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Climate change is recognised as a serious and cross cutting issue and the UK is the first country in the world to have introduced legally binding climate change legislation under the 2008 Climate Change Act. According to Safeguarding our Soils, a Strategy for England (Defra 2009) soil plays a vital role in the fight against climate change.
Green infrastructure provides areas where natural processes, such as evapotranspiration and runoff interception, can continue to occur. The functionality of open green spaces becomes increasingly important when viewed against the backdrop of a changing climate. A different climate will have implications for the costs of, and approaches to, maintaining spaces such as increased watering during droughts, greater pressure on spaces as they are used more intensively and an effect on the health of some species of vegetation. Even as climate change tests the strategies of designers and planners, it provides them with opportunities. Courtyards, especially when coupled with vegetation and water features, help to moderate the microclimates of surrounding environments. Reducing the need for mechanical cooling in buildings has been a focus for UK planning guidance for some time and there is a growing interest in using design techniques to alter the temperature balance of cities.
In fact, policies should be used to encourage the optimal composition of urban green space through green space strategies. Figures produced by PriceWaterhouseCoopers show how a shift in spending from grey to green of just 0.5% could increase investment in urban green space by 141%.
Green infrastructure supplies a route to climate change adaptation that can be applied across a range of urban settings, helping to reduce urban temperatures and carbon emissions. The Climate Change Science Compendium is a review of some 400 major scientific contributions to our understanding of Earth Systems and climate that have been released through peer-reviewed literature or from research institutions over the last three years, since the close of research for consideration by the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Focusing on work that brings new insights to aspects of Earth System Science at various scales, it discusses findings from the International Polar Year and from new technologies that enhance our abilities to see the Eartha€™s Systems in new ways. An up-dated version of the Climate Change Science Compendium 2009 was uploaded to the Internet on 21 October 2009. The direct warming influence of all long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere today attributable to human activities.
Carbon dioxide remains the undisputed king of recent climate change, but other greenhouse gases measurably contribute to the problem.
Discussions with colleagues around the time of the 2009 United Nations’ climate conference in Copenhagen inspired three NOAA scientists – Stephen Montzka, Ed Dlugokencky and James Butler of NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colo. Scientists know that stabilizing the warming effect of CO2 in the atmosphere would require a decrease of about 80 percent in human-caused CO2 emissions — in part because some of the carbon dioxide emitted today will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. The new review paper describes the major human activities responsible for these emissions, and notes that steep cuts (such as 80 percent) would be difficult.
The climate-related benefits of reductions in non-CO2 greenhouse gases have limits, Montzka and his colleagues showed.
The scientists also noted in the paper the complicated connections between climate and greenhouse gases, some of which are not yet fully understood. NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources.
To register as a delegate, speaker, submit a paper or take a display space please send an email here.
There are a huge number of effects of climate change.Already, millions of people are dying each year. Each year, an increasingly larger amount of people will be affected with over 90 % of victims living in developing countries. However, the effects of climate change include a change in weather patterns, precipitation, sea level rise, and wildlife.A combination of changes in precipitation and weather patterns will bring forth droughts in one sector and great floods in a neighbouring areas. Dust storms, also known as sandstorms, will have tremendous consequences on agriculture.Moreover, it will spread disease and pollution to hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Mass desertification is occurring at an increasing rate and is one of the least known effects of climate change. The mass extinction of species is one of the most troubling effects of climate change.We humans have the technology to help us adapt to drastic changes in weather patterns but animals do not stand a chance. Both the melting polar ice caps and melting glaciers pose serious threats to human civilization.
The effects of climate change are extremely important in today's society and will have a large impact on human life across the world.In the future, wars over natural resources could result in millions or even billions of casualties. Sustainable T-Shirt Mar 31, 16 02:46 PMYou can now have a sustainable t-shirt made from recycled plastic water bottles!
The Second Largest Rainforest Bosawas, Nicaragua, Is in Danger Mar 25, 16 11:50 PMIn 1997 the government created the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, in the northeastern area of Nicaragua, Central America.
The Truth About Wind Power Mar 18, 16 08:34 PMToday, cities, states, countries and companies around the world are increasingly turning to wind energy to power their everyday lives.
The new report is the first to integrate scientists' knowledge about groundwater in the U.S.
Climate models predict that in general, wet regions will become wetter and dry regions will become drier. Groundwater is already being withdrawn from the aquifers of California's Central Valley, the central and southern portions of the High Plains and Arizona's San Pedro faster than the groundwater is being recharged. Climate change will make the groundwater deficits worse in those aquifers, the researchers report.
The orange lines delineate the eight groundwater aquifers in the western US that a University of Arizona-led research team studied to examine how climate change will affect groundwater in the western US. For the Death Valley and Wasatch Front aquifers, the effect of climate change on the balance between usage and recharge isn't so predictable. In contrast, western aquifers at about the latitude of Boulder, Colorado and further north are likely to be recharged faster than people withdraw the water, the team reports.

The team's research article, "Implications of projected climate change for groundwater recharge in the western United States," is now online and is scheduled for publication in the March issue of the Journal of Hydrology. To synthesize existing knowledge and predict how climate change would affect western groundwater, Meixner gathered 16 experts in climate change and in hydrology of the western U.S. Predictions at the major river basin or several-state level can be useful for developing water policy, the team wrote. To create regional-scale predications, the scientists synthesized existing studies and applied current knowledge of recharge processes.
To compare all eight aquifers, the team developed a uniform classification scheme for the components of groundwater recharge. Some types of recharge are more easily affected by human behavior and water policy than others. In contrast, human behavior has a much smaller effect on diffuse and mountain-systems recharge. The San Pedro aquifer in southeastern Arizona is one example of an aquifer where the human use of groundwater will increasingly outstrip recharge as the climate warms, the researchers report.
When more groundwater is pumped than is replaced by recharge, rivers can be sucked dry, as happened to the Santa Cruz River in Tucson, Meixner said. A portion of the groundwater in the upper Patapsco aquifer underlying Maryland is over a million years old. Australia's limestone caves hold precious clues to Australia's groundwater a€“ the nation's most important savings bank of fresh water, a leading water scientist says. Tropical groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics as intense rainfall favours the replenishment of these resources, according to a new study published in Environmental Research Letters. The saltiness, or salinity, of seawater depends largely on how much moisture is pulled into the air as evaporative winds sweep over the ocean. Researchers from MIT, Princeton University, and elsewhere have developed a new technique to monitor the seasonal changes in Greenland's ice sheet, using seismic vibrations generated by crashing ocean waves. Humidity can make us feel miserablea€”think of sultry summer days in Chicago, for examplea€”but humans do not have dedicated sensory systems in the skin to detect water vapor in the air. Nowhere today is the biodiversity of corals and reef-inhabiting fish higher than in the tropical waters around Indonesia and its neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Researchers at the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) have taken part in a study of the effect of one molecule, 3-nitrooxypropanol, in inhibiting methane production in ruminants. Public Utilities Commission Chair Randy Iwase blasted Hawaiian Electric (HECO) for terminating a contract for three solar farms on Oahu. I think we should be asking : "Are we going to continue to allow California to suck the water away from the rest of the nation?" They have shown they are grossly irresponsible when it comes to managing resources. As a former Plant Engineer for a large iron foundry in the Bay Area in the late 1970's, I can assure you everything changed when we tackled the pollution problem, and cleaned it up.You might see how much clean power we produce, too. Wet and dry regions occur as a result of climate and microclimate patterns, not warmer or colder weather. Open spaces and previously developed  land (PDL) can and will make a valuable contribution to helping both to reduce concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (the cause of climate change), and to help adapt effectively to the impacts of change (building resilience to a changing climate).
Trees and vegetation have a natural cooling effect as they provide shade, potentially reducing surface temperature, by 5°C, to 20°C. However, ecosystem services provided by green infrastructure are often overlooked and undervalued. The UKCIP09 climate change scenarios suggest increases in the average summer temperature of between 1°C and 5°C by the 2080s and an increase of 30% in average winter rainfall. Urban green spaces require an effective program of maintenance and limitations on water use, which can often stem from extended dry periods, and can affect the health of vegetated surfaces.
Central courtyards or semi-open shaded spaces provide “cool pools” for cross ventilation of nearby spaces. The rising recognition of the importance of green infrastructure has implications for policies that encourage infill development, higher housing densities and the reduction or loss of gardens. It may even be feasible to consider influencing the public through education, social pressure and incentives to improve the likelihood that people will change their behaviour to improve conditions.
Using these figures, CABE has urged government to set up a national green infrastructure taskforce and for local government to be equipped with the skills necessary to design and manage green infrastructure. Clear guidance is needed for local authorities and other practitioners on how to manage public urban green spaces to respond to a warmer future. However, it is important to ensure that local conditions are properly considered and planned for.
Instead, it is a presentation of some exciting scientific findings, interpretations, ideas, and conclusions that have emerged among scientists. Evidence of unexpected rates of change in Arctic sea ice extent, ocean acidification, and species loss emphasizes the urgency needed to develop management strategies for addressing climate change. It follows feed-back from researchers, experts and members of the public following the launch last month. The combined influence of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is equivalent to the heat from about 5 trillion bulbs. A new study, conducted by NOAA scientists and published online today in Nature, shows that cutting emissions of those other gases could slow changes in climate that are expected in the future. In contrast, cutting all long-lived non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent could diminish their climate warming effect substantially within a couple of decades. Without substantial changes to human behavior, emissions of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases are expected to continue to increase.
Even if all human-related, non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions could be eliminated today, it would not be enough to stabilize the warming influence from all greenhouse gases over the next 40 years – unless CO2 emissions were also cut significantly. The non-CO2 gases studied have natural sources as well as human emissions, and climate change could amplify or dampen some of those natural processes, Dlugokencky said.

With climate change, they are getting more destructive.An example would be events that have unfolded in Zhejang province, China in June 2011.
Needless to say, Venice will be in hot water.Nearly 100 million people live within 1 meter (nearly 3 feet) from average sea level and thus will potentially lose their homes. Indisputably, climate change is mankind's greatest challenge and we cannot afford to ignore it any longer.Please, do your part to help stop climate change.
The northern aquifers the researchers studied are the northern High Plains, the Spokane Valley, the Williston Basin and the Columbia plateau. However, the team found predictions from existing studies were either at a global scale or at the local level, not at the regional level.
The team studied eight economically important western aquifers for which studies about their groundwater recharge budgets existed. The scientists identified four different components of groundwater recharge: diffuse, focused, irrigation and mountain system. Human decision-making can easily affect irrigation recharge, water that percolates deep into the soil from irrigating crops, and focused recharge, water that reaches the groundwater from streams or runoff. Diffuse recharge comes from the precipitation that falls on a specific spot and then percolates down into the groundwater. Much of the San Pedro's current recharge comes from mountain-system recharge, which the scientists expect will dwindle as more precipitation falls in the mountains as rain rather than snow and as the region dries. Once the Santa Cruz flowed year-round; now in Tucson the river has water only after heavy rains.
Implications of projected climate change for groundwater recharge in the western United States, Journal of Hydrology (2016). He threatened further investigation."When the utility kills cheaper renewable projects to announce new fossil fuel plants, it sounds bad. After all they put about 2 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere every year and do nothing about global warming. If, as they say, our climate is warming, all of those patterns are likely to change, and the localities of future wet or dry regions are essentially unpredictable with our current knowledge. In addition, evapotranspiration from vegetation consumes a significant proportion of the available heat energy in the atmosphere.
These scenarios do not take the urban surface into account and the factor of increase is likely to be significantly higher in densely urbanised areas. The need to manage high temperatures and reduce the effects of floods and droughts justifies the creation and maintenance of green infrastructure.
The temperature of air drawn into courtyards is cooled by each courtyards mass, vegetation and a lack of insolation. However, there are limiting factors that cannot be altered, such as soil type, and designers need to find innovative ways of incorporating adaptations into new buildings.
CABE argues that a shift is needed in public spending from grey projects, like road building and heavy engineering projects, to green schemes like street trees, parks, green roofs and waterways. There is a need to adopt innovative design and engineering approaches to reduce urban temperatures and adapt to the future climate. UNEP welcomes further constructive comments so that the report evolves as a living document containing the latest peer-reviewed science.
The category “other”includes a few very long-lived chemicals that can exert a climate influence for millennia. Therefore cutting emissions would quickly reduce their direct radiative forcing — a measure of warming influence.
Increasingly warm and dry conditions in the Arctic, for example, could thaw permafrost and increase the frequency of wildfires, both of which would send more methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, in the last few decades it has changed at such a rate that animal life could not adapt to it.Evolution is a process that requires millions of years and life has a remarkable ability to adapt. In addition, models of how climate change would affect recharge were available for four of the aquifers. Snowmelt can also percolate into the soil and eventually reach the valley below as the water moves downhill through the bedrock underlying the mountains. But worse, it could mean the utility is actually killing off competition from cheaper renewable generators that would have competed with its own fossil fuel plants which it wants to maximize profits from." - Rep.
This energy is used to convert water in the leaves into water vapour, which is then transpired through the trees. Although sub-optimal, dead vegetation’s climate moderating effects remain an improvement on traditional roofing mediums.
This leads to further positive spin-offs, as urban green spaces play a significant role in improving air quality and preserving biodiversity.
This natural ventilation reduces the need for mechanical cooling and thereby the carbon footprint of a building. Future proofing adaptation techniques need to take account of emerging technologies, the embedded carbon of solutions and the constraints imposed by future requirements.
However, when it changes in mere decades as opposed to millions of years, all life on Earth is severely affected.In fact, some experts predict that over 1 million species could become extinct by 2050.
For some locations, it has been estimated that evapotranspiration can reduce peak summer temperatures by 5°C. But a combination of living roofs, large trees and soft landscaping can absorb heavy rainfall, store and recycle it for summer irrigation. As such, green infrastructure represents the state of the art and the high level of adaptability required to cool our cities for decades to come.

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