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03.04.2016
Because you are making a major life change, you should give yourself regular treats.  Plan small rewards that you can give yourself along the way (healthy rewards! DESCRIPTION: This monograph discusses the conceptual reconstructions of HecatA¦usa€™ map of the oikumene [inhabited world] based upon his contemporaries. Anaximander was the second philosopher of the Ionian school, which was particularly interested in cosmology. Diogenes Laertius also tells us that Anaximander believed in a geocentric universe with a spherical earth. The practical map-making which developed from Anaximandera€™s map may be illustrated from a well-known story in Herodotus. The lands in which the earth's peoples dwell lie next to each other, as I shall show you: here are the Ionians, and here the Lydians, who inhabit a good land and have a great store of silver. On this detailed and informative map Aristagoras was able to show a vast swath of territory spanning mainland Greece, Ionia, and Persia. This portable map commissioned by the ruler of Miletus, Aristagoras, was probably developed from those of Anaximander and his contemporary Hecataeus. Herodotusa€™ reference is important in showing that maps could be engraved on portable bronze tablets, that general maps of the inhabited world were frequently made in Ionia, and that they were more informative than the simple geometric plans such as the Babylonian clay tablet of the same era.
It is not certain that Anaximander wrote a commentary on his map or on the construction of his sphere. In short, this is a worldview that relies heavily on mathematical and ethnographic symmetry and balance, and mixes fact and fiction. A great part of Hecataeusa€™ geographic treatise Periodos was taken up with an account of places and districts bordering on the sea, and it must have borne a considerable resemblance to what was afterwards called a Periplus, or Coasting Survey. The Periegesis was divided into two books, Europe and Asia, the latter also including Libya [Africa]. In Book Two, comprising the coast of Libya [Africa], from the confines of Egypt to the Pillars of Hercules [Straits of Gibraltar], one finds a mere Periplus, or coast-description noticing many ports and small islands; while the only tribes of the interior he is known to have mentioned are the Mazyes and Zygantes - obviously the same with the Maxyes and Gyzantes of Herodotus, both of which lived within a short distance of the sea, near the Tritonian Lake. In regard to the general notions of geography entertained by HecatA¦us we are, unfortunately, very much in the dark.
It was evidently the same symmetrical turn of mind that let HecatA¦us to divide the world into two great continents or primary divisions of equal extent.
In the present day we are so accustomed to our modern maps, and to the small size of Europe, as compared to the other two great continents, that we find it difficult to represent to ourselves the opposite view.
A traveler who had visited Egypt could hardly fail to have formed or adopted some theory concerning the must controverted questions respecting the Nile and its annual inundations, a subject which had already exercised the ingenuity of several of the Ionic philosophers. A similar want of judgment was displayed by him in accepting, as he appears to have done without scruple, the fabulous tales that were current in his day concerning the Pygmies and the Sciapodes, both which nations he placed in Ethiopia, in accordance with the opinion prevalent among the travelers of the time. At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect.
The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles. The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. Islamic Mosque calligraphy is calligraphy that can be found in and out of a mosque, typically in combination with Arabesque motifs. Frozen Fiefdom - AFFIDAVIT OF ANNA KATHRYN SANDERS, Former ALASKA STATE TROOPER, and MY OLDER SISTERA A Fortunately, someone's curious questions reminded me that I still have much more information to publish, including this Affidavit. DESCRIPTION: Shown here are reproductions of an early road map of the imperial highways of the Roman world, covering the area roughly from southeast England to present day Sri-Lanka. This Colmar copy was found by Konrad Celtes (1459-1508), a German poet and scholar for the Emperor Maximilian I and later turned over to Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), Chancellor of Augsburg, in 1508 in Augsburg and has since been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or Peutinger Tables or Itineraries. In its design, the Peutinger Table makes no pretense of showing the whole world or even its major parts in correct proportion. The proportions of the Peutinger Map are such that distances east-west are represented at a much larger scale than distances north-south; for example, Rome looks as though it were nearer to Carthage than Naples is to Pompeii. In the Jansoon edition of the Peutinger Table (1652), the first sheet shows a section of southeastern England protruding from the title cartouche, with the roads and harbors marked. The Colmar manuscript of the Peutinger Tables, also known as Codex Vindobonensis 324, is presently in the National Bibliothek, Vienna and has been divided into sections for preservation. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman miles (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees).
Around the personification of Rome - a female figure on a throne holding a globe, a spear, and a shield - are twelve main roads, each with its name attached, a practice not adopted elsewhere. Ostia is shown with a harbor occupying about one-third of a circle, in a fashion similar to that of miniatures in the early manuscripts of Virgila€™s Aeneid.
The road network is thought to have been based (at least within the empire) on information held by the cursus publicus, responsible for organizing the official transport system set up by Augustus.
The part of the British section of the Peutinger Map that survives is so fragmentary that it covers only a limited area of the southeast, not even including London, and an even smaller area around Exeter. Owing to the shape of the map, the Nile could not be represented as a long river if it were made to flow northward throughout its course.
Late antiquity is considered as a relatively autonomous historical period, that according to certain scholars is extended from 200 A.D.
These maps were used with a multitude of functions, including the use of maps as cadastral and legal records, as aids to travelers, to commemorate military and religious events, as strategic documents, as political propaganda and for academic and educational purposes. The object of this study is focused on the cartographic genre of itineraria picta and more specifically on the Tabula Peutingeriana, a road map prepared in order to show the roads of the empire over a total distance of 104,000 km. According to actual cartographic terminology Tabula Peutingeriana is a typical example of a thematic road map preserving mainly the topology of geographic continuity rather than the conventional cartographic representation. Depicting in topological consistency the road network and offering travel information to its users (by showing the road network, the settlements, the staging posts, the partial distances, the cities of various type, depending on their size and significance etc.
As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. The second most important road axis, the Via Egnatia, ran crosswise through the Balkans and provided communications between the Adriatic, the Aegean, and the Propontis, between Rome and Constantinople.
The borders of the Roman Empire in his northern regions correspond to the flow of the river Danubius, while the eastern limits correspond to the flow of the Tigris River.
The road network is represented with red distressed (zigzag) line, that denotes the corresponding changes of horses, with distances between stations, expressed in roman miles (milia passus = 1,4815 km) for all the territory. There exist three cities of the First Level, Roma, Constantinopolis and Antiocheia, represented as female incarnations, Tychai of the cities, that constitute the three capitals a€“ imperial residences of the Empire. There exist six Second Level cities, which are represented in the form of fortresses with walls, bastions and deferring number of towers. Most of the pictures represent Third Level cities, provincial capitals (metropoleis) and important commercial centers (Figure 7).
The network of settlements is supplemented with the insertion of stations - mansiones and points of change of horses - mutationes that constitutes the intermediary turning-points between the various central places. A number of settlements are represented according to particular uses and functions of space that are attributed with the particular characteristics of the shells that support the function.
There exist in total 33 temples located usually in colonies and points of local adoration, for example in the Balkans (Ad Dianam), in Africa, (Ad Herculem, Temple Jovis, Ad Mercurium, Temple Veneris), while in Egypt can be found three temples of Serapis and three of Isis.
The defensive function is present in all the representations of cities, a fact that is considered in the context of a period after the imperial pax romana.
Recreational functions are represented with thermal baths, portrayed with square structures, with a closed facade and in the center a swimming pool.
Lighthouses are found in Alexandria, Egypt, in Chrissopolis [Uskudar] and in Jovisurius in the entry of Euxeinus Pontus.
The iconographic system of the Tabula Peutingeriana is based upon a hierarchical structure that represents the settlements network, with a process of symbolic generalizations and personifications, in the period of the successors of Constantine the Great. The reliability of map has been placed under contestation by many scholars, in regard to the precision of settlements locations and distances that represent. Albu, Emily, a€?Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp.
Drakoulis, Dr Dimitris, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. Fowden a€“ Athanasiadi P., a€?The successors of Great Constantinea€? (in Greek), Istoria Ellinikou Ethnous. Salway, Benet, a€?The Nature and Genesis of the Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman milesA  (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees). As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis,A  a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. Ia€™ll never forget Bob Haskins throwing the keys to N3451V and telling me how much I was going to like this airplane.
We flew 51V more than three years and could always rely on her to climb with 4 or 5 jumpers, descend empty all weekend long and then fly us home every night. One week we had to go to Los Angeles for a day and then fly up to San Francisco to see about a business opportunity.
Once again I made the case to stay the night rather than try a minimum fuel night desert crossing.
If we werena€™t at the parachute center the next morning to fly the week-end business, we might not have much to eat that next week.
I think it was a Wednesday morning when 3 guys showed up asking about filming in the desert.
After a couple of hours the boss wanted to take a break, so we dropped into Scottsdale for a snack and to ask the locals about the ideal location in the desert. The next hurdle was to get permission from the city manager to film on the airport, and I was asked to make those arrangements. In the summer of 1977 we were pretty disillusioned about the future of our skydiving center so we began selling off the airplanes.
As I reflect back on the old days and remember how much fun we had, ita€™s hard to remember how hungry we were sometimes. Morgellons Disease Awareness -  Artist and Morgellons sufferer, Ayla, journals her experience with the disease   I'd like to introduce myself, I'm Ayla, a 59year old artist and graphic designer who contracted Morgellons in Jan.
However, he is suspect, since the spherical concept was not devised early, and others attributed to Anaximander the different concept of a cylindrical earth.
Like many other maps in antiquity, however, this presumably had no scale; for Cleomenes, two days later, asked a€?How long would such a march take?a€? a€?Three monthsa€? (a standard but ambiguous measure of the distance between places far apart), was the reply where upon despite attractive offers of money he refused.
But we may presume that it also contained the course of the Royal Road, which Herodotus describes in some detail immediately after, giving the number of staging-posts and the distances. I have found no one who has attempted a a€?reconstructiona€? or interpretation of Aristagorasa€™ lost map. However, it is clear that Anaximander was the first recorded of that long line of Greek craftsmen-philosophers who tried to express concepts in graphic form. Hecataeusa€™ erroneous impression that the Hyrcanian [Caspian] Sea flowed into the circumfluent Ocean long persisted, and he also believed that the Nile arose from the southern Ocean. It has only been preserved in some 300 fragments, and the majority of these are of the briefest description, having been preserved in the epitome of the work of Stephanus of Byzantium, which gives little more than the names of places with the countries to which they belonged. The most distant places that he enumerates towards the west are Metagonium, a name which we find in later times applied to a promontory and people not far from the Pillars of Hercules; and Thinga, evidently the same place that was subsequently called Tinga, or Tingis [the modern Tangier], just without the Straits.
But Herodotus undoubtedly regarded Europe as greatly exceeding in size both Asia and Africa together, and, therefore, treats it as a gross blunder on the part of HecatA¦us to have considered it as only equal to Asia. But on this point HecatA¦us appears to have acquiesced in the view which, if we may trust to Diodorus, was that of the Egyptian priests: that the Nile derived its waters from those of the circumfluent stream of ocean - a theory which Herodotus justly sets aside as unworthy of refutation. But we may presume that it alsoA  contained the course of the Royal Road, which Herodotus describes in some detail immediately after, giving the number of staging-posts and the distances.
The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs.
In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts.
It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. In essence, Husn-i Hat comprises the beautiful lines inscribed with reed pens on paper using ink made from soot.
Arabesque is a form of Islamic art known for its repetitive geometric forms creating beautiful decorations. 250 the original tables were, themselves, copied from a larger original map of the first century A.D. After Peutingera€™s death, two of the twelve sections of the Colmar manuscript were engraved and published in 1591 with annotated text and place-names taken from the sections reproduced.
It is merely a graphic compendium of mileages or basically an itinerary route map with the roads delineated predominantly by straight lines, often with curious jogs.
The archetype may well have been on a papyrus roll, designed for carrying around in a capsa [tool box]. France, Spain, and North Africa with roads, cities and some prominent buildings are also depicted, along with major Mediterranean islands being Corsica and Sardinia. Its date of transcription is 12th or early 13th century, but it has long been recognized as a copy of an ancient map. It is not a military map, though it could have been used for military purposes but the words of Vegetius give an indication of its possible function. Constantinople is represented by a helmeted female figure seated on a throne and holding in her left hand a spear and a shield.
This system, extended under the late empire to troop movements, relied very largely on staging posts at more or less regular intervals; couriers traveled an average of fifty Roman miles (74 km) a day. This can be well illustrated by a name in Italy otherwise recorded only (in corrupt form) in the Ravenna cosmography. Instead it is made to rise in the mountains of Cyrenaica and to flow a€?eastwarda€? to a point just above the delta. According to the military manual of Vegetius (383a€“395), military commanders possessed itineraria that not only were written (scripta) but also contained drawings in color (picta). Also, the display of world maps was part of an ideology of extended rule, used both by the emperor Theodosius II at Constantinople, in the fifth century, and later by Pope Zachary II in the Lateran Palace at Rome, in the eighth. It contains the network the main roads (about 100,000 km), the network of settlements, of overnight stations (mansiones) and stations of horse changing that were found in the routes that crossed the late empire.
The strongly deformed shape, mainly in terms of latitude, does not preserve any rational cartographic scale or orientation in any of Tabulaa€™s twelve sheets. In fragment XI, westwards the Euphrates River we find the text Areae fines Romanorum [end of roman limits] that is followed by representations of Mesopotamia, Persia and India. Exception constitute the regions of Galatia, measured in galloroman leyges (leugae = 2,222 km), the regions of the Persian empire in parasangas, (6 km) and India expressed where the distance are in Indian miles (2 km). These are: Aquila (with 7 towers and a big residential complex), Ravenna (5 towers), Thessalonica (5 towers), Nikomedeia (8 towers), Nicaea (6 towers and a temple or basilica) and Ankara (7 towers) (Figure 6). The basic functional uses, which incorporate corresponding social practices and are drawn with their shells are: 1) religious, 2) political, 3) defensive, 4) recreational and 5) remaining uses. In Italy 15 structures are found, in the Balkans five, in the Asia Minor and in Syria one each, while in Africa there are eight such thermal complexes (Figure 13).
At the top are found three first level cities (Rome, Constantinople, Antiocheia) and then follow six second level cities (Aquilla, Ravenna, Thessalonica, Nicomedeia, Nicaea, Ancara). The administrative organization and the provinces of late empire are not present and one would have to seek information in other texts of late antiquity (Laterculus Veronensis, Notitia Dignitatum and Hierocles Synekdimos) in order to have a picture of bigger administrative divisions. A., Romea€™s World, the Puetinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 357pp.
I had been involved with skydiving since my discharge from the Air Force (I was a medic for four long years.) in 1969.
Taxiing was no surprise, actually it seemed easier than the Beech but only slightly trickier than the 180. Once in a while wea€™d give her some fresh oil but that was about all she required between annual inspections. I wona€™t say I was overruled; leta€™s just say there was a convincing reason for us to get back that night. The gas truck showed up and I told the line boy how much money we had but that we could really use an extra 5 gallons to get across the vast stretch of the Sonora Desert.
These guys smelled of Hollywood; they all wore expensive clothes and sunglasses and you could sure tell who was the boss and who was a lackey. I taxied up to the FBO and kept a weary eye out for a certain FAA inspector that was an acquaintance of mine and might be at work in the FSDO office next door. I called Hollywood and told them the bad news, and reminded them we could put the seats back in the 195 if they needed, but boss graciously declined and said he would call the studio and make the arrangements. Miletus, as a Greek city in Asia Minor, was well placed to absorb aspects of Babylonian science, including possibly the gnomon, the upright member of a sundial, though Anaximander is said himself to have invented it. Whether Anaximander taught that the earth was spherical or cylindrical has also been a point of contention among classical and modern authors, the direct evidence on his cosmology is contradictory. Nevertheless, he may indeed, as Diogenes Laertius claims, have been the first to construct a sphere, though more likely celestial than terrestrial. Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus, made a tour of important cities on mainland Greece looking for allies against Darius I, King of Persia. This road had been carefully measured for the Great King by road surveyors; and the general proportions of Aristagorasa€™ map, particularly the section relating to Asia, may well have been guided by such survey work on it.
It is no surprise, by contrast, that he was particularly knowledgeable about the Euxine [Black] Sea, an area colonized by Miletus and his writing may have helped Herodotus on areas like Thrace. However, it does appears that, in part of his written work at least, HecatA¦us was far from confining himself to a dry geographical description of the country, but discussed at considerable length upon its natural curiosities, and the manners and customs of the local inhabitants.
Modern reconstructions reasonably show this map, which is likely to have accompanied his book, as circular, with the ocean surrounding a landmass that ends eastwards at the Indus River and the Caspian a€?Gulfa€?.
It is probable also that his river Liza was the same as the Lixus of later geographers, on the Atlantic coast of Mauritania, but this is far from certain.
Anaximander of Miletus, the countryman of HecatA¦us, as mentioned above, has been credited in Western literature as the first to draw up a map of the world, and there can be little doubt that this formed the foundation for HecatA¦usa€™ map. Herodotus, in the passage already referred to, ridicules those who made Asia of equal size with Europe, in terms which seem to exclude all consideration of a third continent; and HecatA¦us, by including all Libya [Africa], as well as Egypt, under the head of Asia, appears to have sanctioned this arrangement. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, There is a beautiful harmony between the inscriptions and the functions of the mosque. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.
As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.
In the 13th century, Yakut-ul-Mustasimi,a calligraphist from Amasya, made a breakthrough in calligraphy by using nibs of various widths and sizes in one composition. These geometric shapes often include Arabic calligraphy written on walls and ceilings inside and outside of mosques.
There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically). A second edition by Abraham Ortelius was published in Antwerp in 1598 as part of his Theatri Orbis Terrarum Parergon which contained eight of the twelve sections of the Table. Such dating is suggested by the three personifications placed on Rome, Constantinople (labeled Constantinoplis, not Byzantium) and Antioch; and it fits in well enough with biblical references on the map. The second page, comprising Segments III and IV, shows Italy with surrounding islands and landforms bordering adjacent seas. In his will of 1508, the humanist Konrad Celtes of Vienna left to Konrad Peutinger (in whose hands it had been since the previous year) what he called Itinerarium Antonini. They suggest that, whether or not the term itinerarium pictum [painted itinerary] was in current use, it is a convenient phrase for this unique map. But owing to the personification the city surround is formally shown as a circle, enlarged in proportion to the very narrow width of the Italian peninsula. Nearby is a high column (rather than a lighthouse) surmounted by the statue of a warrior, presumably Constantine the Great. Apart from the personifications, cartographic signs include representations of harbors, altars, granaries, spas, and settlements.
The most northerly place extant in Britain appears as Ad Taum; but it is very far removed from the river Tay. On the Gulf of Naples, marked as being six Roman miles from Herculaneum and three miles each from Pompeii and Stabiae [Castellammare di Stabia], is shown a large building with the name Oplont[i]s. The delta itself is shown in less compressed form from south to north than most parts of the Peutinger Map. A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc. Despite its overall deformation, the distances, at least between the main cities, are defined with sufficient accuracy. The deformations of the coastline course and of the geo-shapes in Tabula makes today its reading unfamiliar and complicated for the non-experts, but the thematic information contained is considered of great significance, mostly for the depiction and the semantics of the ancient road net- works in late roman antiquity. From that port, travelers crossed by sea to Dyrrachion and Apollonia and then on to Clodiana, passing various stations on the way around Lake Ohrid to the north, entering Macedonia toward Thessalonike. A number of natural characteristics are represented also in graphic form, for example, mountain ranges (Monte Taurus), rivers (fl. We have to note the absence of Alexandria which is represented with the use of a big lighthouse as symbol, but without a name, fact that is considered a copyista€™s error.
The first, exterior harbor that later was used only as space of reception of boats they were separated from the interior with a peninsula with the imperial Palatium, the theatre, the baths and the Forum. Petrum, close to Rome, a reference to the Basilica that was built in the Vatican hill (Mons Vaticanus), by Constantine the Great and his mother Helen in the place of Circus Neronianus, inaugurated in the 326 A.D.
Third level cities are numerous and constitute the provincial capitals, followed by groups of settlements with military, commercial, administrative, religious and recreational functions (walled cities, commercial centers, public administrative buildings, temples, thermal installations), while at the bottom of the hierarchy belong the towns (mansio) and villages (mutatio). However, at the settlements level, we consider that the map represents symbolically, but with precision, the hierarchy of network, fact that is particularly useful for the study of regional and urban organization of late antiquity. There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically).A  No copies of the original have survived but a copy of it, now in Vienna, was purportedly made in 1265 by a monk at Colmar who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and who seems to have omitted nothing important that appeared in the original. A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.A  The digital copy of the Biblioteca Augustana emanates from 1888 Konrad Millera€™s publication.
We were operating a Lockheed Lodestar and two Beech 18s for the experienced jumpers, but we needed a single engine Cessna for training students.
I had been flying C-180a€™s and always prided myself in being able to start the Continental 0470 engine hot or cold. Not being able to see over the right side of the nose was uncomfortable at first but a few S-turns quickly returned my confidence that the 195 and I could get along. The factories were manufacturing record numbers of new airplanes and having very little problems getting rid of them.
I dona€™t know what they did, but early Saturday morning here came the cameras, actors, horses and a helicopter and they filmed that commercial all day.
Bob was going to start flying south and I had a job in a Pawnee as soon as the cotton was tall enough, so we split the proceeds and went our separate ways. I've been moved to create awareness tools that help educate healthcare practitioners and the public about Morgellons Disease (see Awareness Poster) as well as share what I've learned from this experience.Many of the skin photos in the photo galleries are mine.
Anaximander of Miletus is said to have held that the earth was of cylindrical form, like a stone pillar; the inhabited part being apparently the circular upper surface.
He took with him on this tour what Herodotus calls a€?a bronze tablet [pinax] with an engraving of a map [periodos], literally a€?going rounda€™ of the whole world with all its rivers and seas.a€? Aristagoras used it when he toured the Greek mainland in 499-498 in search of supporters for a revolt against Persian rule. A plausible theory is that the geographer and mythographer HecatA¦us of Miletus was the indirect promoter of this map based on Anaximander and on his own travels in Asia and Egypt. He, however, certainly added a number of mere geographical details, such as are not found in Herodotusa€™ Histories, as we find the names of not less than fifteen cities of Egypt cited from him by Stephanus.


But though the latter is said to have introduced material improvements on the work of his predecessor, there can be no doubt that both would be still very rude and imperfect attempts, which might well excite the ridicule of Herodotus. On the other hand, it is clear that the division into three continents was well established in the time of Herodotus, so that he himself tells us that he continues to use the divisions and the names a€?because they are sanctioned by custom,a€? though he thinks them unreasonable, and without good foundation.
Both systems were current in their time, as we learn from the poet A†schylus, who in one passage adopts one view, in another follows the other.
In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. Specific surahs (chapters) or ayats (verses) from Koran are inscribed in accordance with functions of specific architectural elements.
Numerous other engraved reproductions were made until 1753 when it was finally reproduced in its entirety.
The map does not conform to the rules of any projection, nor is it possible to apply a constant scale to determine distances from place to place; for these measurements we have to refer to the figures written in by the author. In the extant map a north-south road tends to appear at only a slightly different angle from an east-west one, and distances are calculated not by the mapa€™s scale but by adding up the mileages of successive staging posts. This was not justified as a title: it is indeed a road map, but not connected with the Antonine emperors and different from the Antonine Itineraries.
The distances are normally recorded in Roman miles, but for Gaul they are in leagues, for Persian lands in parasangs, and for India evidently in Indian miles. The Via Triumphalis is indicated as leading to a church of Saint Peter; the words ad scm [sanctum] Petrum are given in large minuscules on the medieval copy.
Antioch has a similar female personification, perhaps originating in a statue of the Tyche [fortune] of the city, together with arches of an aqueduct or possibly of a bridge. This name, however, really consists of the ends of [Ven]ta [Icenor]um (Caistor Saint Edmund, Norwich), and the only unusual feature is ad, which may have belonged to an adjacent name. The distributaries of the Nile are shown to have many islands, three of them marked with temples of Serapis, three with temples of Isis, while the roads are somewhat discontinuous. The corpus of late antique cartography comprises two categories of sources: sources in written form (itineraria scripta) and depicted documents (itineraria picta). The map depicts the road network in the Roman Empire, almost 70,000 roman miles long which equals roughly 104,000 km of roads length and sea routes.
This road was the continuation of the great military highway that began on the shores of the North Sea, ascended the valley of the Rhine, passed through Milan and Aquileia and then descended the valley of the Drava to cross the Sava River at Sirmium [Mitrovica]. It passed through Lychnidos and Herakleia Lynkestis (Bitola) and continued passing Lake Vegoritis and descending the upper valley of the Aliakmon to Pella. The interior harbor was delimited by the deposits of unloading of boats and a gallery (porticus), which were renovated by Constantine the Great. The presence of Jerusalem in the map is of small importance, as the text next to her, that a€?first was called Jerusalem, but now Aelia Capitolinaa€?, makes reference to the emperor Adrian who gave this name to the city. Developing further the information it contains, scholars generally think that the Tabula Peutingeriana, despite the inaccuracy of the design, despite the fact that it does not obey to any type of projectional system, still constitutes an epitome of geographic knowledge of late antiquity, knowledge that is precious for the study of the historical geography of the Roman Empire. Historisch-geographischer AbriAY ihres mittelalterlichen Staates im A¶stlichen Mittelmeerraum (Byz. In this business, the income from the experienced jumpers barely paid for gas and maintenance. The key was knowing how much fuel you wanted to give her by pumping the throttle just the right number of times. When I paid the bill it was right to the penny and I walked out of there with nothing in my pockets except a pilota€™s license and I wasna€™t too happy to have that at the moment. The used market was good for airplanes with Continental and Lycoming engines, but radial engines were out of favor with the general public, which made it possible for guys like us to afford our Beech 18a€™s, Lockheed Lodestar, and Cessna 195.
Being a so-called entrepreneur and my own boss, I thanked my lucky stars that I didna€™t have to do that myself.
It wasna€™t really what they described to me what they were looking for, but I didna€™t want them to find the perfect place for at least an hour so I could get my 50 bucks. Again it started to get late and I could see the stress building as the marks confided to me that a whole film crew and actors would be heading for their site Saturday morning and they still hadna€™t found the site yet.
About 4 months later I saw the commercial on TV and I was disappointed that there were no credits for the flight crew. Heck, if it werena€™t for the fact that I had to wear these darn glasses, maybe even an airline job. Bob got his multi rating and was killed in a Lodestar accident a couple years later, I miss him dearly. As usual we had a wonderful time and after the fly-in we flew to Tullahoma, Tennessee to visit the Beech 18 museum, then to Alabama for some family time. Anaximandera€™s master, Thales, was said to have visited Egypt to consult priests, and to have predicted an eclipse of the sun. Among his contacts was King Cleomenes of Sparta, and on it he showed him all the areas on the way from Ionia to Susa, capital of Persia. Close by them are the Cappadocians, whom we call Syrians; and their neighbors are the Ciliciansi whose land reaches to the sea here, where you see the island of Cyprus located. He described the flora of the Caucasus, including the thick forest cover and the native prickly artichokes, and he was aware of the varying topography (plain and mountain) of the Chorasmiansa€™ country in modern Uzbekistan. When we are told that he enormously improved Aristagorasa€™ map, and again, this probably means that he criticized it in his text rather than re-drew the map. The Mediterranean Sea was the center of the a€?world islanda€? composed of lands bordering this sea, the whole being surrounded by a circumfluent ocean-stream.
In this case, as in so many others, it is probable that the scientific tendency of the Greek mind came into play, and that they assumed the round form of the earth and the circumfluent ocean as first principles, without any actual knowledge of the facts. And in another place he censures a€?the Ionians,a€? who divided the world into the three portions of Europe, Asia, and Africa, but considered the last two as separated by the Nile; thus as he points out, leaving the delta unaccounted for. Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application.
For example, on the domes you can find the Nour ayat (the divine stress on light) written, above the main entrance you find verses related to the entrances of the paradise, on the windows the divine names of Allah are inscribed so that reflection of the sun rays through those windows remind the believer that Allah manifests Himself upon the universe in all high qualities.was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. Later, Sheyh Hamdullah, a famous calligraphist from the period of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, introduced major changes in the traditional seven writing styles and put the mark of the Turkish national character on Islamic writing. Also the Table was not apparently designed for military use, but instead gives prominence to trading centers, mineral springs, places of pilgrimage, mountain chains (in profile) and in three great cities (Rome, Constantinople and Antioch) set three rulers, believed to represent the sons of Constantine enthroned as symbols of a tripartite empire.
330 as a new Rome on the site of Byzantium, Antioch was recognized as the important bastion against the Parthians. A royal figure, probably a Pope, or perhaps an allegory of Christ the King is portrayed as representative of the city along with a building which resembles St.
It was first published in 1591 by Markus Welser, a relative of the Peutingersa€™ and since 1618 n has generally been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or translations of that phase. Nearby is the park of Daphne, dedicated to Apollo and other gods and famous for its natural beauty and as a leisure center. But since 1964 a large palace, which probably belonged to Neroa€™s empress PoppA¦a, has been excavated at Torre Annunziata, and it seems to authenticate the detail on the map. On the Sinai desert we find the words desertum ubi quadraginta annis erraverunt filii Israelis ducente Moyse [the desert where the children of Israel who wandered for forty years guided by Moses], and there are other biblical references. The itineraria scripta, compiled in Latin, were works designed to provide assistance for travelers. From there it crossed the Axios and the Echedoros (Gallikos) River before arriving at Thessalonica. With simpler representations are portrayed the passages between Europe and Asia, in present day Istanbul: Sycas in Europe), Chrisoppolis, in the Asiatic side (Figure 10).
It becomes comprehensible that in the period of mapa€™s creation, Christianity, even if present, is not found in the center of interest, in the context of later roman empire. Once I brought the power up on take-off and 51V started revealing her secrets to me, my love affair with the 195 began to blossom. I tried circling around until I could find a way across the bridge but we barely had a brief glimpse of the Golden Gate Bridge and decided to turn around. I had refigured the distance and harbored even less confidence about our range, we decided if it started looking too close we would drop into Buckeye, AZ and borrow a couple gallons from them when they opened in the morning. Turns out these guys were indeed from Hollywood and they needed a desert landscape to film a commercial and they wanted to charter a plane to scout around in. No problem, our talented film maker informed me and his two hangers-on that he thought the best location would be north of Scottsdale and we should head up there. It was time to head back to Casa Grande while they discussed what they were going to do, all the time they looked desperately at the passing landscape. In fact, I wasna€™t even sure he would let me in his office, but I felt obligated to try because of those hundred dollar bills in my pocket. The last couple of days beat the crap out of sitting on top of that old Lodestar with a hammer (I mean monkey wrench) trying to keep it flying for another couple days. I sprayed cotton for three years and made enough money to get that instrument rating and did eventually start flying passengers.
The next week end would be Jim and Val Slocuma€™s fly-in so we took all week in the 195 to get there. The last region of Asia Minor on the proposed march, Cilicia, is described as a€?opposite Cyprusa€™, implying that Cyprus too appeared; and the regions east of Asia Minor are given as Armenia, Matiena, and Cissia with the city of Susa. We are told also that they placed Greece in the center of the world, and Delphi as the central point of Greece. Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam.
Put the suggestion that this fourth century archetype was based on a much earlier map would account for the inclusion of Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Pompeii, which had been destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. Peters Basilica (or the personage could be that of one of Constantinea€™s sons as previously mentioned). Even though the temple of Apollo was burned down in 362, there were many other temples, so that this is not necessarily a guide to the dating. The sign for a spa is an ideogram of a roughly square building with an internal courtyard, often with a gabled tower at each end of the near side. Or again, a much earlier discovery near Aquileia in 1830 appears to correspond to an entry on the Peutinger Map. There is also an area in central Asia labeled Hic Alexander responsum accepit usq[ue] quo Alexander [Here Alexander was given the oracular reply: a€?How far, Alexander?a€?].
They recorded a network of itineraries over a vast area and listed the cities and stations on the routes that crisscrossed the empire, together with the distances between them. Then it followed the Lakes Koroneia and Volve before continuing to Apollonia and Amphipolis.
The fact that Britannia, Spain and the western part of Africa are missing, leads scholars to suppose that part of the Tabula has been lost. I climbed in between the two front seats, made myself comfortable, noted how bad the visibility was to the right of the nose and switched on the master switch. I crawled into old 51V with an ominous feeling about this flight and I hate to start out like that but we strapped in anyway. Sure it was expensive to run but gas was only 35 or 40 cants a gallon so it was pretty much a break-even airplane for us. The dollar signs flashed in my eyes as I told them I was their man if they could just give us an hour to reinstall the seats and door on that old reliable Cessna 195.
My grin started to exceed the breaking point, Scottsdale and back would be at least an hour and a half, wow, 75 bucks.
Corporate might be an option but then Ia€™d have to kiss up to some boss like I saw (did) this week.
For 22 years I flew only big airplanes until Charmian and I decided we had enough money to buy another airplane for ourselves and there was never a question about which kind of airplane we would buy.
On Thursday we stopped in at Tupelo, Mississippi to visit with Aubie and Leslie Pearman before we would all head up to Jim and Vala€™s on Friday in Aubiea€™s Lodestar then come back to pick up the 195s.
Like most, I panicked bought a lot of unnecessary products—some toxic, then managed to pull myself back from the brink of actually hurting myself. They show a circular earth, with Ocean surrounding the landmasses and the Mediterranean Sea in the middle. To the north of the Danube, according to HecatA¦us, were the RhipA¦an [gusty] Mountains, beyond which were the Hypernotians [men of the far south]. It seems therefore probable that, although HecatA¦us undoubtedly divided his work into only two books or parts, the second of which included the description of Libya as well as that of Asia, he nevertheless recognized the established division of the three continents, regarding Asia and Africa together as equal in size to Europe. It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century. The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. Hafiz Osman, Mustafa Rakim, Yesari Mehmet, Sevki Efendi, Sefik Bey, Mahmut Celaleddin, Kadiasker Mustafa Izzet, Sultan Mahmut II, Aziz Efendi, Necmettin Efendi, Sami Efendi and Hamid Aytac are all noted Turkish calligraphists who contributed to the development of this art.
At the turn of the fifth - sixth centuries the world ocean was added and improvements were made to the seas; at about the same time, the influence of this map appears in a work by an anonymous cosmographer of Ravenna (#203), who made use of some new material recently added to his source.
Further south is the city of Naples drawn inland, next to it is a dark mound which might represent the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Inexplicably the word tabula has been translated a€?tablea€? rather than a€?picturea€? or a€?mapa€? in popular usage. There are fifty-two such buildings represented, of which twenty-eight are at places specifically called Aquae; in some other cases there is reason to think that a place so denoted had prominent baths. A large bathing establishment, mentioned also by the elder Pliny, was discovered on the lower reaches of the river Isonzo.
Perhaps these ample descriptions, whether Christian or pagan, were added on otherwise empty space about the fifth or sixth century A.D. The Itinerarium of Antoninus deals with the land and sea routes from western into Eastern Europe, from Gadeira (Cadiz, SW Spain) to Caesarea in Palestine and from the Crimea to Alexandria. After that it crossed the lower course of the Strymon River and the north slopes of Mount Pangaion on its way to Philippoi, after which it headed south toward the sea again, reaching it at Neapolis (Kavala). Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman, 7-9 April 1997 (SBF Collectio Maior 40), Jerusalem 1999, p.
79 and not rebuilt, except for parts of Pompeii.A  It is also perhaps easier, on this supposition, to see why certain roads are omitted, such as the major routes through the Parthian empire mentioned in the Mansiones ParthicA¦ [Parthian Stations] of Isidorus of Charax.
We would canvas Arizona State University and U of A every couple of weeks and usually train 25 or 30 new jumpers a weekend.
The vibration, the torque, the acceleration, even the visual sensation as you bring the throttle slowly up to full power will grab all of your senses and tell you to hold on tight, this is going to be one heck of a ride. We circled south of SJC and tried to go north across Oakland but the fog was not going to let us through. They agreed to wait and actually agreed to the hourly charge of $50.00 for the plane and pilot. I spent the day at Tupelo Aviation where Aubie has the FBO and wandered around the facilities looking at the various projects being worked on. The two most common Greek words for a a€?mapa€?, (ges) periodos and pinax, can have other meanings, respectively a€?circuit of the eartha€? and a€?paintinga€?.
Ancient and modern opinion has differed on the location of the RhipA¦an Mountains; Aeschylus and Pindar imagined that they were at the source of the Danube. Just in the same manner the geographers of the Middle Ages assumed that Jerusalem was the center of the world, and arranged other countries accordingly. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence.
Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. A  Plenty of hearsay, and inaccurate facts are presented below in this Affidavit of Anna K.
Since the Ravenna cosmographer names a certain Castorius as the author of his source in connection with material also found in the Tabula Peutingeriana, it has been inferred by early historians that this was the makera€™s name for the original. Segments V and VI illustrate the eastern Mediterranean by prominently showing the Grecian archipelago and present-day Turkey and Crete. It is now time to call it the a€?Peutinger Mapa€? to avoid any misconception that the original image was somehow carved on a table or was like a statistical table. 365-66 all three personified cities were important, since the pretender Procopius had his seat of power in Constantinople, Valentinian I in Rome and his brother Valens in Antioch. There are also in the Peutinger Map places with cartographic signs for granaries, denoted as rectangular roofed buildings.
This is probably the place given the cartographic sign for a spa, with the words Fonte Timavi [spring of the river Timavus]. In several areas research is in progress combining fieldwork with study of the Peutinger Map and of the history of place-names. It must have taken its final form between 280 and 290 and is thought to be based on the figures provided by the department responsible for the cursus publicus, the roman imperial road office.
After Neapolis, the Via Egnatia headed northeast, through Akontisma (3 km from modern Nea Karvali) and turned inland to Topeiros, where the Nestos River was crossed.
We were training them to jump from the Twin Beech, but that was expensive and less than ideal.
I knew enough to let the prop turn several blades before turning on the mags (I didna€™t even know it didna€™t have two of them) so I took the opportunity to pump the throttle a couple of times to prime the engine.
Darn, the line boy didna€™t give us that extra five gallons I had begged for; in fact, we found there was at least 10 gallons more fuel than we had paid for. I looked at my smiling partner, Bob Schaffer, and gave him the thumbs up and we both knew we were going to eat well tonight. He had made a bundle on that advertising campaign and this was going to be his next big commercial. All three passengers became instantly excited and asked me to turn the plane around and take them back where we had just passed. Perhaps it was due to our past dealing that he didna€™t believe my story about the famous Hollywood producer wanting to shoot a movie at the Casa Grande Airport, he sent me packing. And how could I keep flying these old round engine birds if I had to go to work flying for someone else. Always wary of doctors, I tried to stay out of that loop but finally caved when my beloved ones pressured me to seek help. As a result, modern writers have tended to be somewhat cautious in their assessment of Greek cartography. The lands to the north are the cold countries where dwell the mythical Hyperboreans [literally, peoples a€?of the far northa€?], separated from the rest of the world by the Rhipaean [gusty] Mountains, whose location has always been a matter of debate.
Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus.
The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. Sanders.A  I wonder how accurate her formal reports were when she was an Alaska State Trooper?
The overall form of the Colmar edition, which is the basic form of the Tabula as it has reached us today, must have been fixed at this period, about A.D. The seventh Segment shows Cyprus, present-day Saudi Arabia, a large allegorical representation of the Holy City, and the area southeast to Mesopotamia. The alternative naming of the Peutinger Map as the a€?world map of Castoriusa€? has met with very little support. But in fact, although Valens set out for Antioch, he was diverted to fight Procopius and he cannot be correctly associated with the last-named city. Its fresh waters by the sea were regarded as an unusual phenomenon and obviously worth mapping. Then continued eastward along the coast to Traianopolis and through Heraclea arrived to Constantinople (Figure 3).
To the political and economic incentives was now added the desire of the pilgrims of the new Christian world to travel east to the Holy Land.
I knew of a Cessna 195 for sale in Eloy, Arizona, about 20 miles from our drop zone in Casa Grande.
It wasna€™t going to cooperate so we called off our business and decided to head back to Arizona. We all broke into smiles of relief and looked around for the line boy, to at least say thanks, but he was nowhere in sight.
Granted, we werena€™t buying insurance and we were doing all of our own maintenance, but 51V never failed to pay her own way. Bob kept smiling until he realized he would be doing all the wrenching on the Lodestar for the next couple of hours, as somebody had to be smoozing with the Hollywood types up in the 195.
I did a grand 360 and watched in amazement as all three filmmakers congratulated each other because they had finally found the perfect location to film their Ray-O-Vac commercial. The wings were off and the paint had been stripped so I thought Ia€™d take a look at some of the systems inside the airframe that you dona€™t usually get to check out on a completed airplane. A dermatologist gave me Ivermectin which caused a Herxheimer (die-off) reaction and many of the black particles I'd been seeing with a scope surfaced. The lands to the south are the hot countries inhabited by the Ethiopians [a€?burnt faceda€? because of their proximity to the sun] and the crane-fighting pygmies.
Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word.
500; although a few local corrections were made subsequently, for example, in the eighth and ninth centuries.
Variants of a two-gabled building were used to depict some settlements, but most were distinguished by no more than a name. The airplane had been for sale for more than a year and I thought it could be had for less than $4000.00. The first leg got us to Palm Springs just after sunset and I wasna€™t looking forward to the night flight through the desert to Phoenix but my passengers insisted that we press on since we didna€™t have the money for a motel. It was a beautiful night desert crossing after all and my faith in mankind was given another boost that magical evening. When you have partners in the airplane business, ita€™s good to be the pilot, it gives you more flexibility. No kidding, all three of them would look out the window and actually frame the area with their thumbs and fore fingers to form a square simulating the camera frame.
They were going to do a commercial for Ray-O-Vac batteries and the desolate location would emphasize the reliability of their batteries.
Right there below us, not 1000 feet north of the runway of the Casa Grande Airport was their spot.
I was wondering about where this old girl came from and what stories she might be able to tell. This gave me great relief from the discomfort of what felt like fiberglass embedded in my skin. Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing. When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. The original roll at the time of its transcription in the early Middle Ages was of eleven sheets, but as such it was incomplete, since much of Britain, Spain, and the western part of North Africa were already missing at the time of copying; there may also have been an introductory sheet forming part of an earlier prototype version. Attempts to differentiate between types of settlements on the map and to establish criteria for the attribution of signs have not been entirely successful.
That was a lot of money in the 70a€™s but we managed to save most of it in a few weeks and I caught a ride over to Eloy to make the offer. In fact, as we counted out how much money we had between the three of us, there was only $20.00 for gas and that would barely buy enough to reach Glendale just west of Phoenix.
In the meantime, Ia€™m watching the tach time steadily rolling over and using my thumb and forefingers practicing my multiplication tables. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". It was evidently not, as was once thought, the work of the Dominican monk Konrad of Colmar, who in 1265 quite independently produced a mappamundi that he says he copied onto twelve parchment pages; the paleography suggests an earlier date.
After only a few minutes, we settled on a price of $3400, and I pulled the cash out of my pocket and handed it to the broker.
After another hour and a half in the 195, we headed back to Casa Grande, bitterly disappointed (not) that we had failed to find our perfect location for the commercial.


Bob and I started pulling the seats out and the door off the 195, since a few hard core jumpers always showed up on Friday. It wasna€™t the stock wheel but a rams horn type with the aircraft registration number written in the center. There were NO fibers visible in my skin in the previous months before taking the medication. In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen"). New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted. The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world.
The second sheet of the Peutinger Map was treated as if it had been the first, with spellings of truncated names containing false initial capitals (for example, Ridumo for what was originally Moriduno). On the ground, I could hardly believe my eyes as the boss started peeling off those beautiful one hundred dollar bills.
Our heroes returned from the desert still excited about their success and again Bob and I grinned while two more big beautiful one hundred dollar bills found their way into our pockets. When I saw the number a chill ran down my spine and I had to hold back the strong emotions rising inside of me.
For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities. The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy". Hence a total of twelve sheets extant at the time of copying can be accounted for only by assuming that, when the copyist mentioned this number, he was including a title sheet.
It is interesting to see that, just as there is one personification in the West and two in the East, so two cities of the second rank, symbolically given walls, are in the West and four in the East.
I had caught radial engines on fire before and I knew all I needed to do was keep turning the engine until it started and that would blow out the fire, but this engine wasna€™t showing any signs of starting. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki.
In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul. This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician. Important cities like Carthage, Ephesus, and Alexandria are not shown with a distinctive sign. Worse yet, the battery was beginning to give up and I had no idea if there was a fire extinguisher to be found in all of Eloy, Arizona. I looked at Bob grinning from ear-to-ear through his grease covered face and we both headed for the best steak in Casa Grande. Within two days of taking the Ivermectin, I watched in horror as fibers started to rise to the surface of my skin. From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat. In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes. Just as I was thinking I needed to bail out of this thing and watch it burn to the ground, Bob rushed in and sprayed CO2 into the cowling and the fire was out. I couldna€™t be more pleased to know that 51V is in such good hands and that someday Aubie will return her to service in the best shape shea€™s ever been in. One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (?
With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion. That plus coming off the tail-end of the pharmaceutical seemed to stop all the symptoms of itching, biting and crawling for approximately the next 4 months. The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision.
The only thing that hadn't cleared up was the hyper-sensitivity to my skin which I thought I was stuck with for the rest of my life, an unfortunate consequence of having Morgellons. Had I not been actively using a microscope to look at my skin during this period, I might have presumed I was well. Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans.
Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants. The skin however, doesn't lie and told a whole other story for under it's surface, fibers and particles were clearly still present—multitudes of them. Early on, I'd heard about the testing that Pam Crane of Morgellons Focus On Health (site no longer active) was championing and felt that it was probably the way to go.
The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed.
My only problem with moving forward was a lack of practitioner, as I felt having the best testing in the world wouldn't mean anything unless someone was up to the task of decoding it's contents into a meaningful protocol, sort of like buying a Cadillac that arrives without the key. I wanted to have a conversation with whatever doctor I was going to see and to hear them speak about their philosophy of healthcare. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced.
Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. Just try to get a physician on the phone before actually making an appointment and you will find it is an impossible task (especially the high-end specialists). Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy. She talked about The Great Plains Labs and why the testing used in Functional Medicine is so important for our community. She sounded like she knew how to do her job well and was more than capable, indeed she had impressed me as understanding how to approach the disease in a holistic manner that aligned with my own healthcare philosophies. I believe my first words to her were, "Where do I sign the dotted line?" (While focusonhealth has been taken down, here is another radio show with Nancy speaking with Pam.
Let me remind you that I felt fine when I first contacted Nancy, but the emerging fibers showed me I was not. Nancy forewarned me that treatment would kick up all the initial symptoms I had when first ill with Morgellons, such as itching and stinging and that I might experience more fatigue with die-off, possibly even get lesions although I hadn't had many lesions previously. Within a week and a half of beginning this new protocol all the discomforts she mentioned came back.
Black particles began coming out from the skin, sand-like crystals were suddenly pushing from the scalp, I was itchy and uncomfortable but this time around it was at a much lower volume then at onset. I have experienced some lesions, in the form of 'papercuts' and blood spots appearing on the skin. They were tiny and healed quickly. It took close to 3 months for the symptoms of this detox to disappear, lessening with each week.
We added in another few products to my protocol fine-tuning the process. Once all my symptoms had abated I was ready to move on to the next step and do a colon cleanse. A  There's an Unsolved Mystery right there:A  How could I have been "Found" by LAPD or anyone, when I was never "Missing" nor Lost? I used supplements for one month that gently cleansed the colon (Colon Cleanse by DaVinci Labs??).
After that, I began with chelation therapy (Chelex by Xymogen) to remove heavy metals. Nancy has taken me through this journey with constant support through email. The fact that she is able to tell me what I can expect and interpret what I am going through is invaluable.
Having gone through the early treatment phases and emerging symptom-free, makes me feel that I did indeed work through something—hopefully clearing biofilm. So where am I right now and what are the changes that happened over these few months of treatment?My skin cleared of many of black particles, although I still have them (my great lament was that I didn't have a camera back when I first got sick, because my skin was so saturated it was alarming!). Actually, I feel spry and 10 years younger than my 55 years of age (at the time this was written), an unexpected and very welcome gift.
Still, they are here and I am monitoring them carefully. I am convinced of the value of the Great Plains and Metametrix testing. It just makes sense that one would want to know the particular weaknesses of their body before embarking on a journey of healing. Getting the labwork done and seeing Nancy are the two smartest things I did throughout my ordeal. Morgellons for me is like that impossible teacher I had in my youth. But it has also left me savoring hard-won battles and set me straight on how to live more in balance.
Therefore, I try not to rail against the unfairness of the experience, but to look at how much I learned and the ways in which it has stretched me as a human being. Yes it has been a miserable teacher, but by it's hand I have been become an attentive student.I wish you all full recovery. AylaWhile I am not comfortable sharing my protocol as it is specific to my lab results, I will outline what I feel are the bare-bones minimum I'd look to take if I were building a protocol. This would be a good probiotic (I use 3 different kinds throughout the day as was indicated by the results of my testing). FOS, according to Nancy can promote yeast growth so I'd stay away from a probiotic that includes it. I'd include a biofilm buster which breaks down the cellular matrix in the gut that inhibits absorption of necessary nutrients.
I used Interfase Plus and Wobenzym at different times (there are different kinds of Wobenzyme. I've used Carlson's liquid D3 which is lipid based, but recently have switched because of assimilation issues with fats to a dry encapsulated D3 (Prothera brand 5,000 I.Us a day). Certain of the B's can become depleted when the body is fighting infection, so a good B-complex seems necessary. Also, Mr. A  I assumed she was feeling a bit down over the slumping economy and her own financial position, and wasn't keeping up with personal grooming, and wasn't concerned about her appearance.
Common Sense and now Clifford Carnicom have written about NAC and it's benefits along with vitamin C in helping quell the symptoms of our condition.
I'd look into this as a close friend from the community began taking both high amounts of Vitamin C and NAC and her symptoms disappeared. She was taking 3,000-5,000 mg of C spread throughout the day and 600 mg 2x's a day of NAC both in the morning and at night. Grant would like to request the videotapes of the Key West Airport baggage claim during my arrival on that date, so we can all have a review of the appearance of Anna, and me. She eventually reduced it to 2,000 mg of vitamin C and 600 mg of NAC because the NAC was giving her headaches. The lesser dosage has been fine for keeping her symptoms of crawling, biting and stinging away. When she went off the protocol symptoms came back and when she again resumed, they went away. I might mention, that my protocol has always called for 1000 mg of vitamin C, three times a day. While I was not on NAC as a separate supplement, it is in another product I take daily ?(Liver Protect by Xymogen).
Nancy has stated that the clients she sees that do this first make themselves much worse and take longer to get better. If I am going to do this right, I want to know what my baseline toxic load is so I can measure my progress over time.
The results arrived right after I finished my third week of chelation. My total toxic representation was OFF the chart with high levels of antimony, silver, cadmium, tin and magnesium. I have a host of other metals as well, they just were at lower levels than those mentioned above.
Once Nancy reviewed my test results and knew how I was responding to the treatment she modified my protocol to include a liver support, and the addition of 3-4 new products that would also help balance me out.
I keep an ongoing visual journal using photos which I share with her so she can see any new developments. During chelation I was more tired, needing to take naps and sleep longer on most days. I also had some tiny red spots appear on the skin without breaking through.Red spots appear on the skin. Based on what was going, on Nancy pulled back on the chelation so that the process is even slower and gentler until my body can adapt. Using shea butter and coconut oil mixture as a moisturizer seems to draw fibers and black particles from my skin if left on for 3-4 hours. Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! Most are not readily apparent unless you really look for them. Hair The Morgellons has moved into my hair.
An acupuncturist, pointed out after looking at my hair photos, that there were multiple "hairs" emerging from one follicle. This is probably why my hair feels thicker even though it has been brittle, weak and falling out. Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria I had with high levels the first time I was tested, is completely gone. There was a new bacteria that showed up on this round of testing that wasn't on the previous.
Nancy feels that this is something that could have morphed, or, could have been present all along, but like peeling an onion back, was hidden under layers. She is adding seven new supplements to my protocol to address adrenal support as sleep has become fitful and I feel somehow too 'plugged in.' Fight or flight mode. I'll be taking a prebiotic to address the new bacteria as well as some new products from Xymogen to open detox pathways. I'm excited to be moving in a new direction. Every time we do a new test, I see the value of this approach.
Randomly throwing supplements at the body without being tested, with the hope that something might work, seems a dangerous practice. Not terrible full-blown itchy, just enough to let me know that I was reinfected or maybe this is an allergic flare-up. This episode might have lasted longer than necessary had I immediately washed all my clothes but I got lazy and didn't wash them for a few days. Was not constantly itchy, but found I'd get itchy at odd intervals, sometimes once a day, sometimes not for days at a time and sometimes for a mere few seconds or so.
I am putting a garden in upstate and often have my hands in the soil (without gloves) and have found that I am fine.
The only itching I've got is from the occasional mosquito bite (and yes, these are real mosquitoes).
Now, instead of direct application of GSE I brush my teeth twice, once with toothpaste and once with a clean brush that has two drops of GSE on it.
HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?
AFFIDAVIT OF ANNA KATHRYN SANDERS, Former ALASKA STATE TROOPER, and MY OLDER SISTERA A Fortunately, someone's curious questions reminded me that I still have much more information to publish, including this Affidavit.
Note that I have been letting my supplements run out in the last few months because I needed a break from taking approx. I wonder if the return to itchiness had something to do with my letting down my guard and not watching my pH. After the first day of swimming, I noticed small circular red blotches appear under the skin of my calves and thought, uh-oh, here comes trouble. I FINALLY have a microscope again (it was replaced after more than 7 months at the manufacturer!).
I had a few breakthrough 'papercut lesions' on the hands which I don't know what to make of. I stopped the Ormus because I wanted to document F-6, which has gotten quite a buzz in the Morgellons community.
I still have 1.5 bottles left and intend to take it in a few months feeling I didn't give it a proper shot.
For now, I want to concentrate on doing one therapy at a time, so I can really be sure what each does.
A  How about some facts, such as the Officer's name, time, location of the vehicle, etc.
October 17, 2011: Began using F-6 and have started a new link documenting that experience including photos showing what is emerging from the skin. I'm going to take it slow with this product as I don't want to have any major herxheimer episodes. Caroline Carter, A healthcare worker that has Morgellons and works with ozone therapy (and who made her Morgellons worse with ozone saunas) said she cannot even be around it anymore. I have since talked with another person that had strong outbreaks from doing an ozone sauna.
Ozone therapy is typically great for cancer, AIDS and herpes, but for this disease might make us worse. There seems to be improvement to the hair which feels stronger and seems to be falling out less. A lot of "debris" is coming up through the skin, fibers, black particles, granules and many more fibers then ever seen before. A week and a half later I ate some quinoa with my lunch and two hours later had 3 oatmeal cookies (oatmeal, walnuts, carob chips, baking soda, vanilla). This forage into complex carbs was unusual for me.While eating the cookies I started to itch. By the third cookie, I was having full-blown symptoms of itching, stinging and biting sensations (no crawling, thank God!). The fact that it came on with such force and was related to food, makes me think that Morgellons counts among it's causes a hyper-allergic reaction to food. In this case, I don't really know what specific ingredient triggered the reaction.By eliminating carbs again, symptoms quieted down. I am noticing flare-ups of the arthritis in my foot which had so improved at the beginning of my treatment (but I kill my feet dancing one night a week, so that could play into this). The ones I can visually see without a scope are bigger then I've had before but there is no increase in the amount I generally see with my scope in the skin. Will keep you posted of new developments.I've noticed that when it's very hot (93-97 degrees) and my skin is exposed to the air, I have more sensations on my arms. It's not unusual to feel a single pin prick sensation on my left upper arm, often I'll feel the same type of prick mirrored in the same spot on right arm sometime later, as if they were somehow linked.The other day on my bike I felt as if I hot poker were being pressed momentarily to my arm. When I looked down, there were three distinct tract marks in that spot, about a half, to an inch long that hadn't been there before. Since having Morgellons, it feels like the skin is no longer a reliable friend but is capable of erratic changes suddenly.
They took about 5 days to disappear.?September 27, 2012 • Live blood microscopyJust posted a new link with photos of my recent session with Rick Panson, a microbiologist and healthy body coach who did a live blood and dried blood microscopy and gave me additional guidance for my health.
It's a bird's eye view into the system, giving a fuller, deeper understanding of what's going on  then just looking at lab results—although lab tests have their place! In the next two weeks I get more testing done so will post those results when in. There were many problems with the blood.
We are in a seasonal shift and my fingers have had a few tiny papercut lesions since the change began.Started the protocol Oct. Beginning with one pill a day of capyrilic acid with one pill olive leaf extract and 1 tsp. The L-glutamine is supposed to strengthen the gut lining and prevent leaky gut syndrome caused by the yeast die-off.
Will stay on this for a few days and slowly double the dosage, then determine where to go from there. 16, 2012 Went back to Rick Panson for another live blood analysis and posted the photos under my last blood microscopy. This is encouraging for all of you who wonder how long it will take to knock back candida and even if our protocols are working.
Rick recommended Candex and Nancy told me she loved the product except now they are adding corn to Candex (and it's unknown if it's GMO corn), so she is no longer recommending it. Adrenal system had a number of markers indicating a lot of stress to the system, very low levels of vitamins C and B's, four different pathogenic bacteria showed up—Helicobacter Pylori was high, Clostridia, E. Kreb cycle needs support. Heavy metals hair test—all toxic metals were down except arsenic which went up with cadmium. Lead which was extremely high on my first test showed a considerable decrease as well as silver but lots more chelation ahead. It's been 2 years since I started using supplements to pull the metals out and I think it will take a couple more years of work.
The process is slow but steady which is a good thing because I think if the body released too much metal into the system at once there would be negative impact on the health. Nancy pointed out that lead and cadmium are antagonistic to calcium absorption and bone health, so seeing this rise in cadmium and knowing I still have too high levels of lead makes me think that I might have to give up the painting at some point or switch mediums rather than compromise bone health. The heavy metals test also measures "essential and other elements," (minerals) It seems as a consequence of pulling heavy metals out, the minerals have been compromised. Nancy suggested this organism is a pleomorph moving from bacteria to fungus according to favorable conditions in the body. This is the third time it's changed. Feb 3, 2013 Just an acknowledgment that I just passed my 3rd anniversary since getting sick with Morgellons.
The only time I really have symptoms is when I really mess up on diet (itchiness will start) or when ?very overheated and sweating from physical exertion like dancing, where it sometimes feels like needle pinpricks are sticking my skin from the INSIDE out, accompanied by itchiness. Thieves is a great oil for preventing flu or when one is coming down with illness, but I am unclear if it can damage beneficial bacterias.
Stopped taking thieves after a few weeks but do still take lemon and added in lemongrass and grapefruit to my daily capsule. Itchiness did not return. September 22, 2013 Decided to go on Stephen Buhners herbal protocol for Lyme disease (crafted from his excellent book, Healing Lyme).
Although I tested negative for Lyme and feel fine, I don't trust the traditional testing one gets with their regular MD, and even though I don't think I'm dealing with Lyme, I can't discount the fact that so many Morgellons sufferers also have Borrelia and other co-infections that might be related to our disease which seem to improve with Lyme treatment. Also, his protocol addresses other issues I feel are pertinent to my health (even before Morgellons). Certainly, I see over time that my immune system is weak, and my gut reaction now to coasting is that it could be an eventual time bomb.
I'm taking Cats Claw, Sarsaparilla root (Jamaican—which I grind in my coffee grinder), Eleuthero (Siberian Ginseng), Astragalus, Japanese Knotweed and Andrographis. To his formula I've added in Ashwagandha and Sweet Cinnamon (from Sri Lanka) for the brain, as well as nettles (excellent herb for trace minerals and general support of system) and Pau D'arco (fungal).
I take a quarter level teaspoon of each herb (which is roughly the equivalent of one 00 capsule) added to some water and drink it down.
Surprisingly, I did not feel exhausted, although the protocol was pretty intense and caused a lot of flushing through the digestive system. This is not a new symptom and usually happens in the first few weeks of starting any new protocol. As these breakouts have always been so minor and short-lived? (an occasional papercut lesion or what looks like a pin prick), I paid them little mind.
In this case, the skin continued to break open for the duration of treatment and I had some long "scratch" marks come up as well. It seemed like the last papercut I got was deeper and for the first time I started to worry that perhaps I was giving myself a lesion problem that I might not be able to turn off. This little spot has bothered me on occasion on and off throughout the years of my Morgellons experience, but during the Buhner protocol, it itched almost constantly.
On the plus side, I could tell there was a lot of detoxification going on and all of those bitter herbs were really helpful for quelling sugar cravings. I believe I will revisit this protocol modified in the future, but for now, am taking a rest from it. Note that when I ceased treatment, the papercut and pinprick lesions stopped, although I recently had a three-inch long "scratch" appear on my leg weeks after stopping his treatment some weeks back. This was a surprise, since problems usually only show up on my hands and 3 inches is rather a statement!For the first time, the scratch resembled images I've seen for Bartonella. There is much about it that I think is helpful, and I encourage people to study these herbs and supplements carefully, and decide for themselves if they want to incorporate them. This is a very difficult protocol and for any who have detoxification pathway issues, this could impact their health negatively. The release of toxins in a system that cannot remove them properly can be deadly, so it is important to not rush carelessly forward with something this strong.
I did feel like the protocol helped me on many levels, but I could not tolerate the heart issues with pressure on the chest, burning, and breathing difficulties.
The creator of the protocol feels that Bartonella is at the core of the Morgellons infection, and Bartonella likes to set up shop in the endothelial tissue of the heart. Thinking this was just a severe Herxheimer reaction, I went back on the protocol but was unable to advance more than one drop of each tincture before heart and breathing issues returned with a vengeance. This time, the heart issues did not abate immediately, and it's been some weeks now in which they often come back on a low level. His original protocol (which he posted on Jenna's blog and which is now removed) did not use MSM, or Silver Sol or various other supplements. It also did not include baking soda, which is not inherently a problem, but at 2 teaspoons a day, might become one.



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