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04.10.2015
Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made.
Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. History of Felts in Turkey,Felts have not been well preserved in Turkey as they were considered of little cultural significance. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres.
Mehmet Girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants called Theresa May O'Brien. In the lesson you will make the whole stages of a Felt making process and by the evening, you will be able to finish 1 item like a hat, bag, shoe, a scarf or a design that you choose.. Please send us an e-mail if you are interested in participating our classes as individual or a student group.
Mystical craft guilds, known as ahi, in Ottoman Turkey oversaw the production and quality of felt and the behavior of its makers.
Many Turkish baths (hamamlar) had designated areas dedicated to felt production, as their extreme heat and moisture provided an ideal environment for feltmaking, especially during the winter months. In a hybrid of the two methods of patterning felt previously mentioned, Anatolian craftsmen use partially felted fabric of varying colors called “pre-felt” to cut the patterns that form the decorative elements of the carpet, resulting in a more clearly defined design than ala khiz.
Next, the rug is unrolled, the edges are trimmed, and the pattern is adjusted before it is placed in a steaming machine for the fulling. In the neighboring province of Erzurum similar red caps are worn in the villages, and in the northwestern province of Kirklareli you will come across men wearing maroon felt fezzes.
While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. But the writings of the seventeenth-century Turkish travel writer Evliya Celebi record many practical uses for felt. The craftsman placed his felt on raised platforms and exerted pressure by pounding his chest on the fleece in order to achieve the necessary shrinkage.
Once the pre-felt elements are laid in position on the reed mat, they are covered evenly with the background fleece using a forked tool of cherry wood called a cubuk . One of their most interesting products is the stiff felt cloak known as kepenek worn by shepherds. In Hakkari in southeast Turkey people wear slippers known as refik, harik or herik, sewn from layers of felt and wool. Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Traditional Turkish Felt Making,Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres. In the palace at Bitlis, lemons and oranges were preserved in winter by wrapping them in felt; and, in Amasya, near Tokat, felt was used as a strainer for mulberry, grape, and quince juices.
The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters. In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.
The last hamamlar that produced felt were in Konya and Urfa; by the last quarter of the twentieth century, many hand-felting processes were replaced by machines. Additional layers of fleece follow, each sprinkled with water through a long-fibered straw brush before being rolled in the reed mat, wrapped in plastic, and sent to a mechanical “kicking” machine for hardening, the first stage of the shrinkage process. Every twenty minutes, the rug is removed and re-rolled both inside out and back to front to ensure even felting. These distinctive garments protect the wearer from heat in summer and from cold and wet in winter. In Erzerum, where winters were long and houses built of stone, felt and canvas treated with beeswax served as insulation under the roof. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. When an apprentice was ready to open his own shop, the masters were invited to a juried event, at which the apprentice demonstrated the making of a shepherd’s coat, prepared a meal for the judges, and gave a bar of olive oil soap to all in attendance.


Today, in the wool bazaar of Konya, fleece is washed in vast pools of water, aided by a mechanized, rake-like fork that agitates the fibers, before they are rinsed and hung to dry. Here it is turned and pounded for three hours, or “kicked” by the feltmakers, who rhythmically roll the felt forward with their right foot and backward with their left, hands on their knees for pressure. This process continues for six hours, which causes shrinkage of forty percent and makes the felt impervious to moisture. Indoors, plain felt blankets made of white wool are spread over cushions for sitting on in winter, and felt mats are laid over both seats and beds. Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking. In Bursa, during the month of July, the snow sellers brought ice wrapped in felt to the cities on mules.
The Surname (Book of Festivities) of Murad Ill, a manuscript of text and miniature paintings, commemorates the circumcision of Crown Prince Mehmet in Istanbul in 1582. Carding—the aligning and separating of fibers—was originally done by hand, but is now accomplished by a machine with large steel teeth, that combs the fibers as they are fed through. While it is a dwindling tradition, feltmaking workshops in Konyo, Afyon, Tire, Balikesir, Urfa, and Mardin still produce shepherd’s cloaks and carpets. Colourfully embroidered felt saddle cloths are spread beneath horses saddles to soak up the sweat. They also transported ice in felt bags for the court kitchens, harem, and Grand Vizier in Istanbul.
In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic,mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants.
The imperial celebration lasted for fifty two days and nights and included a procession of the Istanbul guilds.
Felt was once an indispensable part of daily life, also used to make saddle bags, shoes, headgear, mats, prayer rugs, and many other garments and household objects in various colors. Evliya also describes the clothing of the men making canons in the arsenal, who wore felt clothing to save their bodies from the “blazes of hell.”hakan hacibekiroglu,Mystical craft guilds, known as ahi, in Ottoman Turkey oversaw the production and quality of felt and the behavior of its makers. The manuscript states, ”The felt makers were dressed in bizarre and fearsome costumes with robes and turbans made (made both inside and out) of colored felt.
In the eastern province of Agri you can still see men wearing the traditional kullik, a conical brown or white felt cap made from lamb’s wool. Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul.
They also pulled behind them a figure of a lion fashioned of felt.”Many Turkish baths (hamamlar) had designated areas dedicated to felt production, as their extreme heat and moisture provided an ideal environment for feltmaking, especially during the winter months. She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric).
This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. Carding—the aligning and separating of fibers—was originally done by hand, but is now accomplished by a machine with large steel teeth, that combs the fibers as they are fed through.In a hybrid of the two methods of patterning felt previously mentioned, Anatolian craftsmen use partially felted fabric of varying colors called “pre-felt” to cut the patterns that form the decorative elements of the carpet, resulting in a more clearly defined design than ala khiz. It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Upon completion, the pre-felt patterns are firmly felted to the fleece of the background.Next, the rug is unrolled, the edges are trimmed, and the pattern is adjusted before it is placed in a steaming machine for the fulling.
Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues. While it is a dwindling tradition, feltmaking workshops in Konyo, Afyon, Tire, Balikesir, Urfa, and Mardin still produce shepherd’s cloaks and carpets.“The last remaining felt makers are to be found in such Turkish provinces as Afyon, Sanliurfa, Konya, Balikesir, Izmir, Kars and Erzurum.


By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. Patience and a good knowledge of traditional culture are characteristic of ebru masters.After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’.
Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. Also, early texts dealing with ebru, such as “Discourse on decorating paper in the Turkish manner”, published in 1664 by Athanasius Kircher in Rome, helped to disseminate the knowledge of this kind of marbling art. There is agreement amongst scholars that the so-called Turkish Papers played a colourful influence on the book arts in Europe.MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLING Gum tragacath – Dye – Paintbrush – Basin – Water – Paper - Gall Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”.
The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces . Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye.
In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable.
Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface.
For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3.
MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe. The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”.
When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”. In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”. If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors.
Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu).
The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface.
This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any).
Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name.
It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs.



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