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On April 25, 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published their groundbreaking discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. Chances are you've seen an illustration of DNA's double-helix structure and even pictures of the chromosomes that make up the human genome.
The human body contains about 100 trillion cells, each working together in a complex symphony of interactions. Although the DNA code from cell to cell is the same, there are many different types of cells within the body, each with a specific function.
These cells and others in the body are exact copies of their parent cells—they formed when their parent cells divided. Within every cell (except red blood cells) is a nucleus—a sphere-like structure separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane. The single chromosome displayed here and those on the previous screen are shown in their most compacted state—they're about to divide, along with the cell, through the process of mitosis. Genes determine whether you have brown eyes or blue, long toes or short, and much, much more. There's a lot of DNA within the nucleus—about six feet if you could unravel it and stretch it out end to end. The DNA molecule is made up of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). The sides of the DNA ladder consist of a long string of sugar and phosphate molecules, to which the bases are attached. Please feel free to visit out sister store that specializes in Dominican amber with identified insects.

Finally, if you feel more comfortable, feel free to call us at 719-937-6762 (this is in the United States).
But their crucial breakthrough depended on the pioneering work of another biologist, Rosalind Franklin.
But where and how does the famous double helix fit into chromosomes, and how do chromosomes relate to the human body?
With the exception of red blood cells, which contain no nucleus and no nuclear DNA, every one of these cells contains the human genome—a string of three billion A's, C's, G's, and T's. For example, the long, narrow muscle cell is designed to contract, the branching neuron is designed to send and receive electrochemical impulses, and the squarish cell that lines the wall of the small intestine is designed to filter nutrients from food.
The nucleus acts as the cell's control center, regulating its growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Genes also control everything from how your cells grow to how they interact with one another.
To fit such a long molecule within the tiny space of the nucleus, DNA bends and loops in several ways.
The DNA is wrapped around histones—protein structures that are sometimes depicted as discs.
With the help of her photograph, James Watson and Francis Crick were able to piece together the first accurate model of DNA. 50 years later, NOVA investigates the shocking truth behind one of the greatest scientific discoveries and presents a moving portrait of a brilliant woman in an era of male-dominated science. Here, travel into the tiny world of DNA, all the way down to the level of the atoms that make up a single DNA base.

And in every one of the 100 trillion cells, the sequence of these four letters, or bases, is nearly identical. About 97 percent of the genome consists of sequences that don't code for proteins and have no known function. A single gene can range in length from as few as 100 DNA bases to as many as several million. The largest of these loops results from the helical coiling of chromatin (the thick line in this illustration). Shown here is the structure of naked DNA—DNA without all of the proteins that organize it into chromatin. And though the task of determining the sequence is over, that of understanding the sequence is just beginning. If they didn't, all of the body's cells would be exactly like the single egg cell from which they all originated. Figuring out how these three billion bases code for a human being will keep researchers busy for many decades to come. This production of new types of cells is the result of DNA "turning on" and "turning off" different sections of the information it stores. Not only does it give Rosalind Franklin the credit she earned, but it reveals the human interest story behind perhaps the most significant biological discovery of the 20th century.

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