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Final grades were averaged among scores from pre and post instructional testing, class participation, field estimations of speeds and distances and the studenta€™s final, formal presentations. SML Published-The summer 2010 issue of The Police Journal published SMLa€™s article Going To Court In Radar And Laser Trials. Houston We Have A Problem-Some 100 radar guns were taken out of service by the Harris County Constables after media reported officers had received little or no training on the operation of the radar i??speed enforcement systems. SML Contracted To Teach At Sheppard Air Force Base-SML has received confirmation that it will be teaching the NHTSA recommended Master Radar Laser Instructor Course to the Air Police at Sheppard Air Force Base in Wichita Falls.
Enforcing City-Wide Bans Article To Be Published-SML has researched the use of hand held cell phones while driving in cities with and without city-wide cell phone bans during the first half of 2010 with the assistance of local law enforcement agencies. A A A  Final grades were averaged among scores from pre and post instructional testing, class participation, field estimations of speeds and distances and the studenta€™s final, formal presentations.A  An average of 90% among the four grading criteria is required for instructor certification.
A A  Officer Leonard Redhorse received SMLa€™s TOP GUN Award as being the top student in the class.
SML Published-The summer 2010 issue of The Police Journal published SMLa€™s article Going To Court In Radar And Laser Trials.A  SML serves many federal, state, and local courts as a court recognized expert witness in law enforcement use of radar and laser speed enforcement systems. Houston We Have A Problem-Some 100 radar guns were taken out of service by the Harris County Constables after media reported officers had received little or no training on the operation of the radar speed enforcement systems. Increasingly courts are requiring officers to check and verify the accuracy of their radar or laser speed enforcement systems on a daily basis with logs either on a written log or on the officera€™s MDT (Mobile Data Terminal).
A A A  Increasingly courts are requiring officers to check and verify the accuracy of their radar or laser speed enforcement systems on a daily basis with logs either on a written log or on the officera€™s MDT (Mobile Data Terminal).A  They are also requiring officers to operate their systems according to the written instructions of the Operatora€™s Manual accompanying each device. June 2012 saw SML conduct National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recommended curriculum at Fort Bliss in El Paso, TX to some eighteen(18) military police of the 93D Military Police Battalion. Court cases in Texas and nationally were discussed with students receiving a copy of old and new court cases involving officer competency of using both radar and laser speed assessment systems. The first part of June, SML attended the semi-annual meeting of the Electronic Technology Advisory Technical Sub-Committee of the International Association of Chiefs (IACP) held in Tucson, AZ . Some twenty (20) officers from eight (8) different departments attended a Master Radar Laser Instructor i??Course conducted by SML at the Travis County (Austin, Texas) Sheriffa€™s Academy the second week in April 2012. SML is a paid expert law enforcement consultant for Texas State University in San Marcos, TX. Police and Security News, a national police publication, has contracted with SML to research and publish its findings on new laser guns introduced at the IACP national convention of 2011. Some twenty (20) officers from eight (8) different departments attended a Master Radar Laser Instructor Course conducted by SML at the Travis County (Austin, Texas) Sheriffa€™s Academy the second week in April 2012. Police and Security News, a national police publication, has contracted with SML to research and publish its findings on new laser guns introduced at the IACP national convention of 2011.A  All laser systems were invited to attend. EL Paso Tests Use Of Radar In School Zones-The El Paso ISD Police Department received several Stalker II radar guns with state and federal grant money. Measurement was made with a Kustom ProLaser III tied to a laptop using Kustoma€™s LaserStat program. SML To Offer Speed Hawk Modifications-Speed Measurement Laboratories Inc., SML, has worked continually for many years on the speed reductions attributed to speed displays. SML Asked To Help With Texas Attorney General-In early 2011 a Texas House Representative ask the Texas Attorney General to give her a ruling on laser guns that take pictures of offending vehicles. SML has now been asked for an appointment with the Texas Attorney General to reconsider the negative opinion issued on February 28, 2011 as requested by the House of Representative member. SML Attends Texas School Chiefs Of Police Convention-July 12-15, 2011 saw SML attend the annual Texas School District Chiefs Association conducted in San Antonio, TX. The article found glaring differences in law enforcement agenciea€™s approaches to the Texas law banning hand held cell phone use in school zones as did SML.
A A A  SML has now been asked for an appointment with the Texas Attorney General to reconsider the negative opinion issued on February 28, 2011 as requested by the House of Representative member. Pictured below are a VASCAR system, a police radar gun, and a police laser gun showing similar speeds based on time the vehicle traveled from point A to point B.
SML Teaches At McKinney Police Academy-SML was invited to conduct NHTSA compliant Master Radar Laser Instructor curriculum to some thirteen departments at the McKinney, TX Police Academy in late May i??2013.
Students were required to give a ten minute presentation of a germane topic of their choice which was graded by other class members. SML Assists Prosecutor In Painesville, OH-SML assisted the prosecution in the municipal court of Painesville, OH in June 2013. Fort Worth Police Department Calls On SML To Develop A Written Policy-SML was invited to contribute to the development of a new written policy for the police department on the use, daily checks of accuracy of radar and laser systems, re-certification of equipment and re-certification of officers in April of 2013. SML Teaches In New Mexico-Early May saw SMLi?? teach NHTSA compliant Master Radar Laser Instructor i??curriculum at Safety City in Kirkland, NM. SML To Assist Prosecutor In Fulshear, TX-Officer Lindsay Miller put SML in touch with the Prosecutora€™s Office of Fulshear, TX which is a suburb of Houston, TXi??.
As is our standard procedure, we had certified police officers operate all laser and radar guns. All of the detectors alerted to laser from one mile when we aimed the laser guns directly at them. SML Teaches At McKinney Police Academy-SML was invited to conduct NHTSA compliant Master Radar Laser Instructor curriculum to some thirteen departments at the McKinney, TX Police Academy in late May 2013. SML Teaches In New Mexico-Early May saw SML teach NHTSA compliant Master Radar Laser Instructor curriculum at Safety City in Kirkland, NM.
SML To Assist Prosecutor In Fulshear, TX-Officer Lindsay Miller put SML in touch with the Prosecutora€™s Office of Fulshear, TX which is a suburb of Houston, TX. Field exercises mandated officers be able to estimate speeds of vehicles as many courts require i??the officer to establish a valid visual tracking history prior to substantiate their observation with a radar or laser gun reading. Department Of Justice Expert Witness Testimony-The United States Department of Justice called on SML in August 2010 to provide expert witness testimony in a wrongful death suit brought by the survivora€™s estate against officera€™s action in a deadly pursuit. Students were also required to compute a speed field study to the 85th percentile using a speed display furnished by SML.A  Students recorded the speeds of 100 vehicles with no speed display present and then recorded the speeds of 100 vehicles when a speed display attached to a SML vehicle was used. Department Of Justice Expert Witness Testimony-The United States Department of Justice called on SML in August 2010 to provide expert witness testimony in a wrongful death suit brought by the survivora€™s estate against officera€™s actionA  in a deadly pursuit.A  The pursuit involved the use of police radar guns as well as established pursuit procedures.
Special emphasis was placed on field activities of estimating speeds and distances of some i??one hundred (100) vehicles consistent with a Valid Visual Tracking History. Special emphasis was placed on negative court cases involving the dismissal of speeding violations due to the officers not following proper use of the radar or laser systems and improper set up procedures per the Operatora€™s Manual of each gun. This course is commonly called a€?Train The Trainer.a€? The NHTSA compliant curriculum is based on current and past court decisions and state Attorney Generala€™s Opinions. During May 2012, SML conducted compliance statisticsi?? in its study of driver compliance with H.B. Special emphasis was placed on field activities of estimating speeds and distances of some one hundred (100) vehicles consistent with a Valid Visual Tracking History.A  Hands on experience was demonstrated to all students checking the accuracy of both radar and laser guns. During May 2012, SML conducted compliance statistics in its study of driver compliance with H.B.
Laser guns were mounted on tripods to eliminate any possibility of hand shaking making target identification difficult.
It is apparent that pole mounted radar displays continue to be successful in reducing speeds. SML has attended previous i??conventions of the organization and this year presented to the attendees SML services of conducting NHTSA Master Instructor Radar and Laser Certification courses at the police departmenta€™s location.
Platooned vehicles means the lead vehicle is moving at a speed which does not allow following drivers to drive a speed they would normally.A  Major universities use laser analysis compared to road tubes as they demand 100% accurate measurement. Subsequent to the Attorney Generala€™s opinion, the same Texas House of Representative sponsored a H.B.
SML has attended previous conventions of theA  organization and this year presented to the attendees SML services of conducting NHTSA Master Instructor Radar and Laser Certification courses at the police departmenta€™s location. The article looked in depth to individual cities and their police reaction to the law.A  The law lets cities decide if they will post restriction signs in school zones. We wanted to see if the laser guns producei??d the same speed when shot at the same target vehicle.


VASCAR stands for Visual Average Speed Computer and Recorder, it is a stopwatch from point A to point B. Part of the curriculum is to have students develop a Valid Visual Tracking History on some 100 vehicles. A total of 90% was required for passing composed of class participation, testing (pre-post instruction), field performance, and presentation. Officer Miller had attended SML Master Radar Laser Instructor Course conducted at the McKinney Police Academy. We wanted to see if the laser guns produced the same speed when shot at the same target vehicle.
The media report also found radar guns, tuning forks, and officers had not been re-certified per state directives, i.e. Students were evaluated on a written post instruction test, field activities, and class participation. The Committee has requested proposals for meeting current performance instruction for officer certification programs and equipment certification and re-certification. Students were required to estimate speeds and distance of vehicles consistent with a Valid Visual Tracking History and special emphasis was placed on proper set up procedures for both radar and laser speed assessment systems. 1116 effective 1 September 2011 banning the a€?sale, use, operation, installation or attempt to operate a radar interference device.
However, we did evaluate a laser jammer as there are no federal restrictions on this product.
Manufacturer representatives were present at the field testing to insure their equipment was operated properly by the certified police officers. First, we wanted to see if the claims made by radar detector manufacturers were valid and secondly, we wanted to examine and evaluate new laser guns introduced. Unfortunately, i??speed trailers have limited use as it takes space to deploy them and additional man hours in the endeavor. The system has gained judicial notice for its approved use in many other states as it is not an automated system requiring an officer to operate the system. SML also presented the standards to which the radar guns must be re-certified being DOT HS 809 812 for radar as constructed by NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Many cash strapped Texas cities have elected not to post the prohibition signs in school zones.
We found of the 100 comparisons of speeds reported by a radar gun and several laser guns to be within the tolerance of speed allowed <2 mph.
The laser was triggered at a cone placed at 500 feet and the driver counted down a€?threea€?, a€?twoa€?, a€?onea€? on the radio at the cone. As with all radar and laser guns used in our testing, they were checked for accuracy according the to the Operatora€™s Manual of the particular device. The defendant, which was a minor, claimed the Court had not issued judicial notice on the use of the laser gun in the jurisdiction.
SML has also taught at the Navajo Nation Police Service, the Las Cruces Police Department, the Dona Ana Sheriffa€™s Academy, and the Acoma Pueblo Police Service in New Mexico.
One pro bono, no charge, appearance as a Court recognized expert witness is included in the matriculation of the officer from a particular police agency.
They have announced their new laser gun the Kustom ProLaser 4 with Event Memory.A  This is very important!A  Operators can recall the many readings they have had using a USB port on the side of the laser gun.
Some 300 Sheriffs and staff from California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Texas attended. The suspect fled the scene although police had correctly used Code 3 procedures, and eluded officers resulting in a fatal crash.
The cell phone ban cities are using tint meters and laser guns that take pictures of offenders to help enforce local ordinances.A A  Cities using photo enforcement already have the legal judicial notice for such use. All students were provided with copies of the Instruction Manual, Understanding Police Traffic Radar and Laser, Library of Congress #98-87615 a week prior to instruction and a three (3) ring binder containing instructional aids and court decisions. A follow-up meeting is planned concurrent to the IACP National Convention scheduled for late fall of 2012 in San Diego, CA.
Students rotated laser gun use during this field exercise to gain knowledge of laser guns they were not using. In the case of radar guns, officers used two tuning forks for the moving mode and one tuning fork for the stationary mode per NHTSA recommendations. Due to lasera€™s precise and low divergence, it is extremely popular with police agencies facing rush hour traffic.
According to the Federal Communications Commission in their Public Notice DA 96-2040, a€?Radar detectors are radio receivers tuned to receive radar signals and are used by motorists to provide a warning of any radar activity in the vicinity.
To date, some seven states have issued state-wide judicial notice on the use of laser enforcement: Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Maine, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Florida. Proper daily set up procedures were reviewed as called for the the Operatora€™s Manual of each device being manufacturer provided tuning forks.
To date, some seven states have issued state-wide judicial notice on the use of laser enforcement:A  Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Maine, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Florida. Many of the departments seek SMLa€™s advice on upcoming purchases of radar and laser systems as SML deals with all the manufacturers and is independent in its opinions.
We wanted to determine the maximum range of radar guns when shot at the same target vehicle a white Chevrolet HHR consistent with a Valid Visual Tracking History (VVTC) demanded by the Courts.
Each laser gun was given 20 tries on the same target vehicle with the speed on the radar gun and speed reported by the laser gun reported.
Even though they were not transmitting during our VASCAR test, they were tested prior to being put into service. Being a minor appearing pro se, the defendant accepted conditions offered by the prosecution without a time consuming trial. Several Texas and national court decisions have stated the necessity of such a written policy if the department is to use police radar and laser systems. SML has received approval, NM12-53C, from the New Mexico Department of Public Safety, Training & Recruiting Division, in NM. SML has appeared as a Court recognized expert witness in Texas at Corpus Christi, Corsicana, Hallettsville, and El Paso, TX municipal courts consistent with Texas Rules of Evidence, Rule 702. El Paso, TX and Las Cruces, NM have had great success in the reduction of hand held cell phones by drivers.
SML has combined a listing of requirements from all fifty states on the training and re-certification of equipment including tuning forks.
United States Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood in a meeting of 21 September 2010 alluded to a national ban on hand held cell phone use similar to national mandates of seat belt legislation.A  States were encouraged to enforcement such seat belt use legislation under the threat of withholding federal highway funds. The set up procedures for both radar and laser guns are documented in the Ownera€™s Manual of the particular gun. Participants were instructed to bring with them the current radar or laser systems they presently use along with the Operatora€™s Manual provided when the systems were received by the individual departments.
Many departments in metropolitan areas or replacing moving radar systems with pinpoint laser use. In this regard, the FCC regulations pertaining to receivers do not address the subject of radar detectors.
The advantage of the system is the pictures produce a€?evidence of speedinga€? and not just the officers word of the infraction and a fairer thrust to the citizen driver. With the 12a€? high radar display attached to the 2a€? trailer hitch as pictured, the offender has been warned to slow down.A  Citations can not legally be given with radar displays, but the rear mounted radar antenna attached to a standard moving radar can. However, in school zones in other cities without the departmental policy of having a marked police car in active school zones the percentage exceeded 7.3%. For radar the proper way to test the transmission accuracy is the use of one tuning fork for stationary only radar and two tuning forks for moving radar.
The entire class i??was divided into three teams for this exercise with the speeds determined by the use of laser guns. SML, Carl Fors, appears as a Court recognized expert witness consistent with the Ohio Rules of Evidence, Rule 702., Testimony by Experts subsection (B) The witness is qualified as an expert by specialized knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education regarding the subject matter of the testimony.


Per the curriculum, students were required to establish a Valid Visual Tracking History of some 100 vehicles. The entire class was divided into three teams for this exercise with the speeds determined by the use of laser guns.
If the Court wants to see a€?proofa€? that the laser gun was checked for accuracy that day, download the Event from the side of the laser gun using a printer.
SML used the instructional manual of Understanding Police Traffic Radar And Laser, Library of Congress # 98-87615 with accompanying PowerPoint CD. Laser use by law enforcement is dramatically increasingly as it can pinpoint one vehicle in a group and now with inclement weather mode can be operated inside the vehicle through the windshield by officers. Unfortunately, the fleeing suspect died at the scene after a head on collision with an approaching vehicle.
Senator John McCain.A  Training officers from the various departments were in attendance and sought SMLa€?s advice on NHTSA and state training requirements for the operation of police radar and laser guns. USDOT issued similar mandates to states when determining alcohol BAC levels of .08% for DUI enforcement. First, we wanted to see if the claims made by radar detector manufacturers were valid and secondly, we i??wanted to examine and evaluate new laser guns introduced. 1116 does allow police officers to operate a laser jammer a€?in the discharge of their official duties.a€? We did this to see if the laser jammer worked. In the case with laser, a Known Distance must be established and the laser gun pass a Vertical and Horizontal sight alignment test. As required, students had to demonstrate their ability in using a low and high Doppler tuning forks in setting up each moving radar system.
Most notably, powering of the laser gun and their diminished size highlight the new laser introductions.
1116 does allow police officers to operate a laser jammer a€?in the discharge of their official duties.a€?A  We did this to see if the laser jammer worked. SML is a paid police and transportation consultant of a major Texas university and such research is provided to them as they manage several grants dealing with this matter. We found a diminishment in range of some 50% of the laser guns used inside shot through the windshield compared to outside the vehicle. The tuning forks must be held perpendicular to the antenna and most require depression of the test button to go into the fork mode. Departments that already had laser guns, were invited to use the guns they brought with them per the Operators Manual. There are no university training classes in the set up and correct operation of radar or laser guns. We also want to see the accuracy of VASCAR compared to a€?stopwatcha€? modes of police radar and laser guns.
Attending officers were required to present to the class a formal presentation on the topic of their choice which was graded by fellow class members. This report questioned all fifty state police training academies for particular requirements.A  NHTSA recommends training programs and standards to the states and local jurisdictions. Expect the federal government to issue similar notification to states regarding the use of handheld cell phone while driving. Texas Transportation Institute, University of Nebraska, and the University of Kansas as reported in other national studies. It is further recommend for both radar and laser guns to conduct a Known Speed test with a speedometer calibrated vehicle.
Students were also required to demonstrate the proper set up procedures for laser guns from all manufacturers along with logging results. Both cities physically have cars parked or moving police vehicles in school zones during active periods. SML displayed many new laser guns from Stalker, LTI, Kustom Signals Inc., and Digital Ally to supplement what the officers had brought. These recent and precedent setting court decisions are of great assistance to officers and prosecutors in assuring the court and the public that officers properly use and test speed measurement systems in speeding trials. It is not a matter of a€?ifa€? the federal government will issue such restrictions, but a€?whena€?.A  According to USDOT, Traffic Safety Facts, cell phone use and texting has now become the number #3 cause of accidents and fatalities in the county. Participants were instructed to bring with them thei?? current radar or laser systems they presently use along with the Operatora€™s Manual provided when the systems were received by the individual departments. SML provided radar systems from Stalker, Kustom Signals, Inc., MPH Industries and Decatur Electronics for this purpose. This research confirms that without visible enforcement in school zones, bans will not be effective. In February of 1995, the United States Department of Transportation banned the use of radar detectors in commercial vehicle, 18 wheelers, nationally.
As laser is a pulsed system, it is checked for accuracy with a known distance test and a vertical and horizontal sight alignment test. Assistance came from SML staff member Craig Pittman, president of a radar sign manufacturing company.
Such a memory system will eliminate or greatly reduce the need to fill out a Log Book on each radar or laser gun. Increasingly, citizens are challenging speeding tickets and requiring officers to make court appearances.A  The article provides departments and officers a step by step approach in preparing for such court appearances. Increasingly, Courts and the public are questioning not only training requirements of the officers but operation of the systems in accordance with the Operatora€™s Manual of the specific radar or laser system. A TOP GUN Certificate was presented to the top student in the class being Roger Looka of the Texas Department of Public Safety. According to the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) cell phone use while driving has no become the #3 cause of accidents and fatalities in the country. It is designed not to obstruct rear visibility measuring 36a€? high and may be removed in five minutes. Our reception was almost doubled in both categories as the vehicle went away from us as it has a flat rear target and thousands of reflectors in its tail lights. This procedure greatly reduces the time consumed each day by writing in a log book that the gun was tested for accuracy.
Radar guns are extremely difficult to check with tuning forks daily.A  The location of their antennas makes it difficult to check them properly without holding the tuning fork next to the glass.
Performance standards of radar and laser systems must comply with the following federal documents:A  DOT HS 809 812 for radar and DOT HS 809 811 for laser. These lasera€™s were tested to DOT HS 809 811 by the IACP and NHTSA and are approved for use by law enforcement. We can set the known distance from point A to point B in the radar or laser gun by following the directions in the Operatora€™s Manual of each device.
We first let officers guess when the test vehicle crossed the cone set at 500 feet from our location. We used a Decatur GHD, a Kustom Raptor RP-1, a Stalker Dual, a MPH Z-25 handheld and a MPH K-15 old, analog X band. We used a Decatur GHD, a Kustom Raptor RP-1, a Stalker Dual, a MPH Z-25 handheld and a MPH K-15 old, analog X band.A  All reported speeds in excess or the range of a Valid Visual Tracking History, 1,320 feet, with the exception of the old, tired, analog K-15A  X band radar gun. We then had the test vehicle driver count down a€?threea€?, a€?twoa€?, a€?onea€? as they hit the location of the cone to see if the operators had better speed estimations. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and county Sheriffs in Mississippi are restricted by law from using radar or laser guns.



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