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29.11.2013
You will know by your heart burning within as in the Bible story a€?Walk to Emmausa€? ( Read the story in the Bible Luke 24:13-35). Jesus was known to his friends by the a€?words.a€? Arena€™t a€?wordsa€? part of a language. Healing is between you and God and no one else unless you choose to call a Christian Science practitioner.
As in all languages there are a€?Figures of Speecha€? so it is with the language of the Comforter or the language of Spirit.
Richard Lanham, in his book A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms, a€?The vast pool of terms for verbal ornamentation has acted like a gene pool for the rhetorical imagination, stimulating us to look at language in another way.
Christian Science is the Science of the Christ in the language of the Comforter, God defined as Spirit, Life, Truth, Love, Mind, Soul and Principle.
An example of a a€?similitudea€? from the Bible would be a€?a€¦by their fruits ye shall know them or in Genesis it says to a€?bear fruit.a€? The word a€? means to bear actual fruit or render a result. An example of a symbol would be the snake in Genesis 2 which is a symbol for evil in all ita€™s subtleness. I just love old Christian Science books because in the front or back sometimes there will be a precious inspiring quote that some one has wrote down from a lecturer or teacher of Christian Science. If Science & Health seems hard to understand, you may need to study your Bible more because just about every statement or every other statement in Science and Health is using some verse or portion of verse from the King James version of the Bible.
Through careful study of the Bible and through reason and revelation, the Discoverer and Founder of Christian Science, clearly discerned the nature of God, and defining His nature she uses the seven synonym. God is the creator of man, and the divine Principle of man remaining perfect, the divine idea or reflection, man remains perfect. If you dona€™t understand something, think it through and have paper and pencil ready to record what you found. In reading through the Christian Science text book Science & Health you may want to keep a pencil handy to mark the rules.
Seeing the Man and Woman of Goda€™s creating means not looking for something wrong with a person but looking for the good. The Tenets of The Mother Church.pdf are found on pages 15 and 16 of the Christian Science Church Manual and on page 497 of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy. Begin reading Science and Health with Key to the Scripture by Mary Baker Eddy because many people have been healed just by reading this book.
Read the last chapter page 600 which are the healings and then start at the beginning on page vii. Look up words you dona€™t understand or maybe think you have some understanding but want to get a clearer view. You will know by your heart burning within as in the Bible story a€?Walk to Emmausa€?A  ( Read the story in the Bible Luke 24:13-35). As in all languages there are a€?Figures of Speecha€? so it is with the language of the Comforter or the language of Spirit.A  Look up each of these words in the dictionary -A A  Allegory, Definitions, Synonyms, Metaphors, Similes, Symbols and Parables. 1.a€?In the whole world of literature, both ancient and modern, figures of speech occupy a foremost place.
DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen.
The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive.
The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder. The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub).
For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim. The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder. At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.
1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St.
In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods.
Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed. The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China. The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful. Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder. Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian.
Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan].
Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers. A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels.
The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507.
According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°. Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°. Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer.
Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment. Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype. But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V.
Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages. Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared. In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers. Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author. Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade. Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world. But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom. Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250.
The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait. The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany. Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further.
The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead. On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non. Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north.
Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red. Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery. Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish. Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339). Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs. The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo. Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe. In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written.
There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones. Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey.
The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas. Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it. The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii. Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia. The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia. On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba). On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv. Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him.
In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors. Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester. The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian. All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them. Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others.
Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones.
Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity. But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame. Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay . Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim. No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement. Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America. Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America. An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife). This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along. Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship. Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean.
The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible.
That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S. Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination. Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch. Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp. Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St. The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography. Eddy says a€?In the year 1866, I discovered the Christ Science or divine laws of Life, Truth, and named my discovery Christian Science. Eddy, you can find her autobiography, Retrospection and Introspection (Ret or Retro and Intro) in your local Christian Science Reading Room. Eddy says in her own words in the chapter a€?The Great Revelationa€?, Christian Science reveals Mind, the only living and true God, and all that is made by Him, Mind, as harmonious, immortal, and spiritual: the five material senses define Mind and matter as distinct, but mutually dependent, each on the other, for intelligence and existence. In other words, do you want to understand divine Love the language of Spirit to heal yourself? Eddy] had talked about the great need of love in everything we do, a pupil asked, a€?Do you mean love of person?a€™ Mrs. Check out this Partial List of Healings in Scripture.pdf in the Old and New Testament in the King James Bible. To heal is being a€?Prayed upa€? by studying the Lesson Sermon daily, doing daily identification work and listening to God - inspiration.
This word from the Greek means a€?Divine influence upon the heart, and the reflection in lifea€?. In one old book this quote was transcribed from a lecture given by Christians Science Practitioner, Lecturer and Teacher Geith Plimmer. These terms can be found in the Glossary of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures on page 587: 5. Eddy says this, a€?The procuring cause and foundation of all sickness is fear, ignorance, or sin. Eddy says about Christ Jesus, a€?We have the gospel, however, and our Master annulled the material law by healing contrary to it. The Science of the Christ uses terminology and symbolism to make clear the spiritual ideas or rules.
Eddy points out a€?The chief difficulty in conveying the teachings of divine Science accurately to human thought lies in this, that like all other languages, English is inadequate to the expression of spiritual conceptions and propositions, because one is obliged to use material terms in dealing with the spiritual ideas. Eddy is talking about when it comes to thinking and mortal thought - Mortal Mind a€“ a€?brainologya€?. The rules are through out the writings of the Bible and Science and Health with Key to Scripture. Eddy says this about God and his promise, a€?Divine Love always has met and always will meet every human need.a€? According to the Bible, God promises health, supply, peace of mind, courage, strength, and many other good things. InA  other words, do you want to understand divine Love the language of Spirit to heal yourself? Eddy] had talked about the great need of love in everything we do, a pupil asked, a€?Do you mean love of person?a€™A  Mrs. The Sacred Scriptures abound in them, because the Hebrew mind delighted in Oriental imagery. There are over a thousand Bible verses from the Kings James Bible.A  These versesA  are listed in the book The Complete Concordance to the Writings of Mary Baker Eddy and it is also on a CD. He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G.
It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented. This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore. In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether.
Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth.
The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507.
The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries. Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited. Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China.
We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map. The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized. Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him. He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers. Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions. One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design. This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay. He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world. Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese. Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior. Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer. He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them.
Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St.
Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present.
The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land. The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart. Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible. As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense. It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread.
Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil.
Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim. These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries. Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country.
The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland.
And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others.


This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand.
But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country. It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii.
This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings.
Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John. Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards.
The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo. Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493.
Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits.
The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route. 12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country.
The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent. If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author. However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars. It doesna€™t matter where you are in your life, whether you are looking for healing of any kind - physical, mental or spiritual. When you take responsibility for your thinking you will live the life that God wants for you. Retro and Intro can be purchased individually as a small pamphlet or it is part of the book Prose Works.
She called for her Bible where she read the story of the paralytic man and got a glimpse of how Christ Jesus healed. Science defines man as immortal, as coexistent and coeternal with God, as made in His own image and likeness; material sense defines life as something apart from God, beginning and ending, and man as very far from the divine likeness. In the language of the Comforter, God teaches us what to say a€?yesa€? to and what to say a€?noa€? to.
The quote reads, a€?As one would expect, scientific Christianity has a textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, by Mary Baker Eddy. She capitalized seven synonyms or seven other names for God and those are Love, Life, Truth, Principle, Mind, Soul. The paragraph opposite reads a€?Divine Science explains the abstract statement that there is one Mind by the following self-evident proposition: If God, or good, is real, then evil, the unlikeness of God, is unreal. If there ever was a moment when man did not express the divine perfection, then there was a moment when man did not express God, and consequently a time when Deity was expressed a€“ that is, without entity. In Exodus 20 are the Ten Commandments and in Psalms 37:31, it says that a€?the laws are written in our heartsa€?.
The elucidations of Christian Science lies in its spiritual sense, and this sense must be gained by its disciples in order to grasp the meaning of this Science. There are many more terms so do your research and look up the words in the Science and Health Concordance. Now a promise is something like a contract where both parties fulfill the terms of the agreement. In the language of the Comforter, God teaches us what to say a€?yesa€? to and what to say a€?noa€? to.A  In any science you have to start with the basics like definitions. Reason and revelation do not yield to a dream.A  In the language of the Spirit a€?errora€? is another word for evil, more specifically fear discouragement, worry, hate, age, and etc.
Note the Bible verse and Bible terminology she uses within her statement.A  a€?Let this age, which sits in judgment on Christian Science, sanction only such methods as are demonstrable in Truth and known by their fruit, and classify all others as did St. From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland. Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim. Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.
The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492.
Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere.
The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands.
All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries. No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe. To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage.
The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus.
Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior.
A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe.
The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°.
That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C. Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548).
In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith.
But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is. Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca. His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea.
There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller. Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither. It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland.
We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444. Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter. It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island. Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish. 1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar.
Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa.
8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols. The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others. He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment. It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more. It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts. The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer. It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals. As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer.
However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed!
The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated.
It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer.
She was healed, got up and walked down the stairs to the astonishment of the people planning her funeral. Science reveals Life as a complete sphere, as eternal, selfa€?existent Mind; material sense defines life as a broken sphere, as organized matter, and mind as something separate from God.
A Practitioner put it this way, a€?To be inspired simply means to be aware of the reality of Goda€™s presence as the only presence, the reality of His power as the only power, and the reality of our individual being as the expression of Goda€™s being.
Sometimes you will heal instantaneously and in other cases you will need to heal by a€?argumenta€?. The more you understand God the more you understand yourself as Goda€™s image and likeness. So this is symbolism for the sneaky, subtleness of evil thoughts that can make you think the evil thoughts are your thoughts.
Antithesis and parallel embrace all the poetry and no little of theA  prose of both the Old and New Testament. Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge.
The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles.
It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days.
The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000.
On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one. The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°.
Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn. Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g. An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°. Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492. It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112). These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable. Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara.
It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480. Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125. In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India. Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate.
Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian. At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea.
Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia. Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported.
He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St. It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live). On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America. Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. Christian Science is sacred in that healing was what Christ Jesus was teaching by his life.
Science reveals Spirit as All, averring that there is nothing beside God; material sense says that matter, His antipode, is something besides God. Sometimes just a thought, one Truth, in the face of evil will dissipate the evil (Instantaneous healing).
The more you understand his deep impersonal spiritual love for you as his child - the a€?agapea€? love. Christian Science is sacred in that healing was what Christ Jesus was teaching by his life.A  Mrs. It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council].
The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design.
Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy. There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument.
In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla. But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256).
To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea.
As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted.
The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587. Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan.
His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr. Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact. This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all.
Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v.
We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327).
This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S.
Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering.
I included the two other letters hopingA they might be of use to you.After Poak's letters I've included an excerpt from the regimental history that may be the unamed artillery and cavalry units that Poak mentioned. Christ Jesus said, a€?I am the way, the truth, and the life.a€? Christ Jesus showed us how to heal in the Bible and Mrs. Material sense adds that the divine Spirit created matter, and that matter and evil are as real as Spirit and good.a€? (Ret. The Greek word a€?agapea€? used by Christ Jesus is found in the book of John and implies a love far above the personal sense of love - above what the mortal senses comprehend. So a change in thought from evil thinking to God based thinking comes first in healing although the physical senses may still saying something different.
During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal.
The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably. The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply.
The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude. Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command. MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean.
Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310). It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe. Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688. In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia.
He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe. Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v.
The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there.
This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief. Eddy explained how Jesus healed through her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. We know that outcome of understanding God and the rules is healing because when you stick to the Principle of God and live according to his rules you will witness healing. Eddy states, a€?A physical diagnosis of disease a€“ since mortal mind must be the cause of disease a€“ tends to induce disease.a€? So prayer and your desire to know God will result in healing. Also you will need to purchase the textbook Science and Health with Key to the Scripture by Mary Baker Eddy. Christ Jesus always prayed everywhere - in the desert, up on a mountain or on a lake going to the Father first. Just accept the little things that you can understand and agree with, and be grateful for them.
If you dona€™t have a good Bible Dictionary check out the web page on this site a€?Building Your Own Bible Librarya€? for books you may want to add to your library. Eddy states, a€?A physical diagnosis of disease a€“ since mortal mind must be the cause of disease a€“ tends to induce disease.a€?A  So prayer and your desire to know God will result in healing. Dona€™t believe that you are a mortal that must till the ground as Adam was told he must do.A  You are image.


A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot.
Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly. One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe. A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible. The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book. Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem. His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer. As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest. She did not discuss the book she was writing but she went out and healed through inspiration of God. In other words, ask yourself, a€?who or what is influencing my life?a€? Is it God and his goodness or is it matter like drugs, sex, or some other kind of matter based influence. Where does a thought begin but in your thinking.A  So where does God come to you but in your thinking. The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean. On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him. We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559. The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon.
It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt.
Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367). Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative.
He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed. Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. It is turning to God and recognizing that peace and Love are right there where the problem seems to be. You can verify this by reading the last chapter of the book where there are testimonies of people who have been healed of many diseases beginning on page 600. Christian Science is the a€?Comfortera€? that is the prophecy spoken by Christ Jesus, the full and final revelation, the language of Spirit.
Her mother was a very spiritual woman and she even new that before Mary was born she was carrying a special child. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil. The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity. Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey. The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him.
Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy. Start with the seven synonyms by looking up each in the dictionary so you getting a better understand of each. So when her daughter heard her name called several times her mother told her to answer as Samuel did.A  Mrs.
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher. It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge.
Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them. This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia. Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. Eddy discovered Christian Science is the year 1866 that coincides with the prophecy in the Bible in the book Daniel which dates the year of 1866.
We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape.
This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved.
This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it.
This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known. It appears to me that the melancholy days have come the saddest of the year and if you were here to see our present encampment I think you would heartily concur in my opinion. They are indicated in the Bible, and through the Christian Science textbook, which is the key to the Scriptures, their full meaning is revealed. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification.
Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others. Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century. The ground for miles around us is flatA and swampy, part of the time entirely covered with water and in consequence of the thickness of the timber you cannot see more than the length of one company.
Prove what you are reading by thinking about it, by pondering, and reaching an understanding. As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support. To add to the pleasures of the place something less than a thousand musical Bull Frogs keep up an almost incessant croaking.
It is very lonesome for us here as there are but three or four families live within 3 miles of us and what is harder on us than anything else first is not near so plenty as it was aboutA Jackson but I guess we will manage to get plenty to do us.
It took me a year to read Science and Health because I was working full time, taking pilots training in the morning, and ground school at night falling into bed reading only one or two pages of Science and Health at night.
The creek was rising and the fish were a bit sluggish, but I was able to tempt a few wild browns to hit my Yozuri stick bait. Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid.
I would formulate questions during the day and God would answer at night through my reading.
The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends. Our march to this place was rather hot but weA took all the advantage we could by marching at night. Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.
The first day we marched about ten miles without getting enough of water to make a good drink.
When we got to where there was some water we stopped for dinner and stayed there till about 5 oclkA in the evening .While we were resting a large plantation belonging to a rabid secessionist was stripped of everything on it useful to a soldier except peaches and they were so abundant that all we took could not be noticed. Night before last ourCo.was called out at 12 oclk to go down to a ford about 4 miles below this. News having come into camp that 50 rebel cavalry were going to cross over the river there that night. We had a mostA doleful time of it getting to the river as our way lay through the swamps and it had rained the night before.
Sometimes we wouldA be falling over logs, the next moment running into a mudholeA  about knee deep or perhaps find yourself lying in some hole with a half dozen more of the boys on top of you. I don't question why, but I will say that the Berkley Trout Worm in a PINK or ORANGE color will usually get you a few bites. I expect we will remain here for sometime as this is a very important point to guard to keep the rebels from outflanking our forces at Bolivar.
With that being said, I have created my own Pink Worm that has enabled me to land many trout, both wild and stocked. The road we are on is the only road through this swamp for a good many miles either up or down on which the rebels can bring infantry or artillery and on this road there is only a ferry, so as long as we can keep them from throwing a bridgeA across the stream we can hold them in check. So, I am sorry for that.A Now, when the power is out for 7 days and the clean-up effort at your house is over, you need a few hours to unwind. Water that is good water is very scarce .What we use for cooking we get from a mill race close by. He is an excellent cook and besides that he carries all the water we want and goes out three miles into the country and brings in fruit. Before IA leftJacksonI gave a man there 220 to express to you to New Castle Forty of this belonged to Geo. A few local streams were scheduled to be stocked with trout-- Manatawny Creek, Hay Creek and Tulpehocken Creek. I should be in very good company this year with my best friend Mark and a college buddy named Mark joining in the fun. We had as pleasant a trip as could be expected under the circumstances, nothing worthy of note occurring on the way.
We arrived there about 2 oclk in the afternoon and took up our quarters in the Court house yard which by the way was not a very enviable situation as our Cavalry had been using it for a yard to feed their horses in, in consequence of which it was full of corn husks and dust.
I took up my quarters in a very nice room in the court house so that I have no reason to grumble.
We found quite a number of good Union men in the town and the citizens all treated us with marked respect. I met with some of the kindest men there that I have seen since I came into the service .They took many of the officers and men to their housesA and gave them the best meals they could raise without charging a cent When we told them we were not going to stay but a few days they expressed great regret and told us if we could to come back again and stay. Our troops occupy the place for a few days and they flock in by scores to take the oath .Our troops are then ordered away and they are left to the by no means tender mercies of bands of guerillas and cotton burners which infest this country.
I really pity them and hope that some step may be taken which will afford them some better protection.
This morning hearing that there was to be preaching in a church about a mile from camp .In connexion with 3 others thought we would attend divine worship once moreA  but on arriving at the place we found that the minister had failed to fill his appointment and that there was going to be noA  preaching. I managed a few smallmouths and had a nice brown follow my 3-inch stickbait for about 15 yards.
So we went to a house nearby where we spent an hour or two in rather pleasant conversation and then returned to camp.The weather is very warm and one would suppose very sickly, but our boys still continue in excellent health.
It was pretty cool, the water was clear and you could see the fish slash and slash at the stickbait. Can't wait to fish all the local streams, as they all will have a new look and feel to them.
So taking everything into consideration I believe if it comes to an election I will not allow them to use my name. I wrote to Duff about it as soon as I heard it was lost but never have recd any answer from him concerning it.
I have no idea what Erie will look come late October, early November, but I am hoping they get some serious rain up there. I must acknowledge that I was somewhat astonished at the serious manner in which you were disposed to treat (what you were pleased to call my flirtations with Mrs Reba) I dona€™t remember now what I wrote about it but I certainly did not intend you to understand that I was either flirting with her or loitering about the house.
As far as being entrapped by their seeming kindness is concerned I expect to keep on the lookout for anything of that kind. The health of our Regt is excellent not more than a dozen being in the hospital from the whole Regt. A portion of our co was sent out after fruit yesterday and they brought in about 25 bushels of very nice peaches which were divided out among the several companies of the Regt.
Besides the peaches each of the Boys had at least one and some of them as high as four geese which they declared would not take the oath and they were compelled to arrest them and bring them into camp.
I got all the peaches I could eat and one of the Boys was kind enough to make me a present of a very nice young goose which I expect to have for supper this evening. All in all we landed 8 species of fish: Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Rock Bass, Redbreast Sunfish, Bluegill, Green Sunfish, Fallfish and a Crappie.
Beans irish potatoes cabbage etc are very plenty and you know any of those served up with nice fresh beef is not very hard to take. Our cook is proving much better than I expected at first so that taking everything into consideration I believe we are getting along better than we have at any previous time since we have been in the service. The negroes in camp are used when there is any fatigue duty to be performed so that our soldiers are spared from a great deal of labor that they were formally compelled to do.
I do not like the negroes by any means but if there is anything they can do that will leave a soldier in the ranks I am in favor of using them.
But if the rebellion can never be crushed without arming them, if we cannot raise enough of white men in the north to fight our battles for us. I say let the south secede and joy go with them.We are to be mustered for pay next Sabbath day it being the last day of the month. The last news we had from Mercer Co she had raised 7 full companies since the last call of the President.A  They are going to organize a Regt in the county if they can. She looks at me with a absolutely no freakn way look and goes, so daddy, How much money do I have to pay you. There is a rumor afloat in camp since yesterday evening that there had been another battle inVirginiaand that the rebels got whipped. This would be very cheery news if we only knew that it was correct but I would much rather not hear anything about ita€”until we can get the straightway of ita€”than to be kept in such suspense.If our men should succeed in whipping them or even in holding them in check at the present time. There is no better way to cool down in the summer heat than wet wading and catching some fish. I believe in one of your other letters you requested me to tell you the names of our Regt Officer. Fouke our former Col has I understand reca€™d the appointment of Brig Genl of some of the new troops. Smallies, Largemouth Bass, Redbreast Sunfish, Bluegill and a White Perch were the fish I brought to hand. Armstrong, and after four hours fighting, drove the enemy from the field, gaining a brilliant victory. The temps during the day were brutal and the skeeters made me pay for attempting to fish Cherry Run. One, Two & Three order form Historic timeline and stories of early West Tennessee The BBCHA President's Page The 1854 Denmark Presbyterian Church History 1.
I only fished where some cool tributary water emptied into Penns.Saturday was tricky with a few bugs in the air. Sunday evening was reverse fashion -- Isos then BWOs.I got a half-decent picture of a Iso stuck in the shuck. The fish took a CDC Sulphur pattern -- it was DARK, no light at all when the fish took the fly.
I stayed off Penns during the heat of the day-- it was 90 degrees in the afternoon on both days. Area MuseumsBrownsville Museum Bemis Museum Casey Jones Museum and Home Jackson NC & STL Depot and Rail Museum The Civil War Discovery Museum of West Tennessee The Childrens Discovery Museum of West Tennessee West Tennessee Delta Heritage Center Brownsville's Blues Pioneer, Sleepy John Estes 46.
I made an attempt to fish Cherry Run and landed 2 brookies in short order on my Moth pattern. Meriwether Society visit June 22, 2013 49 Denmark Presbyterian Church first Service after restoration 50 Providence Road Solar Project 51 Boy Scout visit to DenmarkThe Boy Scouts visit Denmark again 52.
The sportsman then proceeds to tell me that he is going to cross the creek and kick my BLEEPITY BLEEP. Spoke to the gentleman again, with Ronnie explaining that the area is posted and the signs are on the road. They are easy to see too, especially when the wings are made of CDC.A I won't be out fishing again any time soon. If you want to wet a line--give me a shout and I'll do my best to put you on some fish.A Trout fishing locally will cease with water temps hovering around 70 degrees. Big Spring Creek, Letort, Yellow Breeches, Big Fishing Creek or Spring Creek are some of the streams that are fishable in the summer. We can also hike along some cool mountain creeks in search of native brook trout or wild brown trout.
Vinny caught a Smallmouth Bass on a worm and Zoe landed a nice-sized Brown Trout on a crayfish lure. I'll probably be fishing with a friend on Sunday evening or taking the rugrats to drown some worms!!!
A Sunday, I was able to fish a local Class A water and noticed many Blue-Winged Olive spinners.
I managed one fish landed, one fish missed and one fish lost before I had to run to the truck. Best trick tonight was to cast down and across and inch an emerger back to the shore, pausing it at spots were a fish just rose. I made my cast---the fish slid out from under the brush---he sat in a lane with his mouth open waiting for my fly---with ease, he swallowed the fly.
No wild trout today, but the Rainbows were very colored up with beautiful pink fins and the Browns looked like they have been living in the stream for years. Thursday was brutal where I saw creeks that were in perfect shape one minute, turn into Willy Wonka within' two hours. I volunteered a few hours Sunday morning with the A Great Day Outdoors fellas, Roger and Bob who help put together the Bob and Jeff Miller Trout Fishing Clinic, which is a mentoring program for the Big Brothers and Big Sisters.The fish were provided by Mike's Tattoo and Body Piercing that is located in Reading, PA. I helped a few kids land some trout and was able to see many folks that I have not seen in a few years. We had a great time and found some really neat critters and managed to catch a fish or two. We caught a good number of wild brown trout and missed many more.The slower pools had fish sipping in Little Yellow Stoneflies. Plenty of yardwork to make the little woman happy, drive happy little woman to her mother's house and call your best friend to go fish a stream you have not fished in about 15 years. FoughtA in the Battle of Britton Lane September 1, 1862.Picture sent by Matt Anderson, 30th. Saw a huge Barred Owl fly up the stream and hang out in a tree for a little bit before he flew elsewhere. He launched them up out of the water and onto the dirt bank like the bass fisherman do on tv. After I saw him boot his 4th fish in about 20 minutes, he goes: That's what I came here for.
Two-- a stickbait--a Yozuri Pin's Minnow is my favorite-- is also tough to beat during cold, high and dirty water conditions.
Three -- My favoritefor fly fishing is a 2 fly rig that consists of a bigger and brighter glowbug with a Green Weenie dropped off of it. If there are rainbows around, they will hammer a nicely presented egg pattern pretty much any time of the year. Local Class A waters are running at agood rate and are still on the cold side.Trout season opens next weekend for SE PA waters. Headed to the Little Lehigh and when I got there the lot was full and anglers were top to bottom. Fished the quarry hole and managed toland a few bluegill and a good number of smaller Largemouth Bass. Most ofthe bass were taken on smaller ice spoons tipped with waxies.With the heatwave we are in, not sure how much longer the ice will be around. Drilling through the ice with my Nils 8 inch ice auger was too much for my shoulders.Hey, I have an 8 inch Nils Ice Auger for sale !!! The PFBC was on the ice and it was the first time in over 10 years that I had my license checked.
We started the day using tungsten jigs, then switched to shrimpos and did some sight fishing. I don't question why, but I will say that the Berkley Trout Worm in a PINK or ORANGE color will usually get you a few bites. Can't wait to fish all the local streams, as they all will have a new look and feel to them.



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