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13.12.2013
The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T. 3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange. The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source. Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun. The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube. The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange. The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements.
The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere.
The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3). The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun. The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region.
The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting. The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis. The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support.
The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins. The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2). The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region.
Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors. The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output. A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor.
The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification.
The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit.
The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses.
The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's. Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output. Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off. Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier. Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected. The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2). A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6). In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction. One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region. The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected.
Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers.
This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane.
To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers. The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam. These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode.
The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens.
The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging. The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing.
The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum. As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates. The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube.
The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates. All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder. Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above. The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators. The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup. The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses.
The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation. The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms. Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers. In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup. In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below). The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board. The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment. The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange. The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough. The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks. The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs. The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth. This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10.
The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies.
The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running).
Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current. Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer. The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer. Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other.
Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced. The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously.
The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament. The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply. Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals. In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts. The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°.
Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. China has established fast channels for human organ transportation to minimize delivery times and help more patients survive, China's top health authority announced on Friday. The fast channel will be supported by health, transportation, public security as well as aviation and railway authorities and make organ transportation more efficient, said the National Health and Family Planning Commission.
Meanwhile, public security departments are required to make sure the route for vehicles transporting organs is clear and make sure they can arrive at the hospital as soon as possible. The public is also encouraged to provide private vehicles and aircraft to transport organs. Many organs, such as lungs, have to be transplanted within 12 hours after removal from the deceased donor to avoid damage. In February, the Civil Aviation Administration issued a circular requiring airlines and airports to prioritize medics' transporting organ donations by offering faster security checks.
Although the number of organs donated in China last year topped Asia and ranked third in the world, China has a serious lack of donated organs. According to Chen, each donor gave an average 2.6 organs in China last year, compared with an average of four internationally.
A doctor who was attacked by a patient he had treated more than 20 years ago was still in critical condition after eight hours of treatment on Friday afternoon. According to the Guangdong General Hospital in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, the hospital is organizing senior experts and doctors to help save Chen Zhongwei, who is in the intensive care unit for further medical observation and treatment after surgery. Meanwhile, the hospital said it will actively cooperate with police to investigate the case, in which Chen was stabbed more than 30 times from head to foot on Thursday evening.
Chen, 60, former director of the executive department of stomatology of the Guangdong General Hospital, had retired earlier this year.
Liao Xinbo, an inspector with the Guangdong Provincial Commission of Health and Family Planning, said he was shocked when he learned Chen was attacked. Wu Shaolin, executive vice-president of the Guangdong Provincial Medical Doctor Association, said doctors should be respected by patients and society as more than 60 percent of doctors have to work overtime, or more than 40 hours a week, to serve their patients.
Wang Hui, deputy director of the Guangdong Mediation Commission of Harmony Doctor and Patient Relations, called for improved medical facilities to make it easier for people to see doctors and ease the high tensions between doctors and patients. As the largest economy in Asia, China's pace of rebalancing imposes different spillovers on neighboring countries in Asia that contribute two-thirds of global economic growth, according to Schipke. Raphael Lam, deputy resident representative of the IMF in China, said that efforts to cut overcapacity and to develop appropriate fiscal policies have gradually paid off in the rebalancing process. In response to concerns over the sustainability of China's recovery, Lam said that the government should not rely too much on government-led infrastructure projects and instead should make good use of policy instruments to encourage private investment. Chinese policymakers have taken heed of the predicament facing private entrepreneurs and vowed to take targeted measures to facilitate their business operations. Postgraduate students in nanoscience and ecology will be enrolled in the Shenzhen MSU-BIT University in September after it gets official approval from the Ministry of Education, said Zhao Ping, principal of the university.
MSU-BIT, run by Lomonosov Moscow State University, Beijing Institute of Technology and the Shenzhen government, marks the first cooperation between Chinese and Russian universities. According to Zhao, the university plans to enroll 5,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students domestically and internationally in the long term.
Diplomas of both MSU and MSU-BIT will be granted to students when the new university gets authorization.
Victor Antonovich Sadovnichy, principal of MSU, said the new university will offer courses where MSU and BIT have advantages, and make innovations in curriculum. Students will also be equipped with multilingual capabilities, he added, as the classes will be taught in Chinese, English and Russian. The number of students studying in each other's countries has been growing, with over 16,100 students from Russia studying in China last year, while more than 25,000 Chinese students were studying in Russia. Schools, medical facilities, transportation and border trade are mostly back to normal in the region, but the work to build roads and houses is continuing a year after the 8.1-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. After the April 25, 2015, quake, affected residents received basic necessities such as tents, water, food, clothes and medical care.
Choezom, 72, whose house collapsed during the quake, was pleased with the house, furniture and other basic necessities she received. According to the residents of Gyirong, the government has said it will build a four-story house for each displaced family. In Nyanang county, another area affected by the quake, 3,521 households are enrolled in the house reconstruction project, county chief Lu Wei said. Tsering Ngodrub, a villager in Tibet's Nyanang county, said he had big concerns after his family's house was heavily damaged by the quake, but no longer worries after the government promised to build them a house of 111.5 square meters. She has received regular medical checkups over the past year at a clinic for residents in Dram township in Tibet's second largest city of Xigaze. The clinic's laboratory can meet the basic medical needs of the community's evacuees, Doctor Tashi Sangmo said. Phuntsok, a 60-year-old Sherpa from Dram, said she visits the clinic every day for a blood pressure check. Tenzin Namgyal, the party secretary of the Xigaze Municipal City Committee said the government expects to conclude the reconstruction work by the end of 2017.
Villagers relocated from the quake-hit villages in Dram to Xigaze have started to build their own houses as it gets warmer.
Before last year's Nepal earthquake, Phurbu Butri and her husband ran a guesthouse with a restaurant in Dram, the Tibet autonomous region's biggest border crossing.
Now they run a shop in a mall in Xigaze, Tibet's second largest city, about 800 kilometers from home, and live in a settlement along with 505 households relocated from areas severely damaged after the magnitude-8.1 earthquake hit on April 25, 2015. The family lived in a tent at first, then moved into a house, which they find safer, cleaner and more comfortable. The community is equipped with services such as public toilets, ATMs, banks, restaurants, shops, a post office and a hospital, he said. They mostly sell imported products and Nepalese handicrafts, and products such as Indian rice, Nepali skin care products, which have gained popularity in Tibet. In the last eight months, they been making an average monthly income of about 3,000 yuan, but expects a boom with the arrival of the tourism season.
Besides the present business, the family has secured a shop in a newly built tourism service center in Xigaze.
As a poverty alleviation project, the Xigaze Poverty Alleviation Office also will invest 1.55 million yuan ($240,000) to build a Sherpa style holiday village, a project that is expected to provide 12 jobs. Kam is one of the people in our society who slipped through the cracks of the social safety net. She does open her door to Crystal Yuen Shuk-yan, a community organizer from the Society for Community Organization (SoCO).
Inside Kam's flat, the sunlight struggled through her brownish, translucent curtains, lending no warmth.
She's a victim of a system that provides low-cost, understaffed, inadequate community-based care under the Integrated Community Centre for Mental Wellness (ICCMW). For all the imagined inclusiveness we hear about, there is still a stigma that goes with mental illness.
Government statistics published in December 2014 showed there were nearly 19,000 in the city in 2013 whose lives were as miserable as Kam's. SoCO ran a survey from January to March, assessing the physical and mental states of 50 single, mentally ill people, based on the Short Form 12-item Survey. The mentally ill seem to suffer similar afflictions: chronic sickness, limitations imposed by their physical health, emotional breakdown and an inability to cope with social situations. She knew there was something wrong with her but she was afraid of being labeled with one of the pejoratives that people use to describe mentally ill people. Crystal Yuen could be pretty certain Kam was hungry, when she came along with the bowl of noodles. The SoCO study concluded that ICCMW is failing these folks - the nearly 19,000 living in isolation.
Patients in need of cognitive behavior therapy, Chien said, should be taught intensively by therapists. Outreach services are needed, so workers can go out into the community to engage and motivate the unmotivated mental patients and persuade them to come to centers. Not only do mentally ill people dislike going to ICCMW, said Crystal Yuen of SoCO, they aren't getting the help they need from frontline staff of Social Welfare Department's Integrated Home Care Services (IHCS). Figures reveal that among 20,000-28,000 IHCS users from 2010 to 2015, elderly people accounted for over 90 percent.
Welfare sector lawmaker Cheung Kwok-che said while many mentally ill people are over 60, it is difficult to differentiate service to the elderly or mentally ill per se. In 2014, the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) urged the government to set up a Mental Health Commission to coordinate and monitor policies and action plans for mental health service. Lawmaker Wong Kwok-hing said he would liaise with responsible government bureaus and departments within the current Legislative Council term and will discuss short-term and long-term policies to remedy the issue. Chien Wai-tong sees long-term preventive measures covering mental health issues as crucial. Search engine Baidu, which has been caught in public outcry over a man's recent death, was also suspected by several medical NGOs of presenting fake advertisements. Chinadolls Center For Rare Disorders, one of the NGOs, said on Thursday that it had reported Baidu to Beijing's industry and commerce authorities for what it believed could be fake medical advertisements. Wei Zexi, a 21-year-old computer science major at Xidian University in Shaanxi province died from synovial sarcoma, a rare soft tissue cancer, on April 12. Wei's parents said their son researched the disease on Baidu, and the hospital that provided the treatment - the Second Hospital of the Beijing Armed Police Corps - was listed second in the search results.
Paid listings are part of an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites. Zhang Haoyu, an officer at the NGO, said the report claimed that such a model violates the country's advertising law. The State Administration for Industry and Commerce made public a draft regulation for online advertising to solicit public opinion last year, but no announcement has been made on its status.
Liu Junhai, a professor of civil and commercial law at Renmin University of China, said that a paid listing is advertising.
Zhu Wei, an associate professor at China University of Political Science and Law, said that whether or not a paid listing is advertising should be clarified and its difference from general advertising should be defined. On Jan 19, after receiving many patients' complaints saying that they were defrauded by hospitals they found on Baidu, the center set up the NGO Alliance of Anti-Online False Medical Advertising with another 30 NGOs and reported Baidu to the industry and commerce bureau in Haidian district.
A report from Beijing News said the authorities will extend the time for the investigation because it is hard to define whether or not the promotion on Baidu is advertising. Search engines in the United States, including Google and Yahoo, were asked by a government agency in 2002 to distinguish paid advertising from unpaid material voluntarily, and to explain to the public how advertising is delivered. In South Korea, search engines Naver and Daum have been urged since 2013 to open to the public their approach to the ordering of returns on searches. Zhao Xingwu, head of the Bureau of Fisheries under the Ministry of Agriculture, said on the sidelines of a news conference that enforcement will be jointly conducted by the Chinese Coast Guard and local fishery bureaus. Since 1999, China has imposed an annual fishing ban in parts of the South China Sea between May 16 and Aug 1 as part of an effort to protect marine resources in an area under its jurisdiction.
The ban covers areas north of the 12th parallel, including Huangyan Island but excluding most of the Nansha Islands. In the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea, the fishing ban falls between June 1 and Sept 1.
Yu Xinrong, vice-minister of agriculture, told the news conference that the ministry will roll out a guideline to manage the growth pattern and adjust the structure of the fishing industry, which will make a priority of fostering and protecting fishery resources.
Yu said authorities will also seek to reduce the country's fishing capacity and encourage more fishermen to reduce the number of fishing vessels and switch to other trades. The ministry has launched four campaigns targeting fishing nets with small mesh and those that often result in higher percentage of bycatch.
Authorities nationwide have so far confiscated about 600,000 pieces of fishing gear that violate regulations, and banned the use of 16,000 unlicensed vessels, the ministry said. Overfishing has resulted in the destruction of spawning sites for some species, reducing stocks in China's coastal areas, as well as leading to a prolonged recession in the sector, especially in the East China Sea, the report said. Hebei province has shut down 200 polluting companies and punished 366 people in response to serious problems exposed in an environmental inspection in January. The punishments came as the province gave priority to 2,856 cases involving environmental pollution that had been transferred from the central government's inspection team. According to a report released on Thursday by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the monthlong inspection pushed forward the pollution restrictions, motivating governments to improve their controls and supervision. The strengthened controls have worked, as in the first three months of the year residents have seen a clear improvement in air quality, the province said.
In a previous report released on Tuesday, the inspection team pointed out problems in the campaign against pollution, from insufficient attention from former provincial leaders to loose supervision, and from many illegal projects in protection zones to deterioration of water and soil quality in some cities. For example, the inspection team received calls that three lime processing plants in Dachang county, Langfang were severely contaminating the air. The provincial environmental protection and public security bureaus have launched an investigation and shut down the three plants. In addition, nine government officials, including Chen Lijun, the county's deputy head of the environmental watchdog, have been punished, and Wang Tiejun, head of the county's environmental inspection team who leaked the information, has been expelled. In Tuesday's report, the inspectors exposed insufficient controls on major polluting industries, especially iron and steel, in the province. The inspection team is expected to examine other provinces' performance in curbing pollution within two years. The county's public security bureau said its investigation showed that the husband, surnamed Li, 43, and his wife, surnamed Huang, 35, got 74,000 yuan ($11,300) from the sale of their two sons - one in 2013 and the other in 2014 - during a period in which they were migrant workers in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region.
According to Xu Guodong, chief of the No 1 criminal police squadron, Li came to the bureau in March to report that his wife had sold the boys. Then, in June 2014, Huang gave birth to another baby boy at a Dengkou county hospital and sold him for 40,000 yuan. Zhao Jing, a police officer involved in the investigation, told China Daily that the husband had no children before their marriage, while Huang had a child from a previous marriage. The Xixiang county police are continuing to search for the first boy, who was sold in 2013. Under the Criminal Law, selling a child carries a minimum sentence of five years in prison. The ninth amendment to the Criminal Law enacted in November increased penalties for those who buy children. The amendment is a big shift from the previous situation in which those who buy children were generally not subject to criminal liability. A suspect drove a car to the company, but instead of parking it outside, as on previous occasions, the suspect parked it inside the company warehouse.
Nine guns, 1.5 million yuan ($230,000), HK$2 million ($258,000) in cash and several bank cards, as well as 11 cars were also seized in the operation.
It was the biggest drug-related operation to be foiled by the Guangdong border-control department this year.
Overseas demand for drugs has fueled illegal activity in the province, which has often been used as a base to transport drugs overseas, Deng added. In the first quarter of this year, 3,433 suspected drug smugglers were apprehended and 4.83 metric tons of drugs were seized by Guangdong authorities, Deng said. According to the Guangdong official, the courier company used in the recent case was not really engaged in the delivery business but only served as a meeting place for the suspects. The smugglers intended to store the drugs temporarily at the fake company and transport them to overseas markets when they found an opportunity, the official said. Deng said identifying drug smugglers in Guangdong is more complicated than in other areas because many of them have international backgrounds and are engaged in cross-border business.
Last year, more than 500 drug smugglers from more than 40 countries and regions were arrested in the province. Last month, an international drug trafficking operation controlled by Hong Kong residents was broken up by Guangdong police. Traditional Vietnamese dance, a South Korean group dance, songs from other countries - these were just a few of the performances going on during the finals of the 7th Laowai Idol competition at the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing on Thursday evening. About 120 students from 50 countries and regions, studying at 12 Beijing universities, including Renmin University of China, Beijing Foreign Studies University and Minzu University of China, participated in the preliminary competition.
Liu Yang, a teacher in charge of international student affairs at UIBE, said the event offers a platform for international students to show off their talents.
Ji Hoon Kim, chairman of UIBE's international student union, who has twice helped organize the event, said an increasing number of students are joining the competition with more diverse talent. Zhang Wei, mother of Lai Rijia, also hired a local medical institution to conduct an autopsy to find the real reason for her son's death. Zhang, from Dandong, Liaoning province, sent her son to the Tiandizhengqi center in Guangzhou's Panyu district on March 2. The boy suffered from a fever and was pronounced dead after he was sent to a hospital at about 11 pm. Zhang said her son suffered from light autism and she had sent him to the center after it promised to help cure him. A training record provided by Zhang showed that the boy participated a 10-kilometer run in the morning and a 9-km run in the afternoon on April 26, one day before his death, Nanfang Metropolis Daily reported on Wednesday.
Zhang questioned whether the center, which opened in 2013, was qualified to cure autism, because it is registered only as a health center with the local industrial and commercial administration. Various departments, including industrial and commercial administrations and police, have promised to launch a further investigation. Zou Xiaobing a senior doctor in children's development at the Third Affiliated Hospital with Sun Yat-sen University, asked why the center could promise it could cure autism through a long-distance camp and field training. Li Xiaofeng, another senior pediatrician at the hospital, said 20 kilometers of camp and field training a day is too heavy for children who are still growing. Few TV programs in China earn higher, or faster, ratings than those showing how parents raise their children, especially when the parent is a chic, well-known celebrity. Soon though, audiences will no longer be able to see this type of program because the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television recently banned children younger than 18 from appearing on TV reality shows. The new regulations are already making an impact on what was a fast-growing industry, resulting in the immediate cancellations of some of the most popular and profitable shows that have sprung up since the 2013 launch of Dad, Where Are We Going?, the first reality show in China to feature children. Statistics from the nation's media regulator showed that more than 100 entertainment programs were broadcast on national TV last year, and many of them were reality shows that featured children. The famous fathers came from diverse backgrounds, such as Jimmy Lin, a singer and actor from Taiwan, and diver Tian Liang, who won a gold medal at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney.
The first program of the final series, which was broadcast in October, attracted more than 75 million viewers, generated millions of yuan in advertising revenue and spawned a number of spinoffs, including a raft of "how to be a good parent" guidebooks. After the show's first season, a movie of the same title nett-ed a record 700 million yuan, a feat described as a "box office miracle," by Zheng Qu, a manager with Real Dream Productions in Beijing. Despite overseeing the publicity campaign for the movie, Zheng now has deep concerns about the format's validity and the potentially adverse effect on the children involved: "Although it sounds a promising and easy track for people in the entertainment industry, making a profit from reality shows involving kids is not sustainable. Liao Baoping, a columnist with the Yangtze River Daily, said the growing popularity of shows featuring celebrities and their children may have been the catalyst for the administration's clampdown. Hunan TV has canceled the fourth season of Dad, Where Are We Going?, and has also stopped broadcasting similar shows, such as Dad is Back and My Mom is a Superwoman, on regular television, although they will be available online. The producer of a reality show on Hunan TV, who declined to be identified, said that although the new guidelines will result in TV companies losing advertising revenue, they had to be drawn up to protect children. Jiang Liang, a director of Hunan TV reality show Deformation Plan, said the artificial nature of the product is a major problem because the format makes the programs unsustainable.
Liu Yan, a professor at the Institute of Early Childhood Education at Beijing Normal University, expressed similar concerns, saying hidden problems may arise when children are overexposed on TV, and that it can have a long-term impact on their lives when the show is over, especially if they have participated for several seasons spanning many months.
Online rumors claimed that Chaw's 6-year-old son, Joe, had deliberately pushed 5-year-old Feynman Ng Chun-yu down a flight of stairs during the shooting of Dad, Where Are We Going? Francis Ng Chun-yu claimed that Hunan TV failed to ensure his son's safety, and later reached a settlement with the company over the injury.
Another potential problem is that the young participants often become demanding and attention-seeking after being showered with compliments because they have been on TV.
Tian Liang, the former diver who is now an actor, admitted that the exposure his daughter gained by being on Dad, Where Are We Going?
He suggested that the new regulations might be a good way of cooling the passions of some parents who take their children to acting classes so they can appear on television and become famous. Zhuang Yuxin, a deputy professor at the Beijing Film Academy, said short-term fame does not help pave the way if children want to work in the performing arts or entertainment industry.
In 2014, Shi Ningjie participated in Deformation Plan, a reality TV show where urban and rural children swap places. In the eyes of the show's producers, the 18-year-old was the perfect participant, the sort of person they had been searching for; a non-conformist. He was offered the chance to swap roles with Wang Honglin, an 11-year-old girl, who has lived with her grandparents in Shaanxi province since her parents divorced. In 2008, Shi told his mother that he saw no reason to go to school because he planned to become famous, so he was ecstatic when the producers chose him for the show.
Under instruction, he completed a number of tasks, including chopping firewood and visiting people disabled in mining accidents in Baxian, a village in Ankang city, Shaanxi, whose injuries mean they are unable to make a living.
Although Shi did actually become famous as a result of appearing on the program - the number of followers on his micro blog soared to 100,000 - he kept his old lifestyle and little changed. Enamored by photographs taken in China a century ago, Venkatraman has traveled across the country by train, taking photos in the same places as the historic images, comparing the past with the present in an ongoing project, Time Traveling in China. The 31-year-old has a doctorate in electrical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and co-founded a startup, Robby Technologies, that develops autonomous delivery robots.
Among the 12 cities he has visited so far, he found Pudong New Area in Shanghai had changed most significantly.
Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, especially impressed him, as the city is unrecognizable from its old images, except for the mountains and river. The Customs House in Wuhan, in central Hubei province, may be more typical of what he found in his travels.
The project has been challenging as there are new obstacles and buildings that prevented easy access to the sites in the old photos or prohibited him from approaching from the right angles.
Among his numerous travels in China, he once bicycled nearly the entire 1,600 km along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal from Beijing to Hangzhou,Zhejiang province. He plans to photograph more northern cities for the Time Traveling in China series in the future as he didn't have much success in them during the smoggy winter. A man, surnamed Guo, who sexually harassed a 15-year-old girl in Tongzhou district has been jailed for a year.
Two men have been detained in the Chaoyang district for making false compensation claims after allegedly faking road traffic accidents. More than 1,200 pairs of twins who paraded in local streets were a major attraction for locals and tourists alike during the three-day 12th China Mojiang International Twins Festival, which took place at the beginning of the month. A 12-year-old boy, who ran away from home, walked back more than 50 km toward his family's house outside Langzhong after his pocket money ran out in the city. A car owner in Chengdu has refused to take possession of her car after she was told repairs to it cost 243,670 yuan when the car only cost 285,000 yuan to buy new. A female driver in Panzhihua who thought her car had been stolen and reported the theft to police had actually failed to apply the handbrake, said officers. A lost pet ferret that was recovered by an animal shelter in Chengdu ran away from there as well. Police are investigating after a pregnant woman was detained for apparently working with her "daughter" to steal from a boutique in Xianyang. A groom in Wugong county created a wedding arch with two excavators to symbolize that he would achieve happiness through hard work.
A man, surnamed Cheng, has said he carried out crimes because he wanted to be sent to prison. A man in Hefei allegedly pretended to be a wealthy man so he could cheat a woman who wanted to be his girlfriend out of 20,000 yuan.
A man in Shucheng county allegedly raped a woman after discovering she was having an affair, using the information to blackmail her into allowing the abuse. A 100 yuan banknote that was erroneously printed with a watermark saying 300 yuan has been valued as being worth at least 1 million yuan.
A groom in Jinzhou ruined his big day when his reaction to a wedding day tradition caused a rift with his bride-to-be. A husband in Shiyan who said he was often beaten by his wife has told investigators he would rather be beaten to death than divorce her. A driver with the online-hailing Didi Chuxing taxi service in Haikou has been banned from working for the company after he reportedly masturbated in front of customers. A man who ran away from home 22 years ago and who was thought to be dead has been reunited with his family. Police caught a mother from Nanjing taking drugs with friends to celebrate the 100th day after her baby's birth.
Traffic police in the Shapingba district of the city say they have pulled over a motor tricycle that was being driven by a 6-year-old boy.


Diagnosed with cerebral palsy at her birth in 1992 in Fuyang city, East China's Anhui province, Wang has written fairy tales, novels and more than 4,000 poems.
She published her first book, an anthology of her poems, in 2012, and her first fairy tale in the Chinese journal Fairy Tale World last year. Wang overcame both a physical disability, a movement disorder that affects a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture, and a lack of literary training. After learning to read, she was "deeply attracted to literature" and her shelves are full of books bought by her parents or given by others as presents. She started typing on a secondhand computer, which was much easier for her than writing with pens and paper.
She publishes her work, "one or two poems every day", on her networking website and micro blog. Local media reports about Wang have brought her opportunities to make speeches at schools and government offices. In the wake of the role Wang has played in encouraging people, the country's Communist Youth League granted Wang the National Youth Award on Tuesday, the eve of Chinese Youth Day. A Zhengzhou man lost his money and a new car after meeting a woman online and going gambling with her on a date. A man, surnamed Sun, was detained by police after being accused of stopping his car by the roadside to take methamphetamine in Yantai on April 21. A female driver in Chengdu mistook the accelerator for the brake, crashed into two trees and rolled her car, injuring three other occupants.
Traffic police in Yichang found a man and woman having sex in a car that was parked in an expressway tunnel at about 2:10 am on April 23. A female driver in Huangpi who wrongly parked her car at a shopping mall found a sanitary towel on her windshield when she returned to retrieve the vehicle.
A passenger found mushrooms growing inside two buses in Wuhan and posted photos of the fungi online. A married man in Liuzhou was accused of assaulting a hotel receptionist because he couldn't provide enough condoms. Four women traveling from Shuozhou to Taiyuan complained that the duty manager of their hotel entered their room when they were naked and chatting. A man and his friend were found asleep in a police car after drinking and stealing the car in Zhaotong. A man, surnamed Li, and two of his friends were detained by police for throwing firecrackers at the house of a man suspected of luring away Li's girlfriend in Kunming, capital of Yunnan province. A woman who was hospitalized thought her husband wasn't visiting her because he was having an affair, but it turned out that he was playing a different sort of game. Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3. In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers.
Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters. A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far. The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path.
Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels. As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs.
As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river.
Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings.
Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill.
According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty. In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable. My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for. Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door.
Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for. But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins. Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside!
Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times.
So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame.
But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia. While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam.
The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him.
A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors.
My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible.
I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera. So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights.
But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded? Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives. He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided. Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft. Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda). This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire. The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps.
Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts. Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch.
Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago. Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet.
2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda. 33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995). It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife. 44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a. 49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?. 50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project. One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments. These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose. One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region. This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2). The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube.
This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc).
The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun. The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible.
These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures. This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane. These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system.
The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable. These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs. This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted. The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet.
Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers. In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment. An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2). A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets. Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density. This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this. The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz.
The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints. It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification.
These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable.
These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line. Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed. All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter. This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line.
The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support.
Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning. The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode. This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W). This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer. These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time. A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers.
This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line. If the flight is fully booked and staff members of the Organ Procurement Organization responsible for organ transport cannot board the plane, the organ is allowed to be carried to the destination by crew members.
Lung transplant surgery takes an average of five hours, and so the window to transport the organ is five to six hours, he said. Some patients must wait for years for transplant surgery, and many don't survive long enough to receive a transplant. In theory, six organs - a liver, a heart, two kidneys and two lungs - could be harvested from an individual donor in the best scenario. Chen's family immediately sought police help and helped send Chen to hospital after he was stabbed and suffered from massive bleeding. The suspect was reported to have previously sought compensation and made trouble before he attacked Chen, leading Chen to seek police help. In Tibet's Gyirong county, one of the severely affected areas, residents initially lived in tents, then were relocated to government houses.
One infant, Drolma, who was born on the day of the earthquake, lived the first week of her life with her mother in an ambulance, then moved into a temporary house built by the government.
The clinic treats about 20 people daily, at no cost to the patients, and those needing more sophisticated care are sent to the city hospital. The 347 students of Gyirong Central Primary School received lessons in tent classrooms for several months, then moved to a school building in September.
The government provided each family with household appliances, and basic necessities, such as bedding, pots and pans. It takes about 20 minutes for Phurbu, 49, to reach the shop in the Dram Shopping Mall, which was built exclusively for the evacuees and provided business opportunities for 146 households.
She boards at school and returns home over the weekend, her accommodations and food covered by the government. Nyima Dorje has been working on a construction site for two months for a daily wage of 150 yuan, while his wife Ngakwang Drolma gets 2,400 yuan monthly by working at a hotel. She had big worries about relocating to a strange city, but has gotten used to the place over time. The filtered rays merely highlighted aspects of the dreary chamber, making it even more unwelcoming, though it did offer some reflection of the occupant's passion for isolation. It's probably gotten worse in recent years, said Professor Chien Wai-tong, associate head (research) at Hong Kong Polytechnic University's School of Nursing. Even when she went looking for help, she held back details of her tormented life from the medical professionals. Nearly half the respondents to the SoCO survey said they found it hard cooking on their own.
He's schizophrenic but he has all the utensils he needs for each particular type of food he likes. From the time he arrived right up to the present, he's been on drugs that leave him stupefied.
There's already a critical shortage of psychiatrists and psychiatric nurses in the city at large - and at the community centers they are rare specimens.
Psycho-educational training in mental health could be accomplished if there were more social workers. Trouble is, that needs a multi-disciplinary team of medical professionals and social workers. In other high income economies, the median rate is 8.59 per 100,000 population, based on a 2011 survey by the World Health Organization. There needs to be a more detailed statistical profile of people who use the service, just to get a handle on the present situation.
The EOC said the new commission should not only help with formulating policy but should oversee the implementation. Since September, he had received four treatments using cells generated by his own immune system to kill cancer cells.
The system, under which an advertiser pays a search engine each time an ad is clicked, has long been a major source of revenue for Baidu. Google, for example, began to mark the paid advertising on its platform in purple or green. They were also required to disclose their rules about cooperating with enterprises and highlighting paid listings. Around 8-9 million tons of fish can be harvested legally in China's territorial waters each year, but the actual amount reaches 13 million tons, according to a report by Economic Daily. However, information about the people who complained was leaked and they claimed they received threats from the business owners. It will combat the illegal or excessive discharge of pollutants and will phase out more plants. Li said she often quarreled with him and wanted a divorce, but investigators determined that in fact Li and his wife sold their sons together, Xu said. When Huang became pregnant, the two discussed selling the baby after it was born, the investigation found. Under the modified provision, a buyer is not immune from punishment, although buyers may receive less severe penalties if they have not abused the child or attempted to hinder rescue efforts. They had planned to smuggle the drugs to the Philippines by sea but failed, the police said.
The move is designed to avoid the potential pitfalls of "overnight fame", according to a statement released by the administration.
In total, the programs generated more than 10 billion yuan ($1.5 billion) in advertising revenue. I guess the audience rarely realizes this when they watch cute kids who are prone to tantrums laughing and crying. We used 40 cameras to shoot each episode, and the videotape of each episode was about 25 hours, which then had to be edited down to 90 minutes.
What's more, some of the most-discussed scenes were engineered by a director on the set to make the story more interesting," he added. Chaw decided to stop updating his account on Weibo, a Chinese Twitter-like service, after he discovered that his son had become the target of malign comments that amounted to cyber-bullying. Rather than imposing a "one-policy-fits-all" ban on reality shows, the policymakers should have designed the guidelines to ensure that children are fully protected irrespective of where they work in the entertainment industry. They should shoulder their parental responsibilities when their kids are exposed to the camera," he said.
As far as he is concerned, neither his personality nor lifestyle changed when he became a celebrity. Shi has led a life of privilege - he was born into a wealthy family in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province - but he dropped out of school at 15, and took up smoking and going to nightclubs, even though he was under age. When the program ended, Shi enrolled at a music high school in Beijing, but dropped out a year later.
The area has experienced a transition from horses to buses and cars, "and that same building probably will see the transition to automated driverless cars, drones, and other new forms of mobility in the next 100 years," he said.
There were many, many failed shots simply because I couldn't get the right angle," he said.
My only sense of identity is in culture, arts and science," said Venkatraman, who speaks and writes in Chinese and was the technology director for the MIT-China Innovation and Entrepreneurship Forum from 2011 to 2012.
Guo received the relatively lenient sentence after his attorney pleaded that the molestation had only lasted a minute. The twins who attended the annual event, the largest twins festival in China, came from all over the world.
The boy, surnamed Wang, whose parents are employed outside the city, left home with only 24 yuan in his pocket. The woman, surnamed Mei, bought the car in May last year and damaged it in a traffic accident on Sept 18. The woman, surnamed Chen, found her car was gone on April 30 after she had parked it in a street. The furry escapologist was picked up by a local resident who took the opportunity to ask the shelter for a 1,000 yuan reward for its return. The woman, surnamed Yin, who was born in 1992, was five-months pregnant when she was detained on April 30.
The man, surnamed Zhang, 26, has worked as an excavator driver for seven years and designed his wedding around his beloved excavators.
Cheng was detained after allegedly using a knife to carry out a robbery in Xiaoxian county in which his victim was injured. Police say the con man, surnamed Lin, initially pretended to be an online female matchmaker to befriend the victim, a female college student. Investigators believe the man, surnamed Xie, stumbled on the woman's affair in December after he saw a man enter her house. The man reportedly slapped his bride's younger sister after she slammed the door on him when he called at the family home to collect his bride. The husband, surnamed Guo, was allegedly beaten again recently after his wife criticized the quality of his cooking. Police said the man, surnamed Zhou, was suffering from mental issues when he disappeared from his home in Tai'an in 1994. The man, surnamed Mo, 54, told police he was obsessed with women's clothing and stole items so he could wear them. The woman, surnamed Zhang, laid on a party and meal on May 1 to mark the important milestone in her baby's life. The poetry anthology resulted in stories about her in the local media, which in turn brought the young poet more fans.
Among the earliest literary works she read were Nicolai Ostrovsky's How the Steel Was Tempered and poems by some of the great Chinese poets. Then, in 2008, Wang's grandmother bought her a new computer, as she had completely lost the ability to control her hand. She also enjoys talking to her friends and fans on QQ, a Chinese instant-messaging service.
The man, surnamed He, became drunk during dinner with his date, who then took him gambling. The man told police that he felt tired and wanted to reinvigorate himself before continuing the drive.
The 27-year-old, surnamed Wei, checked into the hotel on the night of April 23 after drinking with friends. They reported the incident to the receptionist and a check of the hotel surveillance video identified the man. The driver said he got in the police car to park it better while the officer was dealing with an accident, then decided to drive away as a joke. Li, 34, and his friends were accused of throwing more than 20 firecrackers at the house on two occasions in April. The woman left the hospital on Saturday thinking she would catch her husband in an act of adultery, but she found him playing mahjong instead. Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec.
Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art. Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4. It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions.
My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands.
Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge. And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles. With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges.
Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars.
Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook. Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole.
The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures.
After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have? Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records.
According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken. Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs. It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration.
If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet.
After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps. The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade!
Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country!
When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled. First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it. They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself. No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off.
When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him? The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit?
Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second. Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas. We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes.
I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark. They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated. One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive.
The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed.
I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another!
On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no. While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers. Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures. Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov.
The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line. After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art.
3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques.
The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane. The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament. The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone. This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations. The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube. It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system. Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8.
The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally.


This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned.
For the last 10 years, she's navigated desperate straits, coping with high blood pressure, hepatitis C and her mental illness. The only object offering a semblance of "life" was the television, flickering on Kam's bed, where she sat.
More than 16,000, among the 205,400 people seeking treatment for mental illness from the Hospital Authority that year, had no one to take care of them at all. Housework wears her down, she confessed, and the medication she takes for depression gives her headaches. Half of the respondents said the activities were "useless" as far as helping them get back on their feet.
He contended that these mentally ill people need proper assessment, so at least the "system" could differentiate their specific and individual needs.
By the time the administration took note of the damage and reopened the schools in 2008, the manpower situation had already gotten out of hand.
It means only 1,000 seriously mentally ill patients, and likely fewer than that number, are getting services. Her only pleasure is watching programs on the TV she bought, when she got an extra month's social security payment last year. In April 2013 Huang gave birth to a baby boy and sold him for 34,000 yuan the same day, the police said. In severe cases involving the death of a child, sexual abuse, selling a child overseas or other serious acts, sellers can face a life sentence or even the death penalty. The smugglers then used cars to transfer the drugs from ports to the company, where they were caught on Feb 28.
Reality shows do not record the real lives of the participants, who are exposed to the ever-present cameras all day long.
Ng Chun-yu, the son of Hong Kong actor Francis Ng Chun-yu and now age 7, sustained an eye injury that could affect his vision permanently. The men, both in their 50s, said they wanted to use the money from the compensation claim to buy alcohol. Mojiang Hanis autonomous county, which has registered the birth of more than 1,000 pairs of twins, has the country's highest rate of such siblings. Yin claimed the girl who was with her was her daughter but police doubt this is the case and are investigating. Zhang said he got to know his bride in 2008 and they dated for eight years before tying the knot.
Lin, masquerading as the matchmaker, then set himself up as a rich potential boyfriend and went to meet the woman on Feb 27.
After the man left, Xie allegedly threatened to tell the woman's husband if she did not agree to his demands. At traditional Chinese weddings, the bride's family will often close the door on the groom and refuse him entry and tease him until he hands over some lucky money.
His family could not find him and thought he had died after many years of searching and canceled his household registration papers.
He said he did not know a police car was behind him when he parked his car in Nanhong Street. Agricultural experts said the mushroom spores were likely blown into the buses and grew in the wet, warm conditions. He asked the receptionist for condoms because his girlfriend was coming to stay, but was told there was only one left. 18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2.
Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting.
The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world.
Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO. Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren.
Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals. I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch!
By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being. A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary. We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads.
I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr.
He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut!
After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)?
At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries.
But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again. Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall! Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw. After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows.
For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime! Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets. Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives.
Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP.
Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual. Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him. In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide.
If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance.
My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd. The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes.
I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank!
From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear. By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley!
If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders.
As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance. The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage.
Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it.
1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda. 539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe.
In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets. The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels. The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV.
The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry. He was always stressed out from the work, and even the night sounds of the city drove him to distraction when he tried to sleep. She sets an alarm to make sure she doesn't sleep through a single episode of Running Man, a South Korean variety show.
In addition to his jail sentence, Guo was ordered to pay 5,000 yuan ($770) in compensation.
Investigators said the men, surnamed Pan and Zhang, moved to the capital a year ago from their homes in Northeast China and had been relying on compensation scams, which are known as peng ci in Chinese, after failing to find work. Located in the northern part of Pu'er city, the county is known on the mainland as "the home of twins". He made it back to a police substation in a village near his home and was reunited to his parents on April 21. The car was repaired seven months ago and has remained at the dealers ever since while the two sides negotiate. He said he wanted to get put in prison so he could avoid reality and would not have to worry about food and clothes. Police said Lin told her he wanted her for his lover and would give her 200,000 yuan but said she should first pay him 20,000 yuan to show her commitment. In this case, the groom had handed over all the money he had brought for the activity but the door remained closed. When investigators suggested the couple might want to divorce and his wife said that was acceptable, Guo answered that he did not want to divorce, no matter how hard she beat him.
Police recently found the man wandering in the street in Weihai, identified him and returned him to his home. Police caught the seven friends after a tip-off and they were detained for further investigation, said police. The boy's father, who was also on the tricycle at the time, told police he had encouraged his son to drive to build up his courage. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away. As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies. Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren.
A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business.
Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces. My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence. Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone. That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution. And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam! Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper.
Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony.
With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda. Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace. I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively. After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy. Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself.
But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing.
These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding. As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings. But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend. La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter. In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp. Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world. The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun. Such accidents are unexpected, but why do my son and I have to endure all (the) scolding and humiliation? They said Yin will likely be charged with abducting and reselling children if the daughter is found not to be her own following a DNA test.
Cheng said he had marital problems and was under massive pressure to support his family financially. When he finally got the door open, the frustrated groom allegedly hit his intended sister-in-law, causing the bride and her family to call off the wedding.
Police have educated the wife about correct behavior and she has taken her husband to hospital for treatment. Police are investigating and have urged people in similar situations to report the matter directly to them. Police told the father he was breaking traffic rules by letting his son drive and are investigating the case. All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it. I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs.
For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed.
I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority.
Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job). Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him.
I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world.
Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs. I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward.
There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories. Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics. After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round. The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown.
The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers. The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region. The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor. And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power. Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north! So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought. If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader.
From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking.
Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw? Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994).
But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. He is co-author with Mamie Till-Mobley of her Death of Innocence: The Story of the Hate Crime That Changed America, He points out that, in addition to being the 47th anniversary of the Rev. This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment.
The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard.
When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections. In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair.
Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again! Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate.
At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS! The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994). The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy. The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. Walking through the flat is an obstacle course littered with scrap metal, compact disc and other stuff.
Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table!
Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap.
Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun.
Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics.
The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them.
Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats.
First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. As an African American whose family had barely escaped Southern atrocities, she recognized the potential pushback when you stepped out of place. This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods. Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary. How do we respond when the lynching is verbal, not physically fatal (most of the time) and the klan has its own network, which is the most watched in the US? Telling the truth and exposing these people for what they are and what they do is important, but it won't be enough. That was so long ago that the small schools at Orr High School, whose LSC signed on as original plaintiffs, have been closed again and reopened under the auspices of AUSL (for more about AUSL, read the latest here). It would also mean that it was more important to get accurate, useful information that could be used to help schools and students. Who needs that when you can damn schools with data?No, it's far more important for testing to be "standardized" - that is, given at the same time to everyone, according to state supt.
Chris Koch's rationale: "This is the state's attempt to say, 'How can we treat everyone the same and everyone fairly?a€?It may be standardized but that doesn't make it fair. The On the Issues site provides a list of statements by Kirk on education and his education-related votes as a congressman.
It suggests that he is a moderate on social issues such as school prayer and green schools. Kirk got into some trouble earlier this year when he claimed that he's influenced by his experience as a teacher, which turned out to consist of a year at a private high school in London and another as a teacher aide at a church run nursery school. There's a third candidate who deserves some attention, too -- LeAlan Jones, the Green Party candidate. I remember him well when, as a 13-year-old, he and a friend reported on life in the Chicago projects for National Public Radio. Senator, and will have the responsibility to make critical decisions about education along with every other issue before Congress. Rick has been a staunch advocate for public school children and families, and for Local School Councils. We know that too many of them don't. Even on a traditional calendar, non-air conditioned schools can be ovens, places where it's too hot to learn and too unhealthy to stay. CPS district offices? Most of our currently-used schools were designed to be closed during the summer, just as they were designed without lunchrooms because all the children went home for lunch. At least health codes address some of the worst sanitation problems that schools without lunchrooms face. CPS claims that its so-called year-round school schedule is better for students, but the proof of that is slight.
Teachers should move their classes to municipal cooling centers until CPS does the right thing and upgrades every school so that children have a reasonable chance to learn.
That's not much time, and the appeal is supposed to go to the Chief Education Officer, a position that has had no person in it since Barbara Eason-Watkins left for Michigan City. Usually the appeals go to the Chief Area Officers. Good News was a modestly successful program; the church was in the very needy North of Howard area of Chicago and ran a well-attended food program. The down side we saw was a lack of interest in supporting the local school council at the nearby public school, which went through a traumatic time after the district refused to allow the LSC-appointed principal to serve. They claimed that the price of food was going down, so hungry people won't need so much. As House Finance Chair David Obey, who proposed the RTTT swap, said, "Well, isna€™t that nice. Why is it the responsibility of Chicago community colleges to spend $30 million a year to pick up lost math and reading skills?" Chico said. "I'm not saying that as a society we shouldn't be charged with doing that someplace. But why is it placed in the lap of higher education?" (Sun-Times 8-8-10) I guess it just slipped Chico's mind that he is in large part responsible for the math and reading skills of these very students.
A student who started preschool in 1995, when Chico was appointed president of the Chicago School Board by Mayor Daley, would have been in fourth grade -- when most of the fundamentals of reading and math should have been laid down -- when Chico left that position in 2001.
These books were written in 2004 and 2005 in response to many requests to help start PURE chapters around the country, and from folks who just wanted to know how to create a powerful parent organization. It explains why folks in power hate to fund schools adequately and demand "accountability" using methods that destroy rather than strengthen schools. The President's speech to the National Urban League was in large part a defense of these programs against the many concerns that have been raised about whether they are the most effective ways to reform U.
Obama suggested in his speech that people who oppose his proposals may simply be a€?afraid of change.a€? A few days earlier, he threatened to veto any attempt to use even a small portion of funding for his controversial Race to the Top program to save thousands of teacher jobs. Education Secretary Arne Duncan stonewalls critics of his department's demands for charter expansion who cite the research on the overall poor performance of charters nationwide; he offers the nonsensical excuse that he doesn't support charter schools, he only supports good charter schools.
Today, columnist Leonard Pitts tells opponents of the President's plans to a€?lead, follow or get out of the way.a€? Perhaps the most important moment of the President's Urban League speech was his paraphrase of Dr. In a democracy, education reform cannot be defined only by legislators, politicians, and corporate and media leaders. Pitts' piece repeats much of the empty, nonsensical rhetoric we just heard in the president's and Duncan's recent speeches to the National Urban League, speeches that were in large part responses to the powerful opposition that has been raised against RTTT and the proposed School Improvement Grant program by civil rights, community, parent and teacher groups. For today's  Public School Action Tuesday, why not respond to Pitts by leaving a comment after his article here, or write to a newspaper or comment on a blog of your choice opposing RTTT programs such as test-based teacher firing, school closures, and expanded charter schools, and in support of fair, research-based teacher evaluation or other sound education reforms?
One notorious example was when Mayor Daley's favorite "superstar" principal, Curie High School's former head Jerrylyn Jones, handed out folders with copies of petitions demanding that the LSC renew her contract, instead of the budget and school improvement plan information the LSC had requested as part of her annual evaluation.Other principals refuse to give documents to individual LSC members, and insist on a vote of the full LSC before they provide information, another ridiculous excuse.I recommend that LSC members download and file this article - you may need it! And keep the phone and address of the Attorney General's Public Access Counselor handy - they have become a great resource for LSCs. The web site also offers free online training in the Freedom of Information Act and the Open Meetings Act, which would be a good choice for your LSC lessons 7-8- or 9.
The dread Status-Quo is on the loose! Both Education Secretary Arne Duncan and President Obama are on the defensive this week about their education plans after a group of civil rights organizations challenged the basic elements of the administration's Race to the Top and Blueprint for Reform plans, adding a powerful voice to the increasingly loud complaints coming from other sectors across the nation about the direction Duncan and Obama are trying to take public education. Your Public Schools Action Tuesday assignment for today, if you choose to accept it, is to give a gift to PURE. The internet gives us so many new opportunities for reaching people with our message and our perspective. That's what it's like to be a CPS principal these days in terms of trying to figure out how to lead your school in the coming year. "I'm growing more concerned about the planned rise in 'combined-grades' [not to be confused with multiage or ungraded] classrooms, due to the teacher layoffs and increased class sizes. You wind up scrambling the days before school opens, and the week the students return, just to figure out who's who and 'where' they are in terms of their next learning steps, based upon their test scores from spring (=old data, let's face it) plus your expert judgment of children's learning needs.
THEN you have to scramble to quickly sort 'em all out into their learning groups so that by Week 5 you can administer the required District curriculum-based tests (half of which you'll now have to create from the new curriculum you're teaching, due to the other grade-level's children in your room).
I fear not a whole lot of learning--through no fault of the teacher or the kids or the parents. "I also fear this will be the proverbial 'final straw' on teachers' backs--and we'll lose some fine folks in our system." What can we do? Join the CTU for a community summit on the CPS budget, Saturday, July 24, from 11 am to 12:30 pm at Ariel School, 1119 East 46th Street. Anthony House yesterday, opining that a field trip would have gone a long way toward improving my sense of local history. Not so surprising is that the Frederick Douglass museum, just down the block, is still very much a work in progress.Anyway, I loved the tour and especially loved the sculpture, in a little park midway between the Anthony house and the struggling Douglas Center, depicting Susan B. This means, he said, "notification, outreach, public input, and honest, open discussion about the right option for each community." Unfortunately, Duncan's track record in Chicago makes us skeptical that this is anything more than empty rhetoric. His efforts to "involve the community" in turnrounds here meant that perfunctory hearings were held where hundreds turned out to offer powerful testimony about a school's strengths along with thoughtful, research-based suggestions about how to support and improve the existing school, yet Arne Duncan ignored it all and shut the schools down. This means that Arne Duncan must begin really listening to parents, and the only way we will know that he is actually hearing us is when he begins to modify the RTTT and ESEA proposals that parents so strongly oppose and replace them with solid, proven programs that parents want. Education Secretary Arne Duncan for changing this federal education law.The signers and hundreds of other parents sent this letter to their congressional representatives.
While many are saying that a revised (reauthorized) ESEA is unlikely to be voted on before the fall elections, revised language is being hammered out in committee right now, and it may be too make meaningful changes later on in the process. Here are a couple of things that many in Congress still seem unaware of:Parents, students and community members join teachers across the nation in opposing the major elements of Race to the TopCharter schools are not working as hyped, and in fact the majority are not performing as well as regular public schools. Durbin is one of thirteen senators who recently wrote a letter to Senate Appropriations Committee chair Sen. Daniel Inouye opposing this bill, which was formulated by the chair of the House Education committee, Rep. Leonie offers a thorough analysis of the damage and dishonesty of the Gates Foundation's incursion into public school policy making.
Urban Prep Charter School still has a 100% college-going rate with ALL 95 graduating seniors going to college!Problem is, for the past few weeks, the orgy of happy-weepy media reports about the Urban Prep Miracle was that all 107 graduating seniors were going to college (see, for example, People Magazine, Good Morning America, "Urban Prep Named Person of the Week on ABC World News).  So, since their first self-promotional blitz, they've lost 12 students (the Sun-Times suggests they "transferred") ?
This yields an overall school graduation rate of 64%, or nearly 6 points lower than the average district rate of 69.8%. Yet no one is "socially promoted" because no one moves until they are ready. And in these tough economic times, doesn't it make a lot more sense to stop doing something that is expensive and doesn't work -- flunking students -- and start doing something that actually helps them? A new documentary, Waiting for Superman, will soon be released and we are working on getting Examiners free, possibly sneak preview access, to this film. Wea€™d like you to participate in screening the film and covering the critical education issues it addresses. Wea€™ll also be promoting content related to the film, profiling profound teachers making a difference.
We know that these schools push out lower-performing students and refuse to even admit many special education or limited English-speaking students.
And, overall, research shows that charter and other corporate-run schools are doing a worse job than traditional neighborhood schools. In fact, one of Arne's greatest assets is his ability to lie with a pleasant, non-threatening smile on his face.
And that's a problem because, if Congress believes his lies, they will pass his ideas into law.
It's time to tell the truth about Arne Duncan, what he's done here in Chicago, and what he's trying to do to our children's education.
However, we strongly disagree with your opposition to paying for this initiative with funds previously allocated for Race To the Top (RTTT) strategies, teacher pay-for-performance programs, and charter school expansion. While you characterize these strategies as a€?sweeping reforms,a€? we believe that they are unproven, reckless, wasteful experiments which put our most vulnerable children at risk.
However, we strongly disagree with your opposition to paying for this initiative with funds previously allocated for Race To the Top (RTTT) strategies, teacher pay-for-performance programs, and charter school expansion.
You call these programs a€?vital,a€? a€?bold,a€? and a€?critical reform efforts.a€? We see the Obey amendment as a win-win situation.



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