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Over the last few years mobile telephones have become an indispensable element of the communications infrastructure. This chapter considers digital mobile telephone systems based on the GSM standard (D and E networks). A mobile phone consists of two components, the mobile transceiver itself and the identification module, the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card.
The mobile transceiver is characterised by its internationally unique serial number or International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The information stored on the SIM card includes the subscriber-specific call number (MSISDN). Since 1999, mobile phones and SIM cards with extended menu functionality have been available on the market. Every network provider maintains a large number of transmitting stations also called Base Transceiver System (BTS). In order that the network provider is in a position to provide all the services for which demand exists, it must store various items of data. The network provider can also maintain an equipment register, the Equipment Identification Register (EIR), which holds details of all the mobile transceivers permitted on the network broken down into three groups known as the white, grey and black lists.
In order that the network provider can prepare billing details of the services used by customers, the call data must be stored. As soon as the owner switches on his mobile phone, it registers with the network provider via the nearest base station. The conventional public telephone network with its connecting paths is referred to as the landline network.
As every mobile phone connection also entails the use of landline networks, a number of threats relating to the landline network apply also where mobile communication networks are used. This chapter considers those security characteristics of mobile phones which are relevant to persons using them. In order to be able to use mobile phones securely and effectively, the use of mobile phones should be regulated within the organisation from the outset and security guidelines should be drawn up on the subject (see S 2.188).
The detailed package of safeguards which has been prepared for the use of mobile phones is summarised below.

The user is identified by his customer number (International Mobile Subscriber Identity or IMSI), which is stored on the SIM card and is assigned to the subscriber by the network provider at the time that the subscriber enters into a contract with the network provider. The cryptographic algorithms for authentication and encryption of user data are also implemented on the SIM card. This new standard "SIM Toolkit" defines new functions between SIM card and mobile transceiver. Each of these stations can cover an area having a radius of between 250m and 35km, depending on the transmitter power and terrain conditions.
For example, it must know which subscribers are using its network and which services they wish to use. The white list is a register of all the mobile phones which are functioning reliably, the grey list contains all the phones which may possibly be defective, while the black list holds details of all the phones which either have a fault or have been reported stolen.
The subscriber is identified to the network provider by means of his SIM card and cryptographic algorithms installed on this card.
The intention is to present a systematic approach as to how to draw up a concept for the use of mobile phones within an organisation and ensure that this is implemented and integrated. To identify the bin directly underneath, each pocket has a unique self-adhesive hinge along the top edge.
This must be distinguished from the telephone number that is assigned to the subscriber (the Mobile Station ISDN Number or MSISDN). In addition, short text messages, call charge information and a personal telephone directory can also be stored on the card. As such, it is now possible to download new data and programs provided by the network provider on a regular basis. This data, such as the name of the subscriber, his customer number and the services he requires, are stored in the Home Location Register (HLR). Authentication is effected with the aid of a key which is known only to the network provider and the subscriber. Hence, most of the threats and safeguards which apply to ISDN are applicable to GSM as well. This distinction enables a subscriber to use different mobile transceivers with the same SIM card.

Several radio cells are controlled from one control station or Base Station Controller (BSC). This switching node assumes all the technical functions of a landline network switching node, for example, path search, signal path switching and processing of supplementary services.
If a connection is to be established, for example from a landline network terminal to a mobile phone, the network provider needs to know where the subscriber is and whether his mobile phone is switched on.
The network provider logs and stores data on the identity of the user, the serial number of the mobile phone and the identity of the base station over which he has registered.
Section 8.4 LAN connection of an IT system via ISDN is therefore also relevant to data transmission over GSM. If necessary two labels can be used, so that when an item is out of stock, the label can be reversed.
For example, it provides the card provider with the means to tailor the menu structure of the mobile phone to individual customers' requirements. The combination of transmitting stations and control station in turn is referred to as Base Station Subsystem (BSS) or base station for short. If there is a requirement for a connection to a subscriber in the landline network, this is forwarded by the MSC to the landline network over a switching path (the Gateway Mobile Switching Centre, GMSC).
Thus, if the customer would like to make a hotel reservation or make the travel arrangements for a business trip using his mobile phone, the menu structure of the mobile phone is appropriately modified by the service provider. Moreover, information is stored on every number dialled, irrespective of whether a connection is established.
However, this does require that both the card and also the mobile terminal support the SIM Toolkit standard.
As a result the network provider knows which subscribers are on the network so that connections can now be established from and to subscribers.
This holds the security code of the SIM card as well as the PINs determined by the subscriber.

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