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26.04.2015
While this number decreased slightly from the prior year, it remains the top reason that motivates case managers and other non-bedside nurses to pursue employment elsewhere.
No matter if you are only interested in SCM Software, Document Management or Engineering Control to name but 3 of the many out there. You need Voting in your change management. Voting allows consensus decisions to be made at critical points in a Change Management life-cycle.
Ready to use out-of-the-box configurations can be used as they stand or can be tailored to individual requirements. Comply with Legislation such as Sarbanes-Oxley and answer auditors' questions, who changed what, when and perhaps most importantly, why? Implement a rigorous IT governance framework using AllChange's in built templates (including ITIL®) to achieve best practice or customise to your own requirements. Customise templates and forms including testing fault reports, problems, requirements and enhancement requests. Automate tasks and release your highly skilled teams from routine change management and configuration management tasks. Integrate the management of software, hardware, documents and web content, together with the issues, changes release and delivery processes. This review examined the watershed development experience in Maharashtra and Karnataka with the aim of isolating key conceptual, policy, and research issues with regard to livelihoods, equity, sustainability, and participation. In terms of local participation, the emphasis on self-help groups has helped women and marginalised communities in some ways, but it has not led to their becoming an integral part of the watershed development activity.
Farmers' suicides in agriculturally prosperous Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab have received wide attention since 1998. The debate on the social and environmental appropriateness of genetically engineered organisms has entered a crucial phase in the context of the events around the introduction, diffusion, and performance of Bt cotton seeds in India. This study examines this paradox by asking a question: Why have thousands of farmers in Gujarat adopted locally produced Bt cotton seeds? What is ultimately proposed is that the framework of back-end risk assessment, potential threat of monopolisation of knowledge, and the dynamics of regulatory framework may not be sufficient to evaluate appropriateness or social desirability of genetically engineered crop technology as they do not address front-end issues such as social context of technological choice. This paper provides a broad overview of the past and ongoing efforts at decentralising the governance of natural resources (DGNR) in India. The motivations for and the design and implementation of these programmes vary significantly. Mainstreaming DGNR into national democratic processes in India faces several challenges from within and without. Our findings suggest that outcomes of interventions are significantly influenced by the manner in which project implementers envisage change.
Complementing the field study of the relationship between land-cover and watershed services, we have attempted a unique approach to examining this relationship in the densely forested and high rainfall region of the Western Ghats of peninsular India at a wider scale.
Further, field investigations in the Polali catchment indicate that the major cause of declining runoff may be increased official diversion and illegal pumping from the riverbed.
The hydrological service benefits of tropical forests are the most poorly understood and contentious of all forest ecosystem benefits. While five sites were initially selected for study, data collection and analysis could be completed only in four of them. Results from the high-rainfall Kodgibail site clearly demonstrate that conversion of natural forests to acacia plantations and heavily used tree savannahs reduces the infiltration capacity of the soils at the surface, leading to increased surface runoff.
Results from the drier site in Bandipur show how the technological context can influence the direction of the impact. The possibility of negotiating these tradeoffs is further complicated by the fact that the communities that use the forest heavily are generally distinct from those that cultivate in the tank command, and by the lack of a well-defined institution for forest management. While there has been an apparent decline in groundwater levels in the past decade, and a corresponding increase in groundwater exploitation, the major cause of this decline is still the rainfall pattern; neither pumping nor forest cover change can explain this adequately. Overall, our findings indicate that the impact of forest cover change is not so much due to change in evapotranspiration as due to changes in surface soil infiltration properties, and that the manner in which this biophysical impact translates into socio-economic terms depends very much on the geological and technological context—local farmers may or may not face tradeoffs between forest product availability and hydrological service. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has advanced plans for a large scale expansion of nuclear power in India. One important result is that despite being significantly subsidized by the DAE, nuclear electricity is more expensive than the main alternative for generating baseline power in coal based thermal stations. Our studies also show that there are two significant subsidies being extended to nuclear power.
Heavy Water Price: Nuclear Power Corporation leases heavy water from the DAE based on a price of Rs. The article summarises what is publicly known about India’s uranium enrichment programme and estimates its capacity. Published in: International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation Bulletin, December 24, 2004. The article estimates India’s uranium enrichment capacity based on the assumption that the enrichment program has succeeded in producing sufficient enriched uranium for the core of the prototype reactor for the nuclear submarine that India has been developing. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) appears to be committed to constructing fast breeder reactors, which produce more fissile material than they consume, even as many other countries have suspended such programmes because of safety reasons and poor economics. Since independence, there has been a quantum jump in state support for the harnessing of water resources for agriculture in India. In terms of benefits to farmers, irrigation expansion has clearly led to substantial increases in agricultural productivity. The overview highlighted the need to reduce inter-regional and intra-regional disparities, not by increasing inter-regional transfers but by focusing on intra-regional improvements such as the rejuvenation of traditional water management structures and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies. The paper argues that the debate on community based natural resource management overly focuses on social relations and gives scant space to the structuring influence of ecological and technological materiality in shaping the contours of community formation. Ensuring universal access to safe drinking water is one of the more difficult development challenges for India as conflicting demands from various sectors commonly exceed water availability in many regions. This study looked at how existing institutions worked to protect drinking water from being diverted to other uses, and identified the difficulties in operationalising policies that seeks to protect drinking water.
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This may be used, for instance, to email Change Management and Problem Management users whose assigned Change Requests (CRs) and Problems are overdue, escalate them if they have not been acted on promptly or run reports on daily activity. This allows files to be checked in and out directly from within the Eclipse environment, deletion and moving of files and team synchronisation. Audit trails of all changes are automatically recorded and easily accessible ensuring visibility and traceability. The review developed a rigorous and comprehensive normative framework based on the concepts of livelihood enhancement, sustainability, equity, and participation. More often participation is seen as an instrument to obtain co-operation as a result more community based organizations (CBOs) are being formed. The appropriateness or social desirability of genetic engineering of crop technology should be understood with respect to wider issues concerning democratisation of technological culture (which would also entail democratisation of social and agrarian relations) and not in the narrow frame of risk or knowledge control. The focus is on 'governance', which includes both day-to-day management as well as broader decision-making regarding resource ownership, access and use, and associated legal, administrative, and fiscal arrangements. It shows that successful decentralisation does not mean complete handing over of resource ownership but a judicious structuring of relatively autonomous local organisations within transparent and reasonable regulatory processes. Further, instead of long-term changes in governance structures, the state and donor agencies have co-opted CBNRM for well-funded but inappropriate projects. This approach involves a statistical analysis of cross-sectional and time-series data for a sample of catchments in this region for which streamflow data are being collected by state agencies for several years.
This research study is a major, collaborative, and multidisciplinary project launched in 2002.
These sites were spread across a range of rainfall regimes, ranging from ~3500mm in coastal Areangadi (Honnavar taluka) and ~2900mm in upghat Kodgibail (Siddapur taluka) to ~1000mm in Bandipur (Gundlupet taluka) and ~800mm in Arepalya (Kollegal taluka), and a corresponding range of forest vegetation types and livelihood systems.
While there are differences in the evapotranspiration losses between tree savannahs and acacia plantations, in both cases there is likely to be a net reduction in the catchment's contribution to groundwater recharge and hence to the post-monsoon flows in second order streams. The analysis of catchment hydrology showed reductions in surface soil infiltration capacities under heavy use as in the case of Kodgibail, and this factor dominates over any reductions in evapotranspiration due to sparser vegetation, resulting in quicker and higher runoff in the heavily used catchments. The findings in the other dry site (Arepalya) illustrate how the hydrogeological context can combine with the socio-technical context to further complicate the impact of forest cover change. In this context, hydrological services per se will not form a significant motivation for any community to get involved in forest conservation. Further, if any reconciliation of such tradeoffs in a broad-based manner has to take place, institutions to assign forest and water rights clearly and equitably will have to be put in place.
CISED carried out a series of studies that show that such an expansion makes little economic sense.
This is true even for thermal stations that are situated far from coal mines and therefore have to bear large costs for transporting coal.
These breeder reactors are to use plutonium as fuel and the DAE has adopted reprocessing as a way of dealing with spent nuclear fuel. This work was carried out for the Ministry of Agriculture to review the contribution of irrigation to agricultural development over the past 50 years. This in turn, requires changing the institutional, fiscal and legal arrangements for water resource management. The formation of community based water usersa€™ association is explored in order to understand the interplay between the structuring influence of ecology and newly introduced technology and farmersa€™ agency in strategically transforming resource, rules and technology.
This space, however, is defined by a certain notion of tradition that necessarily remains an interpretation. This study examined whether the existing water institutions ensured adequate availability of drinking water.
The study then used data from existing reviews, assessments, project reports, and some field visits to assess the impact, in terms of the above mentioned normative framework, of a whole range of ongoing and completed watershed development projects in Maharashtra and Karnataka. Though the funds are being channeled through CBOs, much of the decision making still remains in the hands of the development agencies.The review came up with a series of recommendations for policy-makers, implementing agencies, and researchers.
Liberalisation policies and the resultant withdrawal of the state, fluctuation of prices in international and domestic market due to globalisation, increasing indebtedness, and recurring droughts have all been considered responsible for creating the agrarian crisis. First, Bt seed technology is representative of a technological culture with a specific value framework which is endorsed commonly by both multinational companies and the cotton growing farmers of Gujarat.
The analysis is based on the assumption that more decentralisation than what prevails today is better, but emphasises the need for multi-layered governance as well.Post-independence efforts at DGNR in India can be broadly categorised into 3 groups. However, the experience shows that these programmes fail to meet even their limited objectives (let alone the rhetoric of community participation and empowerment that they adopt) in a sustained and equitable manner precisely because of lop-sided institutional design and inadequate devolution of powers. It also suggests that because governance issues include questions of resource access and allocation across diverse users, the local organisation should be a broad-based democratic one, not confined to particular user groups. Externally, the economic environment and development policies being pursued militate against both decentralized governance and sustainable natural resource use. A book,Community-Based Natural Resource Management: Issues and Cases from South Asia, has also been published in 2007 by SAGE. With streamflow data from Karnataka's Water Resources Development Organisation, rainfall data from the Directorate of Economics & Statistics, land-cover data from the interpretation of satellite imagery and ancillary data from various other sources, we put together a dataset for 20 catchments within the Karnataka region of the Western Ghats. It has attempted to understand the impacts of changes in forest cover on the hydrology, and of these hydrological changes on local communities in the Western Ghats region of Karnataka. Comparison of productivity and profitability of arecanut cultivation (a highly profitable crop) in valleys with different duration of post-monsoon flows showed that the valleys with longer post-monsoon flows have, on an average, greater arecanut productivity. But interestingly, this change seems to actually benefit the community immediately downstream of the tank, as it increases the probability of timely filling of the irrigation tank built across the stream. Our economic comparison assumed that the thermal plant that we considered, namely the Raichur Thermal Power Station, receives coal from mines that are 1400 km away; yet its electricity electricity production cost is lower than the corresponding figure for the Kaiga nuclear reactors. Adopting standard accounting methods, we show that the production cost of heavy water should be somewhere between Rs. The relative merits of reprocessing and direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel have been widely debated in Europe and the USA. Some of the important features have been the deceleration in the growth of canal irrigation, the decline in tank irrigation, and the rapid expansion in groundwater irrigation.
Furthermore, the gains in productivity have come at the cost of increasing negative externalities, especially problems due to salinity in canal irrigation, over-exploitation of groundwater resources in groundwater-based irrigation, and (in the case of canal irrigation) cost-effectiveness.


Some of the urgent changes required are reforming institutions for tank irrigation management, changing the legal regime and enforcement mechanism for regulating groundwater exploitation, and internalising the costs of large canal-based irrigation projects. Often this interpretation is not based on an empirically rigorous inquiry of history of traditional societies and their environmental context and knowledge systems. In terms of aggregate productivity gains, the overall response from farmers is that watershed development has a significant impact in the better (rainfall) years, but not otherwise. At the outset, it calls for giving centrality to the goals of livelihood enhancement, sustainability, equity, and participation by all these actors.
Based on fieldwork in Shimoga district of Karnataka, this study discusses technology's agency in crystallising the agrarian crisis. The improvement and massive diffusion of Bt cotton seeds by farmers themselves in Gujarat implies that the technology finds a smooth insertion within the social and agrarian space shaped by the technological paradigm of the green revolution. State-initiated partnerships include joint forest management, participatory canal and irrigation tank management, and participatory watershed development programmes.
The community-initiated efforts show that when the state has limited its role to that of legal support and laying down the ground rules for sustainable use, resource management is much more effective.
At the same time, to prevent elite capture, the direct economic benefits from resource utilisation need to be kept out of the local organisation's purview.
And the deeply embedded hierarchical social structures in most parts of India continue to pose a formidable challenge to decentralised democracy. With particular focus on differences between relatively intact forests and heavily used forests and forest plantations, the research has sought to trace the impacts of such changes on the hydrology and thereby on agricultural production, incomes and employment, and forest product benefits across different groups within settlements immediately downstream of the watersheds.
On the other hand, farmers with greater access to forest products, particularly leaf manure and mulch, also have higher arecanut productivity. Steep slopes and a rocky geology result in limited infiltration in the catchment, and the main contribution to groundwater comes from percolation from the streambed during flash flooding in the valley. This is an extreme example in that about one-third of Indiaís coal plants are located right next to a mine pithead, and another quarter or more are within 500 km of one. Depletion of groundwater aquifers and water pollution further threaten continued availability of drinking water. Moreover, the long-term and large-scale impacts of even the better implemented programmes remain unclear, as virtually all studies or evaluations are conducted immediately after the interventions have been completed. Practitioners then need to adopt pro-active measures to deal with sustainability and equity issues. It sheds light on how life experiences such as suicide are located in or related to a certain form of technological culture that produces both environmental and social vulnerability. As a solution to the problems generated by the green revolution technological paradigm, GM technology sustains and reinforces the hegemony of global and local elites.Second, the involvement of local actors in generation and diffusion of GM technological knowledge does not ensure automatic democratisation of use and management of resources. In parallel, there are state-initiated efforts at full devolution of governance, viz, the setting up of Panchayati Raj institutions in general and the special efforts in tribal areas. Unfortunately, even historically state-recognised community management systems are falling prey to the bureaucratic push for increased state control through the so-called partnership programmes, and the devolution efforts have essentially not taken off the ground. On the question of top-down versus bottom-up implementation of DGNR, this review suggests the need for a graduated, enabling approach with focused implementation in a few areas.
Efforts will be required on many fronts and levels to make significant progress on decentralising NR governance in the country.
This suggests that arecanut farmers have to strike a balance between the indirect benefits from post-monsoon flows and direct benefits from the harvesting of forest products.
Consequently, changes in catchment land-cover will have limited impact on streamflow and groundwater recharge. At the same time, findings from rigorous research do not seem to be reaching policy makers. The lack of adequate data and systematic research on many aspects calls for a well coordinated research.
How does technology provide a framework that shapes life experiences, perceptions, and practices, and how this framework shapes human agency are the questions probed in this research. The adoption of Bt technology shows that local elites have political agency that joins hands with global elites in perpetuating the hegemony of the green revolution technological paradigm. The third category is community- and NGO-initiated efforts, with or without state recognition.
At the same time, it warns against throwing money at DGNR - the changes required are primarily in rights, responsibilities, and mindsets, and the role of funding has to be kept secondary. The variation in forest tenure regimes across the landscape makes it impossible for farmers to make individual tradeoff decisions, and the absence of a village-level mechanism for community management currently makes it difficult to understand and resolve such tradeoffs at the community level. Average net income from lands in the tank command would decline by ~40 percent, and so would employment generated for other households, but the productivity of non-command lands would of course not be affected. This study assesses the economics of reprocessing and the cost of producing plutonium for the fast breeder reactor program. A related recommendation is to release the massive amount of data with the scientific and government establishment into the public domain and make it readily available at affordable prices. The research ultimately questions values, beliefs, and assumptions employed in scripting technological designs. Our results suggest that the cost of reprocessing each kilogram of spent fuel would cost upwards of Rs. At the policy level, the review strongly recommends enabling legislation for collective regulation of groundwater use and eventually moving towards integrated water resource management (IWRM) from below. 20,000 even with assumptions that are favourable to reprocessing, and could be as high as Rs. These costs are lower than the corresponding figures for reprocessing plants in Europe, the USA, and Japan. As in their case, however, it is unlikely to be an economically viable method of waste disposal.



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