Culture change with technology,the secret valley cullinan,the secret agent joint - 2016 Feature

21.12.2015
Artist Favianna Rodriguez, who co-founded the immigrant rights organization Culture Strike, reflects on how cultural undercurrents come together to make waves of political change. Art has always been a tool for me to claim space, build power and speak out about the injustices that have shaped my social experience in the United States. To think about how art shapes politics, we need to look far beyond the next political event to consider how we build up a cultural space. In the political world, we experience the wave’s peak moments through events like elections or policy wins, but we don’t always recognize the undercurrents and conditions that lead us there. The environmental and human rights activist Van Jones has made an excellent graph mapping the political ecosystem.
The left side, “action,” often means quantifiable policy changes: a bit more funding here, a higher age limit there.
Artists are represented here on the side of ideas, in the “heart space.” Art is uniquely positioned to move people—inspiring them, inciting new questions and provoking curiosity or outrage.
For the last 20 years, because funding for both the arts and social services has been cut, artists who wish to contribute to social change have often been tasked with holding community workshops.
As artists, we need to communicate more than what we stand against or why particular policies affect us negatively, because limiting our commentary to such reactions would confine the social imaginary to existing political frameworks and systems that we do not control. When people claim that “cultural strategy” is just the communication strategy for a political campaign, I disagree wholeheartedly.
To give you a sense of the time frame in which cultural shifts happen, and how that eventually translates into policy, look at LGBTQ culture, which finally made its way onto mainstream TV in the 1990s. Imagine what it would be like if we could have a Laramie Project for immigrant rights, a play about undocumented youth, become popular in high schools. It’s especially critical for us to work together in the wake of the dismantling of support for the arts since the 1980s. More specifically, we don’t have a robust infrastructure for art committed to social justice, and social-justice organizations are not hiring artists the way they’re hiring organizers. There have been tensions between social-justice spaces and art spaces, too, and that’s understandable; but I think it is important for us to be comfortable with such tensions and take them on in a revolutionary way.
This leads us to the third area: creating cultural policy oriented toward access and equity for artists.
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Cultural Change can be successful only when you have a good understanding of the difference between the culture you currently have, and the culture you are trying to build. One way that you can achieve this measurement, and therefore understanding of the culture, is to pursue the first two steps in the life cycle of a 'top-down' cultural change programme, shown in the diagram.
The audit can be repeated at various stages, most notably at the end, in order to assess the impact of the programme. The most important feature of successful cultural change programmes is the follow-up - but one that is most often left to drift. The behaviours and attitudes in the department often reflect those exhibited in the management team - undertake some management team building and it will have a knock-on effect throughout the whole organisation.
Changing people in influential positions can have an effect on the culture - but their personalities and approach need to be 'different' to the existing culture.
A 'bottom up' programme is more pragmatic - trying to change the culture in a few parts of the organisation and hoping it will spread out from there. In the second part of this article, we'll consider the cost and investment made into cultural change programmes.
The Nursing Home Reform Act, passed in 1987, established quality standards for nursing homes nationwide, emphasized the importance of quality of life, and preserved residents' rights.
In the culture change model, which has gained momentum over the past decade, seniors enjoy much of the privacy and choice they would experience if they were still living in their own homes.
The Commonwealth Fund 2007 National Survey of Nursing Homes In the past decade, there has been growing awareness of culture change among professionals and providers in the field, but the extent to which nursing homes across the country have adopted a resident-centered culture is still unknown. The questionnaire was administered to directors of nursing who were asked about three domains of culture change: resident care, staff culture and working environment, and physical environment. Although survey results are mixed regarding the degree to which nursing homes report they have adopted resident-centered practices, findings indicate a hopeful picture about the potential for deep, systemic change within the industry. Furthermore, the survey shows that in facilities that incorporate some aspects of culture change, the more culture change initiatives that are under way, the greater the benefits in terms of staff retention, higher occupancy rates, better competitive position, and improved operational costs. Using self-reported data from directors of nursing, we categorized nursing homes that participated in the survey as culture change adopters, culture change strivers, or traditional nursing homes (Figure ES-1). In general, nursing homes have been most successful at increasing residents' involvement in decision-making, and there is some evidence that management is accommodating collaborative and decentralized decision-making to empower direct-care workers. Culture change adopters are more likely than traditional facilities to implement resident-centered care approaches. Fifty-eight percent of culture change adopters allow residents to determine their own schedules, compared with only 22 percent of traditional nursing homes (Figure ES-2). Nearly two-thirds (64%) of culture change adopters implement bathing practices that are more resident-centered, while only 37 percent of traditional nursing homes do so. Seven of 10 culture change adopters report that residents are involved in decisions about their facility, but only one-quarter of traditional nursing homes (27%) involve residents in such decisions. Overall, just over half of nursing homes (53%) provide staff with leadership training opportunities but only 15 percent indicate that they currently enable direct care workers to create self-managed work teams and only 14 percent currently cross-train staff to play several functional roles (for example, housekeeping, nursing, food service, and activities) to serve a variety of resident needs. Among culture change adopters, one third (32%) support self-managed work teams yet far fewer traditional homes do so.
Fifty-nine percent of culture change adopters include direct care workers and residents on the senior management team, compared with only 24 percent of traditional nursing homes. Culture change adopters are more likely than traditional homes to consistently assign the same aides to residents (86% vs.
On average, nursing homes report that only 8 percent of residents currently reside in neighborhoods and only 1 percent live in households.
Only 16 percent of culture change adopters report they are currently breaking down large units into smaller operational units and only 7 percent have eliminated large nursing stations, which are often given prominent placement in the center of the unit in institutional-style nursing homes. While more nursing homes are making the dining experience resident-centered, progress in this area is still slow. Nearly half (46%) of culture change adopters report they have changed how meals are served. The more culture change principles are embraced, the greater the increase in staff retention and occupancy rates and the greater the decrease in operational costs. Among facilities that are engaged in some aspect of culture change, 78 percent currently implementing seven or more culture change initiatives report that culture change has improved their competitive advantage in their market area.
Another 60 percent of nursing homes that are currently implementing at least seven or more culture change initiatives report improved occupancy rates, while only 44 percent with three or fewer culture change initiatives under way reportthis improvement.
Half of nursing homes that are most engaged in culture change report that staff absenteeism decreased; in contrast, only one-third of nursing homes with three or fewer culture change initiatives under way report this improvement in staff absenteeism.
The Commonwealth Fund 2007 National Survey of Nursing Homes finds that while many nursing homes are aware of the "culture change" movement, progress has been slow in transforming long-term care facilities from institutions to homes. The mission of The Commonwealth Fund is to promote a high-performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society's most vulnerable, including low-income people, the uninsured, minority Americans, young children, and elderly adults.
The organizational culture must be ready and capable of supporting and sustaining the change at hand.
Whether embarking on a new direction, establishing a new organizational vision or questioning why your turnover rates are above industry norms, it is critical to start by assessing the present day culture of the organization.


As qualified associates trained in the use of Culture-Strategy Fit™** Assessment tools we can analyze and determine which tool(s) would best serve the evaluation phase of a change initiative. Growing up in the age of “free trade,” amid an expansion of anti-immigrant policies, led me to develop art about these issues. Jeff Chang, a brilliant hip-hop critic and journalist, and one of my collaborators in co-founding Culture Strike, has encouraged us to imagine a wave when we think about political change. In the world of art and culture, many of us help construct the conditions that lead to this climax. On the left you have action, and on the right, ideas; elites are at the top, and the masses are below.
Normally, and especially when we are in campaign mode, we tend to think about what artists can contribute to the action space. While this is important, it also means we move further away from giving artists the space, time and resources to create a body of work. We should also present our vision for who we are, and show why that vision is a positive one.
With communication strategy you are still in the action space, meeting the needs of the campaign or reacting to dominant messages in the media.
Ellen DeGeneres came out in 1997, and Will & Grace started broadcasting the following year.
How long would it take us to get to a place where migration was viewed as normal and natural, and where we respected the human rights of people who have crossed national borders? Upon taking office, Ronald Reagan aimed to eliminate funding for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) entirely. Artists who are interested in social justice are left without a pathway, even at art schools or music schools. Collaborations between artists and political organizers have definitely happened throughout history, as we saw so clearly with liberation movements like “Black is Beautiful” or the Chicano arts movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and with the anti-apartheid struggles that peaked in the 1980s with widespread cultural boycotts of South Africa. This is how we will build the infrastructure and networks needed to help socially engaged artists thrive. The gutting of the public sector created a huge commercial sector that dominates art schools and art institutions.
In many ways, artists are seasonal workers; their practice does not bring them a steady workflow. It discusses one of the biggest issues for cultural change programmes - how to ensure the change is real and lasting - and outlines some of the alternative approaches that can be used. Clear and objective measurement is one common feature of successful cultural change programmes. It starts with defining in precise terms the culture you are trying to build, which can be used to determine the change you need to make. In fact, as in many walks of life, measurement is an important key to reducing the risk of failure. Without good follow up, all the effort put into the earlier stages can be lost, and the organisation may revert to its original state, or worse. That is, you need to achieve a situation where all of management and staff are both able and willing to change. A very powerful form of measurement is to obtain customer feedback on the service provided - this provides a significant motivation for change across all levels of management and staff. They also need to be encouraged in bringing a fresh approach, or else it might be their behaviour that changes (by conforming) rather than the culture. But beware - as Caesar first observed, reorganisation can simply be a substitute for achievement. Having 'a mission' is not good enough - it has to be a 'motivating mission' that inspires people and makes them feel good about coming to work.
However, despite enactment of this law, serious concerns remain about the quality of care provided to residents in the nation's 16,000 nursing homes.
Residents' needs and preferences come first; facilities operations' are shaped by this awareness. In 2007, The Commonwealth Fund conducted a nationally representative survey of nursing homes to learn more about the penetration of the culture change movement at the national level and measure the extent to which nursing homes are adopting culture change principles and practicing resident-centered care. Specifically, the survey examines whether nursing homes have adopted practices that make care more resident-directed, that engender a work environment that fosters staff autonomy and decentralized decision-making, and that alter the physical environment to make their facilities look and function like a home, rather than a hospital.
Four or five years ago, few nursing homes were familiar with the term "culture change." Today it is recognized by and familiar to almost all providers.
As the awareness of these and other competitive and operational advantages becomes more widely known, it is likely that many more nursing homes will begin to shift toward making the changes in human resource management, the physical environment, and care delivery that are the hallmarks of resident-centered care. Only 5 percent of nursing homes report that the definition of culture change or resident-directed care "completely" describes their home. The 25 percent of nursing homes in this category indicate that the definition of culture change describes their nursing home "in a few respects" or "not at all" but leadership is "extremely" or "very" committed to adopting culture change. The remaining 43 percent of facilities that fall into this group say that the definition of culture change describes their nursing home "not at all" or only "in a few respects" and the leadership is only "somewhat," "not very," or "not at all" committed to the adoption of culture change (Figure ES-1). However, very little organizational redesign has penetrated the field and very few homes have changed their physical environment to support culture change. The survey finds that there is wide variation among nursing homes in terms of the choices and autonomy given to residents and in providing environments that are resident-centered (Figure ES-2).
Overall, a minority of nursing homes have undergone organizational changes, such as supporting a team approach for workers or cross-training staff, which makes the organization less hierarchical and empowers direct care nursing home staff. Very few nursing homes have renovated their traditional nursing units into "neighborhoods"—smaller functional areas that can include common community and dining areas—or "households," which are small home settings with a full kitchen, dining room and living areas for 25 or fewer residents and their dedicated staff.
As nursing homes become more engaged in culture change and adopt more of its associated practices, staff retention, market competitiveness, occupancy rates, and operational costs also improve (Figure ES-3).
In contrast, only 54 percent of nursing homes that are implementing three or fewer culture change initiatives report such an improvement. Nursing homes that are considered strivers—that is, they are not yet culture change adopters, but have leaders who are committed to culture change and resident-directed care—are similar to the culture change adopters in their ability to provide resident-directed care.
But with the examples and best practices gleaned from the culture change movement, nursing homes can begin to make the necessary changes to improve the quality of life for their residents and staff. For nearly a decade, most of my art directly served the immediate, short-term needs of social movement work. Normally, when we envision a wave, we think about a climactic event, but in order to reach the peak, all kinds of forces—many of which you cannot see—need to come together. Culture is a space where we can introduce ideas, attach emotions to concrete change and win enthusiasm for our values. You may attend a rally or vote, but you also read books, listen to music, engage with visual art, turn on the radio and create your identity through culture.
We are not necessarily talking about concrete things here, but rather, a “head space.” Academic institutions and think tanks, which are not always involved in the immediate policy wins, are significant in creating a culture of thought. Artists are immediately channeled into an action space because their contributions are viewed in transactional ways. Soon after came the Laramie Project, a play about the life of gay college student Matthew Shepard—who was tortured and murdered in 1998—that was performed in high schools across the country.
He didn’t get there, but when Republicans gained control of both chambers of Congress in the mid-1990s, right-wing groups like the American Family Association pushed them to decimate NEA funding. Not just 10 or 20 artists, but hundreds, and while they’re young and excited to shape the world around them.


Many of us haven’t figured out how to measure the impact we’re having on the world of ideas because we stay in the action space. So while we think about creative strategies for mobilization, we also have to rebuild the space for artists to engage in public service. How can we conceive of artists’ roles in a more expansive way—not just making posters, but also contributing visionary ideas for social change? Without this information, the planning stage cannot be properly focused, and is therefore a bit of a 'stab in the dark'. It can provide an early warning system for when things are not going as planned, enabling management to take appropriate corrective action. It will also build cynicism that makes it difficult for management to implement future programmes. To improve the quality of care and the quality of life for nursing home residents, a growing movement, known as "culture change," is working to deinstitutionalize long-term care and radically transform the nursing home environment. To this end, nursing home residents are given greater control over their daily lives—for instance, in terms of meal times or bed times, and frontline workers—the nursing aides responsible for day-to-day care—are given greater autonomy to care for residents.
A representative sample of 1,435 nursing homes was surveyed between February and June 2007. If the first step to change is awareness of a problem and the availability of an alternative, then the field of nursing home care is indeed poised for transformation. An additional 25 percent indicate that their nursing home "for the most part" fits the description of a culture change. About 30 to 40 percent of all nursing homes report they are currently implementing some principle of culture change that fosters resident-directed care, including allowing residents to determine their own daily schedules, practicing resident-centered bathing techniques, or by actively involving residents in nursing home decisions. But, direct care workers are more likely to have leadership opportunities and be authorized to make decisions about delivering resident care in nursing facilities that self-identify as culture change adopters.
Even culture change adopters have difficulty altering their physical environments to make facilities more home-like. They also demonstrate that they are moving toward being the type of facility that empowers workers, provides direct-care workers with leadership opportunities, encourages decentralized decision-making, and allows staff to make decisions about resident care.
Separately, I would spend time developing my own body of work in my studio or collaborating with other artists. Art is where we can change the narrative, because it’s where people can imagine what change looks and feels like. On the inside, there’s big money: elites are throwing millions of dollars into political lobbying. But we should also ask ourselves, “What are the valuable contributions artists can make in the idea space?” Artists don’t think like policy folks. We want artists to be able to work across the spectrum of “action” and “ideas,” because they have the ability to inspire masses of people through their fan bases. Just this past week, TIME magazine published its April edition with a title claiming “Gay Marriage Already Won.” The cover story chronicles how the American public moved from considering marriage equality unthinkable to inevitable in less than 20 years.
From a budget hovering between $160 million and $180 million from 1984–1995 (a period during which funding already lagged behind the rate of inflation), Congress brought NEA funding below $100 million in 1996. Venues like the Los Angeles-based Self Help Graphics & Art, a Latino art center that has united and strengthened a community in need since 1973, are exceptions. We’re not thinking about the kind of transformation that will happen five years from now in someone who, for example, looks at the art of Ramiro Gomez Jr. We need to push anti-migrant policies to the extreme fringes, as LGBTQ rights activists did with anti-gay messages. How are we developing artist leadership in the field of cultural organizing, which is about merging our social justice practices with our art practices?
If you don’t have papers, the likelihood of your getting public arts funding is pretty much nonexistent. There are many important short-term needs right now, but we need to look beyond immediate concerns and build up all the forces in our movement, until it becomes an unstoppable wave. In addition, the physical and organizational structure of facilities is made less institutional. A total of 31 percent of surveyed nursing homes are considered culture change adopters (numbers do not add because of rounding). Indeed, culture change strivers reported significantly more positive responses on all measures related to improving staff working environments, compared with traditional nursing homes. Take the new concept I have been working on, the idea that “migration is beautiful.” It’s very different to say “No on SB 1070” than to say “migration is beautiful,” because the latter message opens up a positive way of seeing migrants, whereas the former statement simply reacts to an immoral law. The injection of gay-friendly content into all aspects of our culture, from TV to high-school curricula and even sports, clearly spoke to our collective imagination. You’re not expecting to debate the merits of a political message when you listen to music or read a book. Gay-straight alliances are now the norm in high schools, which wasn’t the case 20 years ago. Furthermore, schools focused on art or music haven’t caught up with math and science schools in accepting undocumented youth. Large, hospital-like units with long, wide corridors are transformed into smaller facilities where small groups of residents are cared for by a consistent team. These findings reiterate the importance of a committed leadership for encouraging culture change.
Neither the art-and-culture sector nor the social-justice sector was effectively building models for creative collaboration. On the outside, we apply tremendous pressure so that our elected officials pass laws that give us power.
So when we talk about tomorrow’s cultural policies, we should think about the whole spectrum of activity, from immediate actions to campaigns to ideas, because we need to give artists the space to develop their bodies of work over years. It took decades, but we’ve had major policy wins in the LGBTQ sector: hate crimes legislation in the form of the Matthew Shepard Act, the repeal of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” and the legalization of gay marriage (in a minority of states, for now, with more progress on the horizon). You’re more open to how culture is going to transform you, so you walk into it with an open heart. What policy changes do we need to make in the national arts infrastructure so that our field can grow, and so that we are respected by both the art world and the social-justice world? The Occupy and immigrant rights movements are forceful players in this outside game, making sure that the inside is moving. Culture creates a ripe environment for issue-based organizing or “get out the vote” efforts. We can’t necessarily claim that reading a novel or watching a sci-fi movie—say, Alex Rivera’s Sleep Dealer (2008), a dystopian film about migrant labor—will move people to action, but the experience expands our imaginations and creates a climate where we can be visionary. Findings From The Commonwealth Fund 2007 National Survey of Nursing Homes, The Commonwealth Fund, May 2008. We need to understand timing politically to know when it makes sense for cultural interventions to happen.



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