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08.02.2015
The directory enquiries website was the first of its kind to be launched in the UK when it was developed by Simunix in 1999.
5 free search credits every day - this is more than many people need in a day making this a free service for most of our users! How to Look Impressive and Like You Know What You’re Talking AboutHave you ever been thrown off course during a conversation where someone drops in an obscure acronym? Also known as golgi complex, these are piles of flattened sacs (smooth cisternae), layered one above the other and connected to each other. Lysosomes are produced by the Golgi apparatus and appear like small spherical bodies featuring a single membrane confining it. Ribosomes are small, spherical organelles comprising 65% ribosomal RNA and 35% ribosomal proteins. As you read the information on each organelle, refer to the animal cell diagram for better clarity.
It often happens during conversations with teenagers as new abbreviations pop up on social media - MoreClear Call Rates for 08, 09 and 118 NumbersNumbers beginning 08, 09 or 118 are known as 'service numbers' and the cost of calling these numbers can vary from a few pence to several pounds.
Eukaryotic cells are larger, more complex, and have evolved more recently than prokaryotes. Cells are prokaryotic and eukaryotic, wherein the latter is more complex and contains nuclear material. They contain hydrolytic enzymes, which have been made in the ER and then passed to the Golgi bodies, from where the lysosomes get it.
They have no basic shape or structure and their size and shape depends on the requirements of the cell. To check if you have understood the cell parts, draw a blank animal cell diagram and try to fill in the different parts without referring to the labeled one given here.
Where, prokaryotes are just bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes are literally everything else.
Plants and animals are made up of cells and though most of the cell organelles are the same, they do have their differences.Cell membraneCell membrane or plasma membrane is a membrane common to both plant and animal cells. The golgi apparatus is situated near the cell nucleus and besides the stacked sacs, it also contains large number of vesicles. Their prime function is breaking down of cellular waste substances from the cell, into simplified substances. Ribosomes are very small organelles (non-membranous) and are present in thousands (millions in some) inside the cell. These vacuoles act as storage areas for the cells and play significant roles in release of cellular waste substances and intracellular digestion.
However, the cell membrane in plant cells is quite rigid, while, the cell membrane in animal cells is quite flexible.
The main function of this golgi complex to receive proteins synthesized in the ER and transformed it into more complex proteins. The simplified versions are then transferred to the cytoplasm of the animal cell for building new cell materials. These organelles are sites of protein assemblage and are responsible for protein synthesis.


As observed in the labeled animal cell diagram, the cell membrane forms the confining factor of the cell, that is it envelopes the cell constituents together and gives the cell its shape, form, and existence. The proteins are processed as they pass from one flattened sac to another and are packaged into vesicles. Lysosomes are able to do this with the help of over three dozen types of hydrolytic enzymes like lipases, nucleases, proteases, polysaccharidases, etc. They occur scattered in the cytoplasm (free or floating ribosomes) and are also found adhering to the surface of ER (bound ribosomes).
Vacuoles are present in most animal cells, however, are smaller, as compared to plant cell vacuole. Cell membrane is made up of lipids and proteins and forms a barrier between the extracellular liquid bathing all cells on the exterior and the cell organelles floating in the cell's cytoplasm. They are also sorted depending on their final destinations, such as plasma membrane, lysosome, etc.
The floating ribosomes synthesize proteins that are used by the inside of the cell, whereas the bound ribosomes synthesize proteins that will be used both by the inside of the cell and for export to the outer region of the cell. A plant cell usually has one large vacuole, however, an animal cell is seen to contain two to three small vacuoles. This membrane is semi-permeable, thus, it allows only selected substances to pass through it into the cell's interior. The main role of vacuoles in animal cells is getting rid of waste materials and excess water.
It is a fluid mosaic structure which is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and other important macromolecules such as proteins. It separates the cell from the outer environment and allows the free movement of materials in and out of the cell.CytoplasmCytoplasm or cytosol is nothing but the clear, jelly-like substance filling the cell.
The vesicles in the apparatus are used to send molecules to the cellular membrane, from where excretion takes place.
To be more precise, it is that fluid material present outside the nucleus and within the cell membrane, into which various cell organelles are scattered. The jelly-like substance is made of dissolved nutrients (fatty acids, sugars), salts and enzymes, which help different materials move throughout the cell, by a process called cytoplasmic streaming.
Cytoplasm comprises a network of cytoplasmic filaments, that are responsible for the shape of the cell. Phagocytosis (cell eating) is the process by which dead tissue material and bacteria are engulfed by cells.
Pinocytosis (cell drinking) is a process in which the substances being ingested are in solution form.
Waste materials are also dissolved in the cytosol, from where it gets taken in by the vacuoles.Cell NucleusThe cell nucleus is the trademark of any eukaryotic cell.
Cell eating and drinking are both undertaken in association with lysosymes which complete the breakdown of the engulfed material. The cell nucleus is a spherical-shaped body encompassing a nucleolus, chromosomes with DNA, nucleoplasm and some other organelles with the help of a nuclear membrane (double membrane made up of protein and lipids). This nucleus consists of highly specialized cell organelles that take care of storing the cell's hereditary material (DNA) and also coordination of different cell activities like protein synthesis, cell division, growth, etc.


What the brain is to the body, such is the nucleus to the cell.NucleolusThe nucleolus is situated in the center of the nucleus. The key function of the nucleolus is the production of subunits which then combine to form ribosomes. Apart from this, the nucleolus is also involved in about half of the RNA synthesis.ChromosomesChromosomes are thread-like structures present inside the nucleus of animal cells.
The unique structure of chromosomes helps in keeping the DNA tightly wrapped around spool-like proteins called histones. During cell division, it is essential that the DNA remains intact and gets evenly distributed among the cells. A cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes is called a diploid cell, and that which contains only one set is called a haploid cell.
Only eggs and sperms contain one set, whereas all the other cells of the body contain two sets. Of the 46 chromosomes in humans, 44 are autosomes and the other two are the sex chromosomes. Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes in new cells can result in serious problems.
Numerical abnormalities occur when an individual has more than two chromosomes in a pair or has one chromosome missing from the pair.
Structural abnormalities can manifest in the form of deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations.MitochondriaMitochondria (singular - mitochondrion) are double membrane-bound cells, scattered in the cell's cytoplasm. The double membrane comprises one outer smooth membrane and one inner convoluted membrane, forming loops called cristae.
Both these membranes together form the outer double membrane and keep the fluid-filled matrix within the mitochondria from mingling with the cytoplasm of the cell.
Mitochondria is popularly called 'power house of the cell' as it furnishes the cell with all the energy required (ATP), from food and oxygen.
This process is known as cellular respiration, and the ATP or energy produced is used to carry out functions like locomotion, cell division, production of secretory products, etc. The number of mitochondria present in cells may vary depending on the cell's activity.CentriolesCentrioles are two self-replicating, cylindrical bodies comprising 9 triplet bundles of microtubules, which means each bundle has 3 microtubules and there are 9 such bundles.
Centrioles are present only in animal cells and each animal cell contains two centrioles arranged perpendicular to each other. Their main function is assisting in the organization of cell division process, thus, are active both during mitosis and meiosis.
Thus, the new centrosome halves have a pair of centrioles each and form new independent daughter cells.Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)ER is a vast network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae in the cell's cytoplasm. Rough ER features several ribosomes attached to its surface, thereby conducing to its rough appearance and appears like sheets of membranes placed together. The smooth ER unlike the rough one, has a tubular appearance and does not have ribosomes attached to their surface, thereby giving them the smooth appearance.



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