranes. The print is a fanciful reconstruction of the scene, as the engines - only four of which are shown - did not all run on the same day. Experiments are constantly being made with new types, including turbine locomotives, and rail-cars of various kinds. This line also was unorthodox in its gauge, partly 4 ft and partly 3 ft 4 in, the latter section being laid with fish-bellied rail set in iron chairs spiked to stone sleepers. The line is in part as much as a thousand feet above sea level, this elevation being made possible by the use of a number of inclined planes with gradients as steep as 1 in 7? and 1 in 8?, on which traffic was originally worked by fixed engines. The practice of naming passenger coaches was revived by the Pullman Car Company, which, in addition to its activities on other railways, formerly ran a number of cars on the Midland Railway and, later, on the Northern Division of the LMS. The first Act of Parliament even contained the uncommon provision that locomotives were not to be used in towns.
The Olive Mount Cutting, which has been illustrated in so many of the early railway prints, is two miles long and more than a hundred feet deep in parts, and involved the removal of nearly half a million cubic feet of stone.
14381, “Loch Ericht”, is one of the former Highland Railway outside-cylinder 4-4-0 engines of the class named after well-known lochs. But this could have been only a minor cause, the main reason being the foresight of the general manager. Credit for the invention is therefore due, not to Stephenson, who never laid claim to it, but to Bagster. The locomotive illustrated is one of the “Claughton” class of the London and North Western Railway. No fewer than 2,400 people booked for the latter; they were accommodated in a single train composed of sixty-five coaches and hauled by numerous engines. For instance, the three separate locomotive “shops” at Derby were merged into one, and were placed under the supervision of the celebrated Matthew Kirtley, who remained in charge until his death in 1873, when he was succeeded by S. When it became evident that the policy of “third-class by all trains” would lead to an immediate increase in their length and weight, he was so well prepared for the resulting demand on his department that on the very day of the new departure, he had sixty-eight new engines ready, specially and successfully designed for the work. He reduced the width of the axles, thus antedating by some forty years the convertible Great Western engines that were built when the abolition of the 7 ft 0? in gauge was definitely in sight.
Thence it diverges to the west, to take in Watford High Street Station, rejoining the main line at Watford Junction. Later in the same year the Midland company was approached by both the North Western and the Great Northern with a view to amalgamation, and the matter went so far as the promotion of a Bill in 1853 for the fusion of all three companies.
In the year of the Great Exhibition the rivalry between the two companies brought the first-class return fare between Leeds and London down to five shillings. The traffic was accepted, but “it is on record that when coal trucks first passed over this line they were ‘sheeted’ down so that their contents might not be suspected; and at Weedon, where coal was transferred to the railway from the barges of the Grand Junction Canal, there stood for many years a high screen, erected originally to conceal the ignominious transaction from the eyes of the passing traveller”.
On the corridor side are double folding glazed doors, giving an excellent view from this side also. Out of this amalgamation there grew a compact east-to-west system traversing the north of England from Goole to Liverpool. The inventor, Thomas Edmondson, first offered it to the Newcastle and Carlisle, which would have nothing to do with the newfangled idea, and then took it to the manager of the Manchester and Leeds, who “was just in the mood to jump at it”, because of the delay at the booking-office windows “while the clerks wrote their fastest with spluttering quill pens and pencils that broke at the point”. In 1846 Parliamentary powers were obtained for the construction of three separate lines - the Churnet Valley, Harecastle and Sandbach and the “Potteries” Line.
At the end of 1908 an agreement was entered into under which the North London was thenceforth worked under the supervision of London and North Western officers, but the railway remained a separate undertaking until 1923. Together with the London and North Western Railway, it formed the West Coast Route between England and Scotland.
The Kilmarnock and Troon Railway, to which reference has already been made, formed part of the system, the total length of which, inclusive of its share of joint lines, amounted to 449 miles. Crewe is also considered the junction for Liverpool, though the point of divergence is at Sutton Weaver Junction, sixteen miles north, on the main line. It began with the fifteen-miles Inverness and Nairn Railway, opened in 1855, which was three years later amalgamated with a line from Nairn to Keith.
One of them climbed the five and a half miles at 1 in 75 from Tebay, Westmorland, to Shap Summit, at a minimum speed of nearly sixty miles an hour - over twice the normal speed of a heavy passenger train. Its last acquisitions were the Lancashire and Yorkshire and North London Railways, taken over on the eve of the general amalgamation. From Trent Junction, 20 miles north of Leicester, another main line runs to Derby and Manchester. In addition, there are four LMS and LNER Joint Committees, interested in the working of various minor joint lines. It is seen at Aviemore, thirty-five miles south of Inverness, on the main line of the Highland Section of the LMS Northern Division. The rolling-stock is second to none, the company having inherited the traditions of the former Midland Railway in this respect.
Several other railways incorporated before the Stockton and Darlington now form part of the LMS System. This restriction was subsequently withdrawn; the route was slightly modified and shortened, and the success of the “Rocket” at the Rainhill Trials of 1829 definitely convinced the directors of the possibilities of locomotive traction. Incidentally, the company abolished Pullmans at a later date, when they had been adopted on the Southern lines. Had this plan materialised, the result would not only have been the creation of the greatest single railway system under one ownership then in existence in any country, but might also have profoundly influenced British railway practice as a whole. This bargain was nothing in comparison with the fare cutting of 1856, when the York London return fare was reduced to five shillings first-class and half a crown third-class, while from Peterborough to London and back passengers could book for as little as a shilling.
Today, coal and coke tonnage represent a far greater volume of traffic on the British railways than all other merchandise put together, and in 1934 the LMS alone carried over seventy-two million tons, or more than half as much again as every other class of general freight and minerals. It serves a number of the most important industrial centres, such as Manchester, Wigan, Burnley, Oldham, Bradford, Huddersfield, Barnsley, Bury and Preston, and it had offshoots to the seaside resorts of Blackpool and Southport, and to the port of Fleetwood.
Edmondson’s device was therefore given a trial on a section of line on his own modest terms of half a sovereign a mile of road a year. Subsequently the company absorbed the Ulverston and Lancaster, Coniston, and Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway, took over the working of the Cleator and Workington Junction, and was the joint owner with the Midland and North Western of other lines. In the following year the three schemes were consolidated under the title of the North Staffordshire. Five of the seven are now absorbed in the LMS, which has become the sole proprietor of the station. Some years before the war of 1914-18 the Midland absorbed the London, Tilbury and Southend and the Belfast and Northern Counties Railways.
From Derby an important cross-country line strikes south-west to Birmingham, Bath, and Bristol. Midland influence is also seen in the crimson lake which is now the standard colour for passenger coaches and for many classes of express locomotives.
The line, which was opened on September 15, 1830, with great pomp and ceremony, possessed two unusual engineering features, Chat Moss and the Olive Mount Cutting at Edge Hill. On November 4, 1913, “Ralph Brocklebank” of this class took a train weighing 360 tons from Crewe to Carlisle, 141 miles, in 142? minutes. Parliament considered that the national interest would be best served by the existence of as many competing railways as possible, and threw out the measure. Fifteen years later, the Midland and the Great Northern engaged in another war, during which coal was carried from the South Yorkshire pits to London at a third of the normal rates. This undertaking, which was joint owner of sixty-eight miles of line, in addition to the 533 miles of its own, was among the most important railway owners of docks and steamships. The invention was shortly after taken up by the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, and became so popular that Edmondson was able to pay off his old bankruptcy creditors in full, and then to make a fortune for himself. At grouping, it owned 115 miles of route, in addition to its share of twenty-four miles of joint railway, and the important Barrow Docks, to which no other railway system had direct access.
Five other small undertakings were subsequently absorbed, and the company also worked the Leek and Manifold Railway, a line, now closed, eight miles long, on the 2 ft 6 in gauge.
Seventy of these efficient locomotives were built in 1934, and they now work all over the LMS system. 14010 worked light express trains between Perth and Dundee until April, 1935, when she was withdrawn for preservation at St Rollox Works, Glasgow.
Long-distance trains are equipped with both open vestibule and compartment corridor coaches of the most modern type. The seven miles section between Whaley Bridge and Ladmanlow has been abandoned, but the five and a half miles stretch between Parsley Hay and Hindlow remodelled for passenger traffic in 1894, now forms part of the branch from Ashbourne to Buxton, and is one of the most picturesque lines in the country. Chat Moss was the surviving remnant of a belt of fen, uncultivated mosses, and morasses which at one time stretched across England from the Mersey to the mouth of the Ouse, and was described by the author of “Robinson Crusoe” as being “indeed frightful to think of, for it will bear neither horse nor man, unless in an exceedingly dry season, and then so as not to he travelled on with safety”. There was a long-standing friendly association with the London and North Western dating from 1862, and coaches in the Lancashire and Yorkshire livery were for many years a familiar sight at Euston. Despite their small driving wheels, they are capable of speeds in excess of eighty miles an hour.
The two companies attempted to amalgamate in the ‘seventies, and they succeeded just before the grouping of 1923. The company also had a share with the Great Central in the Marple and Bollington Railway, eleven miles in length.
The “Merseyside Express” and the “Ulster Express” have first-class lounge cars, in addition to the ordinary accommodation, and special luxury coaches are found on certain other services. After the 4-6-2 “Princess Royals” they are the most powerful express passenger locomotives of the LMS. First and third-class sleeping cars form part of the equipment on many of the night expresses.

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