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15.07.2015
The federal government has announced $2.49 million in funding for two projects through Both projects are funded through Natural Resources Canada’s Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives program. Mortimer used this diagram to illustrate the relationship between climate change mitigation and adaptation in our current issue. The first project, led by Engineers Canada, will be carried out by its Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee (PIEVC). The second project, led by the Canadian Institute of Planners, will develop and deliver climate change adaptation tools, resources and training to enhance the ability of Canada’s planners to apply climate change information to their work. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. There has been little systematic assessment on their implementation, the extent to which emission reduction targets are being achieved, or emissions reduced. With further urbanization, urban land will dramatically expand (55% of the total urban land in 2030 is expected to be built in the first three decades of the 21st century), large share of global GDP will come from cities, large fraction of global population will live in cities (likely 60% by 2050), more fossil energy will be consumed in cities and consequently, a greater share of global CO2 will come from cities. SaskAdapt is primarily concerned with helping you to understand climate change impacts and successfully adapt to those impacts. Mitigation of climate change - that is actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) within the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide and methane, should be practiced by everyone. Mitigation is occurring across many sectors and is expected to increase in response to government policy, economic pressures and demand for environmental protection. Each source of renewable energy has unique benefits and costs; this page explores the many benefits associated with these energy technologies. Human activity is overloading our atmosphere with carbon dioxide and other global warming emissions, which trap heat, steadily drive up the planet’s temperature, and create significant and harmful impacts on our health, our environment, and our climate. According to data aggregated by the International Panel on Climate Change, life-cycle global warming emissions associated with renewable energy—including manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance, and dismantling and decommissioning—are minimal [3]. Increasing the supply of renewable energy would allow us to replace carbon-intensive energy sources and significantly reduce U.S. Generating electricity from renewable energy rather than fossil fuels offers significant public health benefits. Wind, solar, and hydroelectric systems generate electricity with no associated air pollution emissions.
In addition, wind and solar energy require essentially no water to operate and thus do not pollute water resources or strain supply by competing with agriculture, drinking water systems, or other important water needs. Biomass and geothermal power plants, like coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, require water for cooling. Throughout the United States, strong winds, sunny skies, plant residues, heat from the earth, and fast-moving water can each provide a vast and constantly replenished energy resource supply. Estimates of the technical potential of each renewable energy source are based on their overall availability given certain technological and environmental constraints [8].
Compared with fossil fuel technologies, which are typically mechanized and capital intensive, the renewable energy industry is more labor-intensive.
In addition to the jobs directly created in the renewable energy industry, growth in renewable energy industry creates positive economic “ripple” effects. In addition to creating new jobs, increasing our use of renewable energy offers other important economic development benefits. Renewable energy projects therefore keep money circulating within the local economy, and in most states renewable electricity production would reduce the need to spend money on importing coal and natural gas from other places.
Renewable energy is providing affordable electricity across the country right now, and can help stabilize energy prices in the future.
The costs of renewable energy technologies have declined steadily, and are projected to drop even more.
While renewable facilities require upfront investments to build, once built they operate at very low cost and, for most technologies, the fuel is free. In contrast, fossil fuel prices can vary dramatically and are prone to substantial price swings.


Using more renewable energy can lower the prices of and demand for natural gas and coal by increasing competition and diversifying our energy supplies.
In addition, utilities spend millions of dollars on financial instruments to hedge themselves from these fossil fuel price uncertainties. Wind and solar are less prone to large-scale failure because they are distributed and modular. For example, in 2012 Hurricane Sandy damaged fossil fuel-dominated electric generation and distribution systems in New York and New Jersey and left millions of people without power. The risk of disruptive events will also increase in the future as droughts, heat waves, more intense storms, and increasingly severe wildfires become more frequent due to global warming.
For example, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power depend on large amounts of water for cooling, and limited water availability during a severe drought or heat wave puts electricity generation at risk. We can shift our nation away from dirty fossil fuels and toward cleaner, renewable sources of power—but not without you. The Supreme Court's recent ruling on the Clean Power Plan is a speed bump, not a stop sign. Through the application of an engineering protocol developed by the PIEVC, the project will build expertise and knowledge about the implications of climate change on infrastructure and the practice of engineering in a changing climate. Further, a majority of global population additions will take place in cities of the developing world and, generally, per capita CO2 emissions in cities in developing countries are higher than the national averages.
Similarly, the carbon footprint of a stock can be defined as the historical emissions produced to build up the stock, or as the carbon emissions that would be generated if the existing stock was replaced using current technologies. For more information on their potential impacts — including effective solutions to mitigate or avoid them entirely — see The Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies. Renewable electricity generation from biomass can have a wide range of global warming emissions depending on the resource and how it is harvested. The air and water pollution emitted by coal and natural gas plants is linked to breathing problems, neurological damage, heart attacks, and cancer. While geothermal and biomass energy systems emit some air pollutants, total air emissions are generally much lower than those of coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. In addition, hydroelectric power plants impact river ecosystems both upstream and downstream from the dam. These diverse sources of renewable energy have the technical potential to provide all the electricity the nation needs many times over. In 2012, NREL found that together, renewable energy sources have the technical potential to supply 482,247 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually (see Table 1).
Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS -Based Analysis”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This means that, on average, more jobs are created for each unit of electricity generated from renewable sources than from fossil fuels. For example, in 2011, the wind energy industry directly employed 75,000 full-time-equivalent employees in a variety of capacities, including manufacturing, project development, construction and turbine installation, operations and maintenance, transportation and logistics, and financial, legal, and consulting services [10]. For example, industries in the renewable energy supply chain will benefit, and unrelated local businesses will benefit from increased household and business incomes [17]. Local governments collect property and income taxes and other payments from renewable energy project owners. For example, the average price of a solar panel has dropped almost 60 percent since 2011 [20]. Since hedging costs are not necessary for electricity generated from renewable sources, long-term renewable energy investments can help utilities save money they would otherwise spend to protect their customers from the volatility of fossil fuel prices. Distributed systems are spread out over a large geographical area, so a severe weather event in one location will not cut off power to an entire region.
Renewable energy sources are more resilient than coal, natural gas, and nuclear power plants in the face of these sorts of extreme weather events. Wind and solar photovoltaic systems do not require water to generate electricity, and they can help mitigate risks associated with water scarcity.


Your generous support helps develop science-based solutions for a healthy, safe, and sustainable future. Sign up to receive critical updates and urgent action opportunities from the Union of Concerned Scientists. The project will also help owners and operators plan for climate change in the maintenance and decommissioning of infrastructure. Reproduction in whole or in part is strictly prohibited without prior approval of the publisher.
Fewer climate action plans consider land?use planning strategies and cross?sectoral measures to reduce sprawl and promote transit?oriented development. There are significant uncertainties on ‘quality’ of urbanization of what kind of cities and town that the current urbanization process leads into. As emissions per ton of material produced tend to decline, the replacement value expressed in carbon (here called “carbon replacement value, CRV”) is generally smaller than the historical value expressed in carbon (here called “CHV”).
Sustainably sourced biomass has a low emissions footprint, while unsustainable sources of biomass can generate significant global warming emissions.
For example, a 2009 UCS analysis found that a 25 percent by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would lower power plant CO2 emissions 277 million metric tons annually by 2025—the equivalent of the annual output from 70 typical (600 MW) new coal plants [4]. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy has been found to reduce premature mortality and lost workdays, and it reduces overall healthcare costs [6].
For example, both coal mining and natural gas drilling can pollute sources of drinking water. However, NREL's 80 percent by 2050 renewable energy study, which included biomass and geothermal, found that water withdrawals would decrease 51 percent to 58 percent by 2050 and water consumption would be reduced by 47 percent to 55 percent [7].
July 2012.Today, renewable energy provides only a tiny fraction of its potential electricity output in the United States and worldwide. More than 500 factories in the United States manufacture parts for wind turbines, and the amount of domestically manufactured equipment used in wind turbines has grown dramatically in recent years: from 35 percent in 2006 to 70 percent in 2011 [11, 12]. These revenues can help support vital public services, especially in rural communities where projects are often located. The cost of generating electricity from wind dropped more than 20 percent between 2010 and 2012 and more than 80 percent since 1980 [21].
In this study, we determine the CRV of stocks, because this value is better suited when using the stocks in industrialized countries as a benchmark for stocks in developing countries. However, it is important to note that not all of this technical potential can be tapped due to conflicting land use needs, the higher short-term costs of those resources, constraints on ramping up their use such as limits on transmission capacity, barriers to public acceptance, and other hurdles. But numerous studies have repeatedly shown that renewable energy can be rapidly deployed to provide a significant share of future electricity needs, even after accounting for potential constraints [9]. Owners of the land on which wind projects are built also often receive lease payments ranging from $3,000 to $6,000 per megawatt of installed capacity, as well as payments for power line easements and road rights-of-way. In areas with strong wind resources like Texas, wind power can compete directly with fossil fuels on costs [22]. Even if some of the equipment in the system is damaged, the rest can typically continue to operate. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory explored the feasibility and environmental impacts associated with generating 80 percent of the country’s electricity from renewable sources by 2050 and found that global warming emissions from electricity production could be reduced by approximately 81 percent [5]. The cost of renewable energy will decline even further as markets mature and companies increasingly take advantage of economies of scale. Similarly, farmers and rural landowners can generate new sources of supplemental income by producing feedstocks for biomass power facilities.



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