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25.11.2013
Change management is a cyclic process, as an organization will always encounter the need for change. The elements of change (processes, technology and people) and the phases of the Organizational Change Management Life Cycle are closely linked, and their intersection points must be carefully considered.
Projects management is an important management tool to implement strategy and achieve an organisation’s strategic goals.
The project lifecycle is critical to managing the practical implementation of strategy in organisations as it creates urgency, focuses human effort on what needs to be done and when, and provides a timeframe for achieving clearly identified outcomes. In contrast to project management, the day to day management of organisations focuses on routine activities and factors that shape, constrain and prompt managers to act in pursuit of the organisation’s future vision (McKenna, 1999).
Projects can harness the energy of different thought processes to propel innovation and change in an organisation (Leonard and Straus, 1997). For projects to enable change and deliver corporate strategy, they should be categorised and prioritised. To be fully effective, a holistic and balanced approach to project management is required, one which includes the interconnection of project management and people leadership. The Integral approach suggests that four facets or quadrants of reality, personal, cultural, behaviour & skills and systems, are important in a project and must be successfully managed.
The Integral model also provides a lens through which a project manager may view project risks and issues at various stages of the project lifecycle. The integral lens   focuses on more than the narrow task at hand and includes the broader vision, purpose, strategy, culture and leadership required to deliver the project. Project members feel satisfied that they have done their best on a project and that they have grown, developed and learned during the project.
So far, the project lifecycle has been identified as important because it creates urgency, focuses resources and identifies the level of effort required at the various stages of a project – design, planning, execution and delivery. Cacioppe (2008) presents a process to translate leadership vision and management strategy into practical outcomes for an organisational change. Pressure for change is necessary or employees will not place a high priority on the desired change.
External pressure for change can come from sources such as government legislation, political requirements, customer demand, funding cutbacks or increased competition. Internal pressure can come about, for example, from the CEO setting a new direction or employees indicating dissatisfaction by leaving the organisation.
A Clear shared vision and goals are needed to help people understand the purpose for the change and to gain commitment to it.
The vision should have a worthwhile purpose so that people feel their effort is contributing value. The vision needs to be established early in the life of a project as it provides context for the project plan, and the decisions that follow during the life of the project.  It is important at this early stage to identify what outcomes and benefits are sought from the project, and how and when these will be measured.
Involving  managers, staff and key stakeholders in discussions of the vision, values and strategic objectives, helps reach agreement on goals and gains commitment to achieving them. Capacity for change refers to the resources and skills necessary to implement the project adequately. Actionable steps and targets give employees specific steps to progress the project and tangible outcomes to work toward.
Kotter (1990) highlights the importance of establishing detailed steps and timetables for achieving needed results, and then allocating the resources necessary for making them happen. A project plan outlines responsibility, deadlines and resources required to achieve project outcomes.
It is necessary that organisational structure and systems are aligned so that the procedures and processes encourage rather than inhibit progress toward the vision and strategic goals of the project. Projects and project structures are temporary, therefore the focus and function of projects is separate from, though interdependent with the functional structure and objectives of an organisation.
Butler (1973) highlights the need to balance conflict between traditional functional structures and project structures in organisations. Projects are not only becoming more common in organisations they are becoming more complex. Model the way refers to the leaders of the project putting into practice the values and behaviour that reflect the vision. Reward and recognition plays a key role in managing performance and motivating project team members. Reinforcement can also occur by terminating, transferring or demoting employees who continue to resist the change a project may introduce. The last element for successful change is to thoroughly evaluate and improve the project as it progresses. Many resource companies hold ‘lessons learned’ meetings to review and improve the way the project is operating and improve future projects. Efficient operations, high quality standard, excellent project and technical skills; Low or no injuries and staff turnover.
Relevant systems and procedures built into all parts of the project and used consistently.Project achieving time, cost and quality targets, environmental and people targets.
Systems and procedures carried out and reported consistently.Project achieving time, cost and quality targets. Costs and quality managed well, good project and technical skills, injuries and turnover at target levels or below.
Systems and procedures carried out and reported frequently.Project achieving time, cost and quality targets.
A project team can use this diagram and related diagnostic tools to improve the project at any time.  Many organisations conduct project team-building workshops or interpersonal training for projects without determining what level the project is functioning at and what actions would be most useful to move the project to getter levels of satisfaction.
The leadership of a project team could comprise the head of the project, with each manager responsible for a particular aspect of project (resources, cultural change etc). Change projects frequently fail or stagnate because of the lack of champions for the change or because members of senior executive were not fully committed to the project. Positive mind shift and driving values make up the psychological and emotional atmosphere that supports the project. Thamhain and Gemmill (1974) argue that the success of a project manager is directly linked to their ability to elicit support, agreement and involvement amongst members of the project team.
Shifting people to a positive mindset means helping them become aware of their mental self-talk and teaching them to drop negative thoughts and attitudes.
Many organisations have a set of values that staff are asked to live by when they interact with suppliers, other staff and customers.
Henrie and Sousa-Poza (2005) point out that projects are becoming more complex in part due to interaction between the social and technical aspects.
Effective communication underpins effective project management, so shouldn’t be left to chance. A clearly communicated and well led project can stimulate innovation and learning, which in turn can create competitive advantage for an organisation.
It is important for the project purpose to be clearly communicated to those directly involved, and more broadly to other people affected by the project.
The elements and catalysts for successful change can be usefully integrated into the project lifecycle shown earlier. The Integral project model has considerable relevance and value when it is used to plan and implement new projects or examine existing ones.
This figure can be used to help diagnose the progress of the project and areas for improvement. A ‘project change team’ can be formed to make recommendations to management on how each of these factors can be improved. Figure 6 shows where each of the elements and catalysts for change fit into the Integral four quadrants.
While many change projects deal with two or three quadrants, few deal with all four quadrants.
The Integral framework for projects is a comprehensive approach and can be used to guide large-scale change or to analyse existing change projects. Projects provide managers with a practical means of adapting actions, culture, behaviour, skills, systems and structure to bring opportunities into reality. 3)    The five levels of Integral project management provide a clear way of evaluating the project in terms how well the integral four quadrants are being implemented. 4)    Eight elements and three catalysts required for successful implementation of a project.
An Integral framework for project management can improve the likelihood of a project achieving the strategic goals of an organisation. Brad McManus is Vice Chairperson at Integral Leadership Institute in Perth, Western Australia.
To help ease the process, ProjectXChange offers sound advice, products and workshops to help you effectively manage change. The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. All projects go through a life cycle that starts at the initial project inception through project shut down. Project Definition - The Project Sponsor has agreed to fund the creation of a project definition. The project management process is designed to produce high quality solutions in the shortest period of time possible. Google Search Engine for Project MechanicsLooking to solve the problem of having no search engine on this site, I have found Google Custom Search Engine. Whether the change is large or small, the ability to manage it is a critical component of high performance. There are three phases in the Organizational Change Management Life Cycle: Identify, Engage and Implement.
By paying close attention to how people are engaged in each phase, an organization can manage that change to adapt to any business or economic condition.
Gilbert has more than 30 years of experience as entrepreneur, educator, chief executive officer, construction manager, management consultant, project manager and engineer. Gilbert has worked for management consulting firms such as Fails Management Institute, Scott, Madden and Associates and INNOVA Group.
This paper describes how project management can contribute to achievement of an organisation’s strategy and sustainable success by adopting a more holistic, ‘integral’ approach to a project and the leadership of people during the stages of a project. Organisations are using projects to adapt to changes in the competitive environment including increasing cost pressures, scarce available resources, global competition, new technologies and a race to get products to customers first (Hyvari, 2006).
A project has an established objective, a defined life span, is unique, may involve several departments and professionals, and has specific time, cost and performance outcomes (Gray and Larson, 2006).
Through such an approach, project management can increase productivity for competitive advantage, for example by bringing products or services to market faster than competitors (Kotter, 1990, Hamel and Prahalad, 1994).
Day to day management is therefore less focused on time and outcomes, and may be prone to inertia (Meyer, 1999). According to Hammer (2000) operational innovation, or the invention and deployment of new ways of doing work, is by nature disruptive and should concentrate on activities that impact on the enterprise’s strategic goals. This may be done by way of project complexity, duration, risk, return on investment or competence of the organisation to deliver (Gray and Larson, 2006). These include risk management, project duration, benefits delivery and alignment with strategy and business objectives.
Wilber (2000) presents an Integral model which identifies four facets or quadrants of reality. Importantly, the model can assist in providing a common language for use in relation to a project.


The integral four quadrants add perspective to the project lifecycle and highlights management and leadership factors critical to project success. The process is relevant to project management and identifies elements necessary for change and catalysts for change.
Managers and employees have many demands on their time and have many objectives they are working toward. Major problems such as customer dissatisfaction, poor quality, poor performance and costly mistakes can also result in pressure for change.
Without this pressure, the change will become a “do it later” or “bottom of the box” low priority change.
A compelling vision is necessary to validate the reason for the project so that it is accepted by the project team.
Employees need to feel a sense of involvement and to identify with the vision rather than having it imposed on them; they must be able to challenge and test the sincerity and appropriateness of the vision. The vision also needs to be shared between project team members to ensure focus and to encourage collaborative effort (Senge, 1990). The concept of ‘strategic elephants’ is a very effective way to help determine strategic objectives.
This includes providing appropriate training and allowing adequate time to do what is required. Many organisations want to implement projects but do not develop the specific steps and timelines for various stages to occur. It is especially important to have actionable first steps which provide the opportunity to start on the change immediately. If systems are aligned, changes can be carried out efficiently, supported by proper procedures and adequate resources.
This is unless the firm is project oriented and either is structured around projects, or has a dedicated project management office. He identifies ‘purposeful conflict’ as a short term managerial device to adapt to important work requirements. A senior manager’s actions must be consistent with his or her words, or employees will become cynical and distrustful. If the CEO leaves it to others to carry out the project or does not give his or her personal support and time for the project, employees will give other activities higher priority. Career progression should be linked to projects so that people feel their contribution of time and energy leads somewhere.
If the senior executive does not model the way, employees will revert to the old way fairly rapidly. Change projects that are not evaluated, or are evaluated in ways that are sloppy or superficial, risk being continued or abandoned based on personal feelings, replacement of a manager, lack of money, interest in a new idea that captures the attention of the senior managers.
The lessons are often stored electronically on central computer systems so they are available to future project teams. This relates to project performance, numbers of injuries, or costs; Results includes the achievement of project goals, profit, improved job satisfaction, fewer injuries and great efficiency.
This involves one or more leaders, people with substantial influence in the organisation and important to the project, being personally committed to making the project happens in whatever way they can. Alternatively, a special project team can be formed which recruits ‘change’ champions, informal and formal leaders, who operate as a planning team, catalyst and reviewer of the project. This leads to frustration and superficial implementation of the project because people only go through the motions. Many projects encounter resistance because staff have a negative mindset and attitude toward the changes it brings. Clear communication of a project purpose and goals can focus effort, build teamwork across functions and establish mutual accountability between project team members.
Gamble and Procter (2001) emphasise the importance of fostering communities of practice to leverage knowledge, and to enable these communities both through face to face contact, and through collaborative electronic media such as web pages, video conferences and chat rooms.
Projects inevitably have several stakeholders, with relationships that are interdependent and with different motives. Figure 4 below shows the four major phases of a project and the elements of change that are needed during these phases to help the project succeed.  This diagram provides useful guidance for a project manager who wants to ensure each phase is carried out successfully. Using these dimensions to analyse change gives a thorough analysis of the real outcomes of the change project, or program of projects.
Employees undergoing a change project have been shown this figure and asked to identify which symptoms they are experiencing.
When given to all staff involved in the project, the results can provide an objective measure of which are going well and which factors need to be improved. One major energy company introduced a major change project that covered the personal and cultural quadrants but ignored the skills, performance appraisal and its strategic planning and business systems. It is also a very practical and easy approach for leaders, managers, supervisors, human resource professionals and consultants to use. Ron is Managing Director of Integral Development and has been a leadership and organisational development consultant for over thirty years working with business, government and not-for-profit organisations in Australia, Asia and the United States. Individuals tend to feel resentful of the change that has occurred and they will actively resist embracing the change around them.
A creative atmosphere surfaces and participants are likely to feel energised and excited about new possibilities.
Productive behaviour returns and participants feel greater confidence about the change that has occured.
Project activities are grouped into phases so that the project manager and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity. When applying Project Mechanics, it is critical to accurately assess the stage of the project in the life cycle. This proposal should have an expiration date and specific metrics for when the team can start (i.e.
The project management process enables teams and individuals to successfully deliver solutions. User Interface LibraryWhile working on the template for this site (a never ending process), I came across the YUI Library. I am taking the web content management system that I have used for many clients and turning it into a project, then I will evolve it into a product.
In 1975, he began his career as a project engineer and construction manager, designing, building and operating environmental treatment facilities.
An integral four quadrant framework for project management is presented that includes a practical and comprehensive approach to change management. Projects deliver the most benefit when they are directly linked to corporate strategy (Crawford, 2006; Srivannaboon, 2006). The fundamental reason for a project is to bring together scarce resources, skills, technology and ideas to achieve future business benefits, or to solve a problem. Organisational goals and objectives are often high level and linked to long term time frames. Stockport (2000, p.46) states, “strategic transformation is about the ability of an organisation to transform itself to ensure long-term survival”.
He highlights the link between project success and corporate success and states, “…it is people who deliver projects, not processes and systems” (p.
Cacioppe (2009) has adapted Wilber’s model to management and leadership and provides a practical approach that highlights the need to think, decide and act with broad perspective, as well as focussing on the specific tasks at hand. This is important because it is not only the level of effort required that changes over the lifecycle of project, so too does the risk.
Use of commonly understood language is likely to improve communication of the project to people involved.
It is the balance between these factors that is critical to effective strategy implementation. Unless senior managers take definite action to ensure change occurs, employees will respond to other demands. The CEO of a major hotel decided to initiate an empowerment program after one of their major customers was embarrassed by a hotel staff member who applied the rules of payment too strictly when he tried to order a drink at the bar.
In some organisations, while managers feel they have a clear vision, it may not have been communicated to employees, who may receive no more than a poster or small card to carry in their pocket as an introduction to the vision.
This element is sometimes called ‘encouraging small wins’ and allows people to feel a positive sense of achievement in the beginning of the project, making them more willing to invest further time and energy.
Reward and recognition systems, performance management systems, promotion criteria, customer service and accounting procedures must operate to help achieve and enhance the strategic goals and change management actions.
A project management office typically sits outside the traditional functional structure of an organisation and can assist in ensuring projects align with corporate strategy and deliver the desired benefits. For instance, is the employee’s priority to achieve the project objective or the objective of their functional department? Managers need to operate with integrity and sincerity so that employees see the actions of their managers as examples of what is expected of them.
Sometimes the CEO may model the way but the members of the senior executive team do not support it or walk the talk.
Change can be reinforced by memos, newsletters or posters that provide positive messages or examples of successful change. Matta and Ashkenas (2003) argue for breaking complex projects into smaller parts, a series of mini projects, with rapid results to ensure project management achieves an organisation’s strategic goals. Establishing before and after measures is a way to prove the value of a change project, and avoid people becoming skeptical and the project stagnating.
Useful tools include a project scope and brief, stakeholder analysis, risk assessment, project plan, critical event and milestone plans, variations and lessons learned. A leadership project team can sometimes include the CEO or a very senior person in the organisation who, by their sheer personal influence or position, can help a major project succeed. A senior member of the organisation, ideally the CEO, could also be a member of this group to ensure the project team has influence at the highest level in the organisation. Shifting people’s attitudes and negativity is essential so that the culture of the organisation supports rather than inhibits the change. When a project is carried out, these driving values must genuinely underpin the type of change being implemented in the project. Katzenbach and Smith (1993, p.116) identified that teams establish a social contract among team members based on trust and, “…when a team shares a common purpose, goals, and approach, mutual accountability grows as a natural component… Goals help a team keep track of progress, while a broader purpose supplies meaning and emotional energy”.
Therefore a project manager should be able to deal with the complexity of managing multiple tasks and relationships, and in doing so effectively communicate with all project stakeholders. This information can be used to determine whether the project should continue or be improved in some way. In addition, it fits with practical experience and can provide an effective way to discuss, evaluate and improve the change project. Staff morale went up but the company lost its competitive advantage and the share price fell. At a time when organisations are trying to implement so much change, the Integral perspective provides both the compass and the map to ensure people and teams get to where the change is supposed to take them.
A project manager must adopt both management and leadership skills to ensure project success.
Using a comprehensive integral framework will result in projects that meet project targets, develop people, systems, behaviours and a culture that bring long term sustainable success to the organisation. He has taught in the Graduate School of Management at Macquarie University, Curtin University and the University of Western Australia and currently teaches at the MBA level in the areas of Leadership Effectiveness, Leading and Facilitating Teams, Managing Strategic Change and Philosophy and Leadership.  He is Adjunct Professor Adjunct Professor at Curtin University’s Australian Sustainable Development Institute.
Brad is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Company Directors, the Australian Human Resources Institute and the Chartered Management Institute in the UK.


Those affected by the change are likely to feel paralysed and disempowered by the change that has taken place.
An accounting code is created to track all time used to define the project during the solution definition effort. A formal change control process is being used to document any changes to the project charter (scope, timeline, budget).
This experience enabled him to teach value engineering and project management to engineering and construction professionals throughout the United States. Gilbert founded Jonathan Gilbert & Associates, where he provided advice and counsel to clients in the areas of strategy, organization development, executive coaching and project management. He is certified as a Project Management Professional (PMP®) by the Project Management Institute (PMI®). Practical steps to achieve these objectives may not be clearly identified, therefore reducing the likelihood of successful strategy implementation.
This is to say that innovation and change are necessary to overcome inertia that may exist in functionally oriented organisations. The model implies that a project manager must tend to both relational (leadership) and task (management) related activities to improve the likelihood of project success. The chances of a risk event occurring are high in the early stages of a project and can be reduced through clear direction and effective planning. The model also provides a framework for measuring project success, including future benefits, similar to a balanced scorecard approach (Kaplan and Norton, 1998). The process requires that certain actions must occur prior to and during execution, and if they do not, the desired outcomes are less likely to be achieved. The customer told the CEO he would take his company’s business elsewhere if the hotel staff did not become more responsive to customer needs. Senior executives and staff need to spend time on determining the key strategic elephants facing the organisation. Often the cost of resources and training is allowed for, but not the time needed to transition to the new way of working. Change projects sometimes fail because management announces a change, such as total quality management, sends people off to training programs, and then allow months to elapse before people are actually required to do things differently. They found that team support for the goal and collective ability of the team to some extent moderates the negative effect of time pressure.
A regular communication system like team briefing that communicates key information and seeks feedback has been introduced by many organisations to ensure staff are informed and involved in the project. In large organisations multiple projects are more and more being managed by project management offices (Gray and Larson, 2006). Are the two related to one another, and which is more closely aligned with the organisation strategy? If customer service is part of the vision of the organisation, managers have to be responsive, positive and willing to make an extra effort themselves for their internal and external customers if they expect employees to act that way also. It is vital for the CEO to manage the executive team to be committed to the project and to deal with those senior managers who only superficially support the project. Formal reward schemes or informal praise for actions which support the change, fit into this category. Multiple projects can however lead to lack of recovery time, burnout and missed development opportunities for team members (Zika-Viktorsson et al., 2006). These tools relate to the systems and behaviour quadrants of the Integral Project Management model.
This can happen where the leader has such presence, vision and communication skills they can influence others to work for them. Training in team effectiveness, facilitation, change, and project tools can be very valuable for project managers and the project team.
For example, if the organisation is introducing new services and products, the driving value might be innovation.  Large energy companies and banks have conducted workshops in which staff are taught to look at their values and how they are to be built into the project.
They recommend sharing of practical knowledge of the project which leads to organisational learning.
They also need to have a say in what will work and what needs to be done differently regarding the project. Figure 5 below shows the symptoms that will occur if any of the elements and catalysts needed for successful projects is missing. In today’s environment, managers cannot continue to subject staff to change initiatives without ensuring they are successfully managed.
He is also Director of Organisational Capability and a Senior Consultant at Integral Development, and Founder of The Sustainability Centre in Thailand.
For example, some projects will not have the proper business justification to make it out of the Project Definition stage.
If resources are named, it should be noted that these resources may not be available for this project if the defined time frame is exceeded. Kenny (2003) cites Dewit and Meyer (1999) to argue that revolutionary projects can help overcome organisational inertia, and must be aligned with the strategic goals of an organisation, rather than a narrowly defined project focus.
It is apparent then that a project must be preceded by a justifiable business case, inclusive of measurable outcomes agreed up front between the project owners and the people responsible for executing the project.
Turner and Muller (2005) agree and through an extensive literature review point out that the project management literature pays inadequate attention to the impact of a project manager’s leadership style and competence on project success, whereas the general management literature postulates that leadership style and competence have a direct and measurable impact on business performance.  This is not to say that leadership alone contributes to project success, moreover that a balanced approach to the management of projects and the leadership of people involved in those projects is required to ensure the effective implementation of strategy.
Conversely the cost to fix a risk event is low in the early stages of a project and increases significantly in the execution and delivery stages. It does this by focussing on both the internal and external factors which influence project outcomes and stakeholders. Without these change elements and catalysts, the quadrants discussed thus far remain static and are unlikely to deliver project outcomes consistent with the vision and strategy of an organisation. If the vision is not understood or shared, employees often make a quick start that fizzles because it is not really understood. This results in agreed areas to focus on which then become the basis for strategic objectives and actions. Employees who participate in project teams often complain that managers don’t allocate time for participation in these activities. Without actionable first steps, milestone actions and targets along the way, employees make haphazard efforts and false starts. Like Senge (1990), they add it is important for the project team to share a vision and common goal. If systems are not aligned the project does not get sufficient traction to be effective over a longer time. In a project environment, resources such as time, people and money are scarce and the potential for political behaviour is significant. Managers showing interest or spending time with staff involved with the project can also provide extra reinforcement. This can have a detrimental effect on project performance and on the well being of individuals involved, particularly if inadequate resources have been allocated to the project in the planning stage of the project lifecycle.
William Bratton, Police Commissioner of New York City and then Los Angeles, brought significant change to these cities, which reduced crime and boosted the moral of the police service by his extraordinary commitment to making substantial changes in all aspects of the organisation. Prabhakar (2005) highlights the importance of team leadership and the team related factors to project success.
If staff can approach a project and its challenges with a positive rather than a negative attitude there will be a much greater chance of success.
According to Garvin (1993, p.80), “a learning organisation is an organisation skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and insights”. Their valid suggestions need to be taken on or else employees will lose interest and become disillusioned. For example, if pressure for change is missing then the change will be a low priority and it will be postponed. Brad has over 17 years senior executive experience leading organisations and projects in the corporate and not for profit sectors. This phase does not include any analysis, design, comps, or documentation other than what is required to propose the work. The figure shows management tasks required at various stages of the lifecycle and the corresponding level of effort required to perform these tasks. Poor project selection can lead to misguided effort, resource wastage and missed opportunities for the organisation. Hyvari (2006) highlights this by identifying planning, organising, networking and informing as significant management and leadership behaviours that contribute to project success. Norrie and Walker (2004) present a balanced scorecard approach to operationalising strategy and measuring ‘on-strategy’ project delivery. Wesfarmers, a very successful Australian organisation, uses the idea of strategic elephants to define and manage many of their major initiatives.
Employees lose interest because this new initiative is piled on top of their existing work.
Top management support and problem identification have also been directly linked to project success (Belout and Gauvreau, 2003). Assignment of project responsibility and authority, and the development of project control systems occur at this stage in the Integral Project management process. Steven Jobs, CEO of Apple, spent two years as head of the Macintosh project, demonstrating to everyone in the company that he thought the project was important.
He adds that project managers who demonstrate transformational leadership or more specifically, inspiration combined with a care for people enjoy greater project success. A project also involves change to achieve the outcomes it aims for so the model shown below covers the elements of effective management of change. They emphasize that attaching measures to outcomes strengthens the link between project vision and business strategy.
This support needs to be visible throughout the project, from the defining and planning stages through to the achievement of outcomes. Political behaviour can undermine the success of a project, particularly given that a project involves people from different functional sections of an organisation, with conflicting priorities and differing motives.
Senge (1990, p.206) states “…the tools and techniques cannot be separated from the vision and the values of the learning organisation”.
For example, one group, who felt that there was no clear shared vision, asked the project manager to hold meetings in each location to clarify the project vision and objectives.
If it is not, the likelihood of a project losing alignment with strategy increases and therefore the desired project outcomes are less likely to be achieved. Senge’s theory makes the connection between management and leadership factors contributing to project success.
They wanted to ask him questions, make suggestions and for him to listen to their recommendations on what could be done to help the project succeed.
This was a straight forward and worthwhile suggestion that went ahead, and the ideas that came out of the meetings worked well in helping the project to be more successful.
A number of organisations including a national postal service, a large Australian conglomerate, an energy company and a local government have used this model to evaluate change.
One organisation now requires all their managers to submit new project requests in a format that shows all the elements in Figure 4 are covered.



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