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08.08.2015
A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. Trump added, “They understand me better than anybody.” Trump has held a slight lead in the polls among the evangelical base. He said that Christianity is “under siege” and vowed to protect it as President of the United States. Trump awarded another $100,000 check to a wounded veterans organization, something he has been doing at his rallies since he held a fundraiser for veterans on Thursday night where he raised $6 million dollars. Americans for Independent Living, based in Waterloo, Iowa is an organization that modifies homes for wounded veterans received their check during the rally. Scientists and agencies have struggled for decades to restore oyster reefs around the Bay, often with few signs of success. To some, it might be a towering reef that stands above waves at low tide, like those seen by Capt.
An oyster reef needs to have live oysters covering a minimum of 30 percent of the reef, and within that area a minimum of 15 adult oysters per square meter - or their equivalent weight in small oysters. An entire tributary could be considered successful if those reef-scale goals were met on 50-100 percent of the river's restorable oyster bottom. Fifteen 3-inch oysters per meter might not be what John Smith was looking at when he described oysters that "lay thick as stones" in the Chesapeake, but that number was derived from the minimal populations that appeared on self-sustaining bars in the past.
Oysters were once a dominant feature of the Chesapeake, with large reefs piled so high that they were a hazard to navigation. That's changed dramatically after more than a century of overharvesting, habitat destruction and the devastating impact of oyster diseases. Scientists think that part of the reason for past failures is that projects were too small - the equivalent of pinpricks in large rivers, easily overwhelmed by disease or an adverse weather event. A new restoration goal set by federal agencies seeks to change that dynamic by undertaking large-scale restoration projects. A 2010 federal Chesapeake strategy called for restoring such populations in 20 Bay tributaries by 2025.
That need was emphasized by a 2009 effort in which a team of scientists reviewed 1,000 Bay oyster projects that spanned two decades to identify lessons learned. The solution they reached is that a reef must have at least 15 oysters (or 15 grams of dried oyster meat) per cubic meter, with the preferred goal being 50 oysters or grams. The reefs also have to meet the goals six years after establishment to be counted toward success. Some panel members acknowledged that what constitutes "success" under the guidelines might be different than what many would consider restored.


The metrics report drew upon clues from a variety of sources to try to help craft its tributary goals. But huge areas of oyster habitat in the Bay have been lost over the years as oyster populations diminished; many places that were once reefs are now muddy bottoms.
Because of past habitat losses, the metrics team agreed that a disproportionate amount of the hard bottom that remains in a tributary - probably 50-100 percent of remaining potential reef habitat in most tributaries - must be restored and meet the reef goals before the tributary can be chalked up as a success. As with reefs, tributaries have to meet their goals for six years to be counted as a success. Right now, it's not known if any restored reefs, or tributaries, measure up to the new goals. Besides being an assessment tool, the metrics can be used to identify future work and design restoration projects.
Data will also identify bars where oyster populations simply need to be enhanced, as well as habitats where few, if any, oysters remain that may need construction of shell habitat and oyster plantings. Even in relatively small tributaries where most of the work will likely be targeted, such as Harris Creek, the Little Choptank and Piankatank - all of which are on the drawing board for restoration - that will be a daunting amount of restoration work costing millions of dollars per tributary. Because oyster "success" has not been defined before, scientists working on the metrics team say their measures will likely need to be fine-tuned as new information becomes available.
Karl Blankenship is editor of the Bay Journal and executive director of Chesapeake Media Service.
Bay Journal is published by Chesapeake Media Service to inform the public about issues and events that affect the Chesapeake Bay.
Mind maps are used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying and organizing information, solving problems, making decisions, and writing.
Do you wonder if you have what it takes to “make it?” Here are three vital abilities for any secretary: 1. State and federal fishery managers in December signed off on new quantitative methods to determine whether oyster reefs - and eventually entire tributaries - can be considered recovered. In today's Bay, oyster restoration projects often thrive for a few years, then die off. The hope is that oysters will not only survive, but provide a springboard to achieve a recovered river system, where robust oyster populations help filter the water while their reefs provide habitat for an array of fish, clams and other creatures. Instead, they found that most projects were built with no clear objective and were poorly monitored, making it difficult to draw any conclusions. One gram of dried oyster meat is roughly the equivalent of a plump, 3-inch (market size) oyster. But the metrics report offers some wiggle room to help projects secure a foothold: It allows more oysters or shells to be placed after the reef is constructed, but during the 6-year period, if needed to help maintain the reef.


The goal of bringing back self-sustaining oyster populations at the tributary scale - so they provide ecological functions such as water-filtering and reef habitat - is even more challenging. Army Corps of Engineers Chesapeake Bay oyster plan that suggests that 20-40 percent of the hard bottom historically occupied by oysters in a tributary needs to be restored to trigger an overall tributary change. We have what we have there today, which is a mix of functioning habitat - hard bottom that can support reef restoration - and large expanses of mud that are not suitable for restoration," said Angela Sowers, a Corps biologist who served on the oyster metrics team.
Some tributaries may no longer have enough hard substrate left to cover 20-40 percent of the historic area, scientists say. This summer, the Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District will use the metrics to assess the Lynnhaven River in Virginia - which some think might be the first tributary to meet the "restored" goal. By assessing conditions in a given tributary, agencies can determine how much of an area needs to be restored before it could be considered a success.
That can help them fine-tune estimates of how many more reefs are needed to restore to meet the tributary goal. Being able to use the metrics to tweak the designs has the potential to save a lot of money. To others, a successful project might be one that manages to hang on by catching a good spat set every few years, even though the oysters never survive to market size. That gave rise to the new protocols, or "oyster metrics" as they're being called, which were developed by a team of scientists from agencies and academia over the past year.
Oyster bars in high-salinity areas may produce hundreds, even thousands, of tiny oyster spat per meter almost every year, but almost all die before they grow to 3 inches. Also, the strategy calls for the restored reefs to be in sanctuaries, limiting the tributaries that are candidates for large-scale restoration. They'll also use the protocols to assess large reefs in the Great Wicomico that were the subject of restoration efforts.
Meanwhile, oysters in low-salinity areas may live for years and become large, but will rarely reproduce.
But it also requires that two year classes of oysters be present as a sign of continued reproduction. Also, those oyster densities need to be found on at least 30 percent of the reef for the reef to be considered a success.



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