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DESCRIPTION: The culmination of indigenous Chinese cartography is found in the contributions of Chu Ssu-Pen and his successors who, beginning in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1260 -1368), established a mapping tradition that provided the basis of Chinaa€™s cartographic knowledge which was not seriously challenged until the early 19th century.
It should be mentioned that, at least by the time of Chu Ssu-Pen, the Chinese cartographers knew the principles of geometry and possessed instruments that would greatly facilitate their mapping activities.
It may also be of some interest to note that Chu Ssu-Pen was himself a Taoist, and studied under famous Taoists such as Chang Jen-Ching and Wu Chhlian-Chieh. Regarding the foreign countries of the barbarians southeast of the South Sea, and northwest of Mongolia, there is no means of investigating them because of their great distance, although they are continually sending tribute to the court.
Chu Ssu-Pena€™s map was prepared by the method of indicating the distances by a network of squares, and thus the actual geographic picture was faithful.
Apart from the General Map of China (#227), there were sixteen sheets of the various provinces, sixteen of the border regions, three of the Yellow River, three of the Grand Canal, two of sea routes, and four sheets devoted to Korea, Annam, Mongolia and Central Asia. Two pages or sheets from the Kuang YA? Ta€™u form the general map of China on a grid scale of 400 li to the division or square. As can be seen in the illustrations presented here, the 16th century printed edition of Chua€™s map employs quite modern symbolism to indicate physical features and sizes of settlements. In addition to those referenced by Chu Ssu-Pen, Lo Hung-hsien naturally drew upon many other Yuan and Ming sources in his revision, including the schematic grid-map Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u [Map of the Countries of the Northwest], in the Yuan Ching Shih Ta Tien [History of Institutions of the Yuan Dynasty], 1329.
In spite of Chu Ssu-Pena€™s caution about far-distant regions, it is remarkable that, as Walter Fuchs has pointed out, Chu and his contemporaries had already recognized the triangular shape of Africa. On the upper right-hand corner of this map, one sees the southern portion of Asia, gridded by vertical and horizontal lines and bulging out toward Sumatra, the largest island on the map, with Java next on the right. In the absence of longitudinal and latitudinal estimations, distance between places is represented in two ways. However, for distances over the ocean, the above methods are impractical in making approximations. A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River. The four Khanates of the Mongol Empire (top); a geographical map from The Encyclopedia of Yuan Dynasty Institutions [Yuan Jingshi dadian], ca. The a€?Geographic Map of the Land of China to the Easta€?, from Zhipana€™s General Records of the Founders of Buddhism, ca.
A A A  A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River.
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From Durban, on the western coast of South Africa in the province of KwaZulu-Natal , you can get to Cape Town along the N2 highway. Driving through the Karoo - famous for its lamb farming - can be tiresome for children, but it offers a long and quiet opportunity to gather your thoughts and look for the beauty in the dryness of the landscape and the seemingly endless road ahead. The Klein Karoo – “klein” meaning “little” is in the Western Cape province, and boasts the beautiful Swartberg mountains, green fertile valleys and desert plains. A drive from Johannesburg to the beautiful little village of Magaliesburg in the Witwatersberg (White water mountains) brings you - in just over an hour - to beautiful and quaint places to stay, health spas and even trout fishing. There are a myriad places to see and drive to - and thousands of kilometres of tarred roads to match the thousands of kilometres of dirt roads - tourists should note that we drive on the left hand side of the road and thatthe driver’s side of the car is on the right!
To hire a car for your journey, South Africa offers a number of first-class car-hire agencies.
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WowCity Durban is your complete city guide to shopping, dining, travel, and entertainment in Durban. Paint retailers not only provide and supply a range of quality paints but also the painting accessories needed for the job, as well as a variety of painting services. They make use of good quality paints and painting accessories as well as trained and experienced workers to present you with a good quality end product. There are different types of paints and it is advised to do proper research before starting your project. Before applying the decorative coat you need to apply at least two coats of first coat paint.

The Mongol conquests, besides promoting the unification of Asia and extending its sphere of influence as far as the boundaries of Europe, also combined growing commercial and intellectual contacts with Persians and Arabs to bring to China a wave of fresh information about the countries beyond its borders. The instruments included the gnomon, and a device similar to the groma of the Romans, with plumb lines attached. Chu says in his preface that among other sources he consulted the YA? Chi Ta€™u [Map of the Tracks of YA?] of 1137 A.D. Those who speak of them are unable to say anything definite, while those who say something definite cannot be trusted; hence I am compelled to omit them here.
For about two centuries this great map remained only in manuscript or epigraphic form (rare copies in manuscript and the Kuang YA? Ta€™u inscribed on stone in a Taoist temple lasted until the 19th century). The scale used was usually 100 li to the division (square), but sometimes other scales such as 40, 200, 400 or 500 li were employed (3 li = 1 mile).
The large black band running from the northeast to the southwest, just above the Hwang Ho and Great Wall, represents the Gobi Desert This famous and influential map of China contains most of the previously mentioned symbols that Lo Hung-hsien used for physical and cultural features. Thus, as explained on the table shown on the right of this page, cities of the first order are indicated by a white square, those of the second rank by a white lozenge, and those of the third by a white circle; post-stages are represented by a white triangle and forts by a black square, etc. Beginning with the one printed in Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1609 (#404, Book IV), and further editions of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u continued to be published until 1799.
Among the map sheets of Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas, one is entitled The Countries in the Southwestern Sea that covers a considerable portion of the Indian Ocean and a large part of Africa.
Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™ Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted. Both maps place the southern part of Africa immediately opposite the Indonesian islands, with a string of smaller islands in between, and the tip of India tucked far away to the north. Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™A  Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted. It is an educational tool and is considered an important contribution to a child's development. The city lies roughly in the centre of South Africa, with the road south passing through the flat grainlands of the Free State, through the clear and wistful air of the Western Cape’s semi-arid Karoo desert, and on to the patchwork farmlands and valleys of the winelands in the region surrounding Cape Town. This will take you westwards along the southern coastline of South Africa, through the lush rain-fed region known as the Garden Route.
Make sure your car is in tip-top shape - it’s not a place too comfortable to stand around the roadside in, especially in summer when the African heat rages.
It’s contrasts are a thing of beauty and it is also home to many of the country’s ostrich farmers. Make sure you have your driver’s license or a valid international driving permit wherever you go. Whether you have an established business in Durban or just starting, with or without a website, we'll be glad to be part of your business marketing solution. The yellow pages online business directory is alphabetically ordered into categories in .Account Options. It is also best to prepare all surfaces before hand and always to remember to apply paint as recommended by the manufacturer. The Chinese also used sighting tubes and something akin to the European cross-staff for estimating height, as well as poles for leveling and chains and rope for ground measurement. In 1541 the YA? Ta€™u was enlarged, dissected and revised by the Ming scholar, Lo Hung-hsien (1504-1564) and published in the form of a printed atlas in about 1555, under the title Kuang YA? Ta€™u [Enlarged Terrestrial Atlas]. His map was seven feet long and therefore inconvenient to unroll; I have therefore now arranged it in book form on the basis of its network of squares.
The treatment of the ocean with its a€?angry linesa€™, a common representation in Chinese cartography, perhaps suggests perceptions of the sea as a hostile environment.
The use of colors to indicate areas and frontiers are known to have been employed in a military map as early as 1084 A.D. The atlas of Lo Hung-hsien also provided the foundation for the Novus Atlas Sinensis of Martin Martini published in 1655, the first European atlas of China.
In the case of this map, the grid system is imposed only upon the Asian continent, each division or square representing 400 li, or the equivalent of about 133 miles.
Possibly this follows from the philosophy expressed by Chu that it is better not to relay any information unless it can be reliably confirmed.
On the west side of the continent is San-pa nu (the source of the Zanzibar slaves) and on other copies this is Sang-ku-pa this means Zanguebar (wrongly put on the west coast). This could suggest that whoever supplied the data on Southern Africa did not get there from the Persian Gulf, by the established Muslim sailing route. Furthermore, in the interior of the continent, two rivers are shown flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north but terminated by the margin of the map. The empty portions in the lower left and at the bottom of the map naturally suggest areas totally unknown.

Beyond the educational virtues, coloring sessions allow us, the adults, a little peace and quiet while the boy or girl enjoy coloring.
Our unique and proven internet marketing services can help promote your business to your local market and beyond. The most common types of finishing coats are eggshell (durable and slightly glossy), flat (usually used for walls and ceilings), and gloss and shine, which is a hardwearing finishing paint and usually used on metal and wooden surfaces. Chu synthesized and collated the work of his predecessors with new knowledge acquired through both personal travel and the increased contact with the West to produce, between 1311 and 1320, a large roll-map of China and the surrounding regions. The odometer or carriage-measuring instrument, by which distance is ascertained by the revolutions of the wheels, is referred to in China at least as early as in Europe. The reliability of the information on which his map was based was of the greatest concern to Chu, whose attitude was quite modern in this respect. This may be further evidenced by the rather generalized nature of the coastlines as compared to the detail of the interior possibly reflecting greater familiarity and concern for the land.
The influence of this work can also be seen on Father Matteo Riccia€™s world map of 1602 (Ricci arrived in China a mere thirty years after the printing of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u) and the maps of China drawn by Michael Boym in the middle of the 17th century.
The locations of major cities and states can best be ascertained in terms of their positions relative to major rivers and, to a lesser degree, mountains as well as coastlines.
In the interior of Africa he shows two rivers flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north, terminating at the margin of the map.
Beneath this is written Zhebuluma or Che-pu-lu-ma (in the beginning of which we recognize from Arabic Djebel, mountain). But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar. The name of the latter river was rendered as Ha-na-i-ssu-chin, which is a possible corruption of the Arabic words Al-Nil-Azrak, meaning the Blue Nile. But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar.A  There is really a good chance that this information came from Malay sailors going to their settlements in Madagascar and Africa. Not to mention the result: coloring pages for preschoolers are proudly presented at the nursery, kindergarten or even grandma and grandpa's living room!
Please note the images are not hosted on our servers, hence some of the images might not download.
Professional plumbers in South Africa strive to achieve a safe, healthy, comfortable community. There are many different types of primers available such as water based or oil based primers can easily be sprayed onto the surface by using the right sprayer. Indeed Western knowledge of the geography of China, as expressed by or through the Jesuits, was derived exclusively from this atlas until the Jesuits themselves undertook their great survey of China for the emperor Cha€™ien-lung between 1756 and 1759. In the middle of the map is written twice Sang-ku or Sanggu [from Arab Zangue or black people]. The island off the east coast is called San-pa Nu, apparently designating the source of the Zanzibar Slaves. If you like to completely remove your website from our search engine index, please follow the instructions below, "Remove from Index". Other surfaces such as melamine and tiles can also be coated with special primers and then be painted over it with normal paint. Although Pa€™ei Hsiua€™s work has long since been lost, the established tradition is, again, reflected in the previously mentioned source of Lo Hung-hsien, the Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u grid map and is further evidenced in the YA? Chi Ta€™u also previously mentioned as a source used by Chu, which employed the same unit scale as Pa€™ei Hsiu, 100 li (#218.1). Also on the east coast is an island called Ti-pa-nu [Island slaves, Ti-pa from diva and nu meaning slaves) and Shih-a-la ta€™u-li-cha€™ih meaning Siela-diba being Ceylon. On the upper left corner of the map, the coastline turns sharply westward, suggesting the orientation of what appears to be the Guinea coast.
Between the west coast and the inland water body, one sees an area named Sang-ku, a Chinese transliteration of the Arabic term Zangue, or the Black People, hence the Congo.
These, then, are the principles underlying Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas and, indeed, those of others such as Cha€™uan China€™s early 15th century map of the world (#236) that conceivably could have been seen by Lo Hung-hsien, especially with regards to its portrayal of Africa.
Below the inland water area and to the southwest of the river discharging into the lake is a name pronounced as Che-pu-lu-ma.
The first three syllables combined are recognizable as a corruption of the Arabic word djebel, meaning a€?mountainsa€?.
An obvious conjecture is that it is an elevated area that the Arabs called the Ma Mountains, corresponding closely to the titled plateau of the Drakensberg, and evidenced by a later map produced in 1402 by the Ming cartographer named Cha€™A?an Chin (#236).

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