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25.08.2013
PLUMBING VENT DEFINITIONS, TYPES - CONTENTS: Definition of plumbing vent terms, types of plumbing vents. This article defines plumbing vent system terms, distances, and functions, and other specifications and code requirements. We define the soil stack, waste stack, wet vents and dry vents, and we summarize the distances permitted between plumbing fixtures and their vent piping.
Our page top sketch of a plumbing stack vent and other sketches included below are provided courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates.
Imagine a full soda bottle with its cap off, turned upside down: the soda does not flow nicely out of the bottle.
Now perform the same experiment, but punch a hole in the bottom of your soda bottle just before you turn it upside down.
Here we show the main building vent pipe, the plumbing stack vent, connecting inside plumbing drains to a vent pipe that extends above the building roof in order to let needed air into the drains and to vent sewer gases harmlessly above the building. Below we explain how building plumbing vent systems work and why plumbing vents are needed for drain function and plumbing drain safety. Where there is a snow-cover risk (snow can block the plumbing vent) the vent should extend 24" above the roof surface. The soil stack pipe, as shown in Carson Dunlop's sketch, carries waste from toilets to the house trap (if one is installed) and there connects to the sewer line extending outside the building and on to a public sewer or private septic system. The soil stack pipe is normally extended outdoors above the building roof, as shown in the page top sketch.
Other main building drain piping sections that slope closer to horizontal are connected to the soil stack but move waste horizontally where needed in a building.
The waste stack pipe shown in the sketch refers to any other vertical drain piping in the building that does not carry soil (sewage) from a sanitary fixture (toilet).
As we discuss at DRAIN NOISES, if the horizontal distance between a plumbing fixture and the vertical vent piping is too great, the fixture may not drain properly, producing slow drainage or gurgling noises. Poor drainage is not just an annoyance, it can be unsafe since there is also the risk that the poorly-vented plumbing fixture will lose the water from its plumbing trap, then permitting sewer gases into the building. As we show in Carson Dunlop's sketch, the distance allowed between a plumbing fixture (actually the fixture plumbing trap) and the vertical vent piping varies between a minimum and maximum as a function of the pipe diameter.
Below our tables 1 and 2 summarize common plumbing code specifications for fixture venting and vent pipe sizes and distances that a plumbing fixture can be located (horizontally) from the vent stack. Special routing and connections are required for proper venting of plumbing fixtures such as kitchen island or peninsula sinks or dishwashers - plumbing fixtures that are located where a direct vertical vent stack connection is not possible. Basically,larger piping diameter allows longer distances between a plumbing fixture and its vent stack. But if a plumbing fixture is close enough (five feet or less) to the main waste stack pipe (vent), the fixture does not usually require its own plumbing vent piping, and it is considered a direct-vented plumbing fixture. Of course this rule presumes that the drain piping between the fixture trap and the waste stack is properly installed and properly sloped. In many buildings we find that the toilet is located quite close (within 5 feet) of the main building waste stack. When you flush a toilet it sends a sudden large volume of waste and wastewater into the building drain waste vent (DWV) piping.
It is exactly this condition that produces the gurgling or even siphonage out and loss of water in nearby sink or tub traps when you flush a toilet in a building where the vent piping is inadequate. A toilet that is located too far from the soil stack can be wet vented as shown in Carson Dunlop's sketch. But a wet vented fixture requires a larger drain pipe diameter in its wet portion as we show in the sketch.
Also note that wet vented fixtures (toilet, bathtub, shower, or floor drain) are permitted for bathrooms on the same floor level, not between floors. An AAV is basically a one-way valve that allows air to enter the drain to satisfy the vacuum caused by water passing down the drainage system, but that prevents sewer gases from backing up through the vent into the building. If a plumbing drain is not vented to the atmosphere drain performance is likely be slow and noisy.
Standard plumbing vent lets air in at the rooftop: When a sink, toilet, shower or tub or similar plumbing fixture empties into its drain system in a standard plumbing arrangement, the vacuum that would be caused by water running down the drain pipe is relieved by air that enters the piping system through the plumbing vent stack.
Air admittance valves, studor vents, vacuum breaker valves, or the V-200: these products are used in both new construction (where permitted by the local plumbing inspector) and as a retrofit where a building plumbing fixture is having drain problems such as trap siphonage because the fixture is not vented or not adequately vented. Plumbing guidelines and rules define the allowable distance between any plumbing fixture and the plumbing vent stack; if a fixture is located too far from the vent, its drainage may be poor and there is risk of plumbing trap siphonage and dangerous sewer gas release in the building. Where a conventional plumbing vent system is not available or not feasible the local plumbing inspector may permit an air admittance valve to be installed. An air admittance valve is designed to allow air in to the drain piping system to which it is connected whenever pressure in the drain system is below atmospheric pressure outside the valve.
Air admittance valve (AAV) lets air in at the valve opening: the vacuum created by water passing down the drain system opens a valve in the AAV to permit air to enter the drain system, thus satisfying or relieving the vacuum, both to improve drainage and avoid drain noises.
The AAV closes when there is no vacuum in the drain system - that is when wastewater is not passing down the drain, preventing sewer gases from passing back up the drain system and out through the AAV.
Air admittance valves are located close to the fixture they serve, and are placed above the drain line as well as 6" above the P-trap weir as shown in the V-200 AAV installation instructions illustrated below. Air admittance valves (AAVs) also have to withstand the positive pressure that can occur in some public sewer systems, in forced-main public or private sewer or septic systems, in plumbing drain systems using a sewage ejector pump, or in a blocked private septic system or in systems located in hilly terrain. If you smell sewer gases in your building conditions could be dangerous (risking a methane gas explosion) or unsanitary.
The table below gives required clearance distances to various building features and cites pertinent model plumbing codes. Nearest window, door, opening, air intake, or ventilation shaft: distance to plumbing vent. We interpret this rule to apply to the required separation distances between a plumbing vent and nearest chimney on the building - Ed. Vent pipes shall terminate not less than 6 inches above the roof, measured from the highest point where the vent intersects the roof.
EXCEPTION: Where a roof is used for any purpose other than weather protection, vents shall extend at least 7 feet above the roof and shall be properly supported. Continue reading at PLUMBING VENT REPAIR or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. Sewage Levels in Septic Tanks - what are normal and abnormal sewage levels in septic tanks and what do they mean about tank condition, leaks, etc. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. In answering the question "How do I determine the service amperage?" start by taking a look at the service entry cables outside and at their entry into the electrical panel. SAFETY HAZARDS & SAFE ELECTRICAL INSPECTION PROCEDURES for examining Residential Electrical Panels. It's not as difficult as one may think to get a reasonable handle on the electrical service capacity at a building without sophisticated analysis. At left we can see a three wire mast-head, suggesting that the building has a 240V service.


Many SECs include printing right on the external jacket of the cable that will tell you the number of conductors, the metal (AL or CU), and the wire size.
Carson Dunlop Associates' sketch (above) shows common electrical wire sizes for both service entry conductors (SECs) and in-building branch circuit wiring. Branch circuit electrical wire sizes such as athe #14 copper electrical wire shown just below are also included in the tables in this article. The tables and notes below expand and provide detail about the ampacity and temperature ratings of various wire sizes and gives a brief history of U.S. The three different ampacity ratings shown for most of the wire types above reflect the wire types and temperature ranges as shown in the table below. Question: at what circuit length do I need to increase the wire size to allow for voltage drop? What size wire should run from my meter to the main fuse box and does distance affect this? The voltage drop in a wire run has to remain within code limits, that's how we get to larger wire sizes for long runs. A more engineering approach is cited at the Mike Holt's electrical forum where a reader says as an engineer he calculates the voltage drop (and thus the need for a larger wire size) when the run length of the circuit exceeds voltage rating of the circuit. For a costly SEC run it would be smart to have your engineer calculate the actual voltage drop for the actual length and choose the larger wire size accordingly.
Siemens offers an XLS spreadsheet that can be used to calculate voltage drop as do other sources, and there are numerous online voltage drop calcuators, but be sure to compare the calculator's result with what the applicable electrical code will permit.
Continue reading at AMPS VOLTS DETERMINATION or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
I get MAX AMP Allowed according a specific wire size for branched circuit wiring; however, what Ia€™m confused about is the Service Conductor Wire sizes.
When comparing Service Conductor Wire Size with the fuses (or) breaker Ia€™m getting confused. So, am I to read that as there has to be an additional 30 amps pushed through that wire before the breaker pops? Questions & answers or comments about electrical wire sizes, diameters, and ampacity ratings.
The Original Authors: Alan Carson is an ASHI Member, national home inspection educator, author and building failures researcher in Toronto, Ontario.
Daniel Friedman, an original author of this article and the editor and producer of InspectAPedia where this article now appears is an ASHI Member, first ASHI Technical Committee chairman, editor and publisher of the ASHI Technical Journal, licensed home inspector, educator, and building failures researcher in Poughkeepsie, NY. Robert Klewitz is a licensed professional engineer, a professional home inspector, an ASHI Member, and has served on the ASHI Technical Committee as well as in other ASHI activities.
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060.
Recommended books on electrical inspection, electrical wiring, electrical problem diagnosis, and electrical repair can be found in the Electrical Books section of the InspectAPedia Bookstore. How many of you have been in that situation where you are not able to find out or recall your own mobile number?
So, what else can you do in such cases.?Before I tell you the codes that you need to dial to find out your own number, lest me tell you an easiest way to know your number. But the above method is useful only if you have already saved your number in your contact list.Most of the time, this is not the case. But , there is nothing to worry.I am going to give you a few codes that you will have to dial in order to get back your own phone number. Please Bookmark this page so that you will be able to recall your codes for your respective networks as and when it is required.
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If you enjoyed this post and wish to be informed whenever a new post is published, then make sure you subscribe to my regular Email Updates.
Xbox Live, the service that powers Microsoft’s Xbox 360, Xbox One and Xbox services, is crucial. If there are any issues with Xbox Live, the status indicator on the top of the screen will show a yellow exclamation point and link.
Scroll down to Apps until you see an exclamation point indicating what things are being affected by a service interruption. Finally, you can check the status of each Xbox One and Xbox 360 application by clicking on the list of apps. Before attempting to find the location of a particular cell phone using the Internet, you need to make sure the cell phone has GPS technology. Walmart's Chris Bolte, head of demand generation at Walmart Labs, the company's innovation wing, will share perspective on how tech tools can help bricks-and-mortar retailers stay ahead of the e-commerce curve.
Reserve your ticket for Social Commerce Summit now and you'll score the extra-early bird rate. We explain how plumbing vents work on buildings, why plumbing vent piping is needed, and what happens to the building drains when the vent piping is not working.
Allow building drains to flow freely by allowing air into the drain system, avoiding the vacuum and slow drainage that would otherwise occur at fixtures. As some soda spills out, the spillage has to nearly stop to let some air into the bottle to fill the vacuum created by the soda leaving. In these notes, the plumbing stack vents and other sketches included below are provided courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates. Note that there are other restrictions: for a roof that is also used as an occupied space, for example, the vent has to extend at least even feet above the surface and be secured with stays. That is, dry vent piping carrying only air, sewer gas, or moisture to above the roof line is unrestricted. If a plumbing fixture is located too far from the main building vent stack, then its own drain pipe must have its own vent stack connection piping. This surge of wastewater can certainly create a vacuum problem in the waste line if the vent piping system is inadequate, blocked, or missing entirely. The drain piping for a sink (basin) or other fixture located closer to the soil stack than is the toilet can provide a pathway to let air into the horizontal waste piping used by the toilet to carry waste to the soil stack. This diameter increase helps assure adequate air flow into the drain system in the event that the sink basin (in this example) happens to be draining at the same moment that the toilet is flushed.
Worse, the vacuum created by water passing through the drain waste piping system can cause water to be siphoned out of plumbing fixtrure traps. If we did not relieve that vaccum pressure in the drain line the drain would pass wastewater poorly, slowly, and often with a bubbling or glub glub noise. Where high sewer gas pressures are anticipated, the sewer piping system should include a vent to the building exterior.
No vent terminal shall be located directly beneath any door, window, or other ventilating opening of a building or of another building, nor shall any such vent terminal be within 10 feet horizontally of such opening unless it is at least 2 feet above the top of such opening. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively.


Table of electrical wire sizes, ampacity, and fuse or circuit breaker sizes for common residential electrical wiring circuits. A quick look can tell us if the property is served by 240V or only a 120V service, even before measuring the gauge or wire thicknesses that we discuss below.
But there are some pitfalls that can make for big mistakes in your guess at the service ampacity for a property, and the process itself is dangerous. But we did not like the position of that weather-head, and we considered that water may be entering the SEC. See Articles 100 (maximum amperage a conductor can carry under conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating) and Article 310 of the U.S. 1: It is possible that the conductor ampacity will require other correction or adjustment factors applicable to the conductor installation. There are online voltage drop calculators for which of course you need to plug in wire size, type, length, and the electrical load or current.
If we try this approach, for a 15A copper wire circuit using #14 copper wire in a typical household 120V circuit, if the circuit length exceeds 120 ft. And as we suggest above, using a rule of thumb on SEC wiring may also produce unnecessary costs. The calcuated VDI for a specific circuit is then compared with VDI's given in wiring charts. For motor circuits and other applications less voltage drop may be acceptable, and you may need to consider both the starting voltage drop and the running voltage drop allowed. It applies to typical DC circuits and to some simple AC circuits (single-phase AC with resistive loads, not motor loads, power factor = 1.0, line reactance negligible).
With that said after trying to interpret what this article is trying to convey to me and Ia€™m left a bit confused and hoping you could clear somethings up.
Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator.
Srinivasan, MSEE, is a senior member of IEEE with 30 years experience in the electrical industry. Without it, users can’t download new games or play online games against other users in titles like Call of Duty: Ghosts and more. It’s important to remember that Microsoft constantly updates this page with results for all products that use Xbox Live. The easiest way to tell if Xbox Live is down is to simply turn off your console and then turn it back on. However, if you are concerned for your child's safety, your cell phone was stolen, or you want reassurance that your spouse is true to you, you can find the location using the Internet. If you are purchasing a new phone for yourself, your teen, or your significant other, seek out a GPS-enabled model. While the AccuTracking cell phone GPS software download is free, you do have to subscribe to the tracking service in order to find the phone's location using the Internet. Digital executives will gather for an intense day of discussion on what's happening and how it affects your business. Startup leaders, investors, and Fortune 500 executives will discuss the evolution of the digital purchase funnel, from discovery to click-and-buy. Because sewer gases may flow back up into the building drain piping from a public sewer or private septic system, and because some sewer gases are included in building waste flowing through the piping, the plumbing vent system needs to carry these gases outside, usually above the building roof, where they are disposed-of safely and without leaving unpleasant, or possibly dangerous smells and gases inside the building. However the piping does need to be protected from nails - use nail plates to protect vent and drain piping both where where piping passes through studs, joists, or rafters. Our sketch above shows a toilet located close to the waste stack - an installation that should work fine.
The loss of that trap water will in turn permit potentially explosive sewer gases to enter the building. And some suppliers (National Builders Supply) recommend locating AAVs or PAPA devices throughout the plumbing system to improve drain performance by handling variations in air pressure in the drain-waste-vent system (DWV system), and to avoid trap siphonage. The locations of wiring size vs ampacity ratings changed in the 2011 NEC and again in the 2014 NEC. National Electrical Code NEC 240-3 requires that the electrical branch circuit, feeder wire, and electrical service conductors shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with their ampacity ratings as specified in NEC Table 310-16. Also NEC Section 240-6(a) gives a list of standard wire sizes and overcurrent protection (fuse or circuit breaker) required. Unfortunately, sometimes users overwhelm the service, leaving Xbox One buyers to wonder if there’s a problem with their console or Xbox Live in general. So if you’re having a problem with Xbox Music streaming not working on your Windows PC or Windows Phone, simply head here to find out that status of that particular service.
The Xbox One and Xbox 360 will attempt to connect to Xbox Live every time the console starts. Vanity Installation Kit, and the Oatey 20 DFU Sure-Vent (Oatey 39016 or 39017 and other models).
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. This gives a result close to the first rule of thumb that argued just increase the wire size one step for each 100 ft.
For typical residential electrical circuits with resistive loads (such as lighting, not motor loads) using a power factor of 1 and assumign a negligible line reactance, here is an example table (see warning and citations below). This page showcases information for content purchases, Xbox Live’s social systems and the Xbox website itself. It’ll automatically check to make sure that your issues aren’t being created by a weak internet connection first.
However, if the cell phone you are already using does not have GPS technology, you might have another option.
Once the cell phone has this software installed, you can find its location on the Internet using the AccuTracking website. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. If the problem is your internet connection, both consoles will guide you through the connection testing process automatically.
Depending on the make and model of the phone, you may be able to install GPS software that will allow you to find the phone's location online. The Oatey SUre-Vent 39016 includes ANSI ASSE certifications stamped right on the valve top.
Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. You can also find the cell phone's recent location history, including time, speed limit, and battery power of the cell phone.



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