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Mumbai is one of many large cities threatened by climate change, but not adapting fast enough.
Mark Maslin is a Professor at University College London, a Royal Society Industrial Fellow, Executive Director of Rezatec Ltd, Director of The London NERC Doctoral Training Partnership, unpaid CSR committee member for the Sopria-Steria Group and a member of Cheltenham Science Festival Advisory Committee.
We used newly-available data to investigate how cities are responding to climate change and whether resources are being allocated efficiently or fairly. It seems the amount spent on climate adaptation is driven more by the amount of wealth at risk rather than the number of vulnerable people. Adaptation simply means any actions that anticipate the negative consequences of climate change – to human health, the economy or ecosystems – and attempt to minimise the damage.
We need a comprehensive picture of how much is being spent on these adaptation measures across the world.
For this study, published in Nature Climate Change, we focused on spending in ten megacities. Where ever you look, this “adaptation economy” remains a small part of the overall economy – a maximum of 0.33% of a city’s gross domestic product. Yet such disparity still has to end, particularly as between now and 2050 the major growth in urban populations will be in China, India, Indonesia and Nigeria.
The fact the Chinese capital is taking adaptation seriously is linked to strong central government policies, which encourage cities to face up to climate change. Most cities at least show solid growth in adaptation spending over the past five years, beyond their average GDP growth for the period. It is clear that insufficient funds are being spent to protect major population centres in developing and emerging economies. Chicago has encouraged green roofs to reduce water runoff and energy consumption in buildings. The simultaneous onset of climate change and the peaking of global oil supply represent unprecedented challenges for human civilisation. This was done in collaboration with the OECS Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) Project in the Caribbean.
The technical support is a result of needs and objectives identified by the OECS Member States participating under the GCCA project umbrella, which is a formal group of Governments working to improve the territory’s and region’s natural resource base resilience to the impacts of climate change. An organization arisen from Alberta’s Conservative Party, Canadians for Clean Prosperity seeks to build political consensus for sustainability that both meets environmental concerns and market demands. Cameron argues that a carbon tax charged on all emissions at the point of consumption would offset the impacts of pipeline projects.
Environmentalists and climate change activists argue that it is imperative all nations speed up their transition to zero carbon emissions to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. So why contribute even more to greenhouse gases over the next few decades knowing that their impact will be felt through the end of the century and beyond?
King believes building the Energy East pipeline from Alberta to New Brunswick meets the criteria of sustainable policy decision making. He concludes his blog stating “I want the funds generated by Canadian oil to help fund our Canadian transition away from our dependence on fossil fuels.
Do you believe that through a carbon tax or cap and trade policy we can drive the country towards a zero emission future to meet COP21 atmospheric warming target of less than 2.0 Celsius? Can we justify pipelines and additional oil sands development over multiple decades while meeting the global objectives of containing atmospheric warming? To help put all of this in context it is important to understand exactly what we are trying to achieve in keeping temperatures below that threshold.

In the energy sector reductions needed would be 90% below 2010 levels by 2040 and 100% by 2070. Significant investments in carbon capture and reuse or sequestration would capture emissions at the source. We would create negative emissions technology capable to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and not just at points of emission.
We would re-purpose land to increase natural carbon sinks including reforesting large areas of the planet. The macroeconomic costs although considerable would only marginally impact economic growth according to IPCC which forecasts reductions of 0.1% between the present and the turn of the 22nd century. We use a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivatives licence, so you can republish our articles for free, online or in print. People living in extreme poverty are especially vulnerable, both because global warming will tend to hit developing countries the hardest, and because they have less money to throw at the problem. In big cities this might mean raising sea walls to tackle sea level rise or expanding drains to cope with bigger storm surges.
The Millennium Development Goals, despite their shortcomings, have demonstrated that measuring a problem provides an invaluable baseline from which improvements can occur. New adaptation spending figures were gathered and analysed using data triangulation, which draws on many different sources and types of data to arrive at more accurate estimates. Things Londoners or Parisians can take for granted such as clean water or basic healthcare are still pressing issues in Lagos or Mumbai. In these countries we need to think about how to boost cities’ resilience through far more adaptation funding. Just look at Beijing, which stands out because the proportion of its economy devoted to climate adaptation was significantly higher than any other city in the study.
In China, all provinces have a comprehensive adaptation plan and a taskforce to deliver it.
But adaptation spending was more volatile in Addis Ababa and Lagos, the cities in the study that spent the least in real, proportional and per capita terms, and heavily-dependent on a few specific projects. Our study is an early warning sign: we must remain focused on protecting people at risk, and not just the “capital”.
Global oil peak has the potential to shake if not destroy the foundations of global industrial economy and culture. This would be done through effective and sustainable land management policy, capacity, awareness, and practices; and implementation of specific physical adaptation measures, including soil and land stabilisation, river and sea defense, forest and ecosystem restoration. This project seeks to assist member states to adapt to the impacts of Climate Change through strengthening of the enabling environment, human and technical capacity, and awareness for sustainable land management. Back in February 2016 Mark Cameron, Executive Director of Canadians for Clean Prosperity, published an article in Macleans Magazine in which he argues that pipelines and climate targets are not mutually incompatible. It is no surprise, therefore, that it endorses a policy to continue to exploit oil sands resources in Alberta and Saskatchewan and the building of pipelines including Keystone XL, Northern Gateway, Energy East and Kinder Morgan.
He further claims that through this type of program oil sands production could become as clean as conventional petroleum. He argues that Canada’s government and people need to make realistic choices and among these is the building of pipelines, because it means Canadian oil generating Canadian jobs and Canadian tax revenue.
The oil it delivers would supply Canadian refineries and meet Eastern Canada’s domestic demand. Climatologists and scientists contributing to IPCC reports categorically state that meeting the goal requires emission reductions of between 40-­70% below 2010 levels by mid-century.

For this to happen we would need to improve energy efficiency in all industry and residential infrastructure dramatically. Yes but with a proviso that use of carbon emitting energy sources be offset by carbon capture technology. But we did not expect them to be so vast, with New York for instance spending more than ?190 (US$260) per person to protect its people and infrastructure from the impact of climate change, while Ethiopia’s capital Addis Ababa spends less than ?5 ($7). Almost half of this was spent on changes to the built environment such as water efficiency retrofitting – a much higher ratio than any other city – with less going towards health or agriculture.
Climate change has the potential to rearrange the biosphere more radically than the last ice age.
The Department of Disaster Management also received an Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and additional associated training to enhance the local capacity for critical weather and climate data collection, analysis and forecasting. The members of the recipient departments are working hard to collect information so that we can make better, well-informed decisions in the future.
The project also seeks to implement physical measures which demonstrate best adaptation practices for the small, vulnerable island states of the sub-region.
The carbon dioxide emissions entering our atmosphere today combined with the cumulative buildup over the last century have yet to be totally felt.
And that revenue can underwrite the cost of implementing energy conservation and climate adaptation and mitigation policies and projects. He is married with a daughter who works in radio, and a miniature red poodle who is his daily companion on walks of discovery. After all, most things cost a lot more in the US than in Ethiopia, and new drainage systems, air conditioning and so on are no different. The GIS software and GPS devices, as well as the weather station will strengthen our technological capacity to acquire data to track long term weather patterns and better manage our natural resources.
The OECS Commission has stated that it is fulfilling relevant provisions of the Revised Treaty of Basseterre and the St. And surplus product would be available for export to the United States Northeast, the likely customer.
George’s Declaration of Principles for Environmental Sustainability to achieve the long-term protection and sustained productivity of the region’s natural resource base, for broader economic and social development. While awareness of Peak Oil, or at least energy crisis, is increasing, understanding of how these two problems might interact to generate quite different futures, is still at an early state. presents an integrated approach to understanding the potential interaction between Climate Change and Peak Oil using a scenario planning model.
In the process I introduce permaculture as a design system specifically evolved over the last 30 years to creatively respond to futures that involve progressively less and less available energy. May 2008Sunset in Cuba silhouetting powerlines and oilfired power station smokestack in a country still recovering from thefuel and electricity shortagesClick photos on this site for larger versions and descriptions. How to use this site This site is arranged as a long essay broken into micro-chapters. The gallery contains extensive photographs and commentary which illustrate various aspects of the four energy descent scenarios. Also a new menu item on the top right 'print' allows you to read and print the entire main content of the site.

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