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Using the angle of depression or elevation to an object, and knowing how far away the object is, enables us to find the height of the object using trigonometry. The advantage of doing this is that it is very difficult to measure the height of a mountain or the depth of a canyon directly; it is much easier to measure how far away it is (horizontal distance) and to measure the angle of elevation or depression. To call attention to the Tell, I used Google Earth's elevation readout along with its Add Path function to create elevation contours spaced at 25 feet intervals. Tell Madaba Archaeological Project (TMAP) area of interest is identified by the dark-red square.
DESCRIPTION: A French prelate and cardinal, celebrated for his learning, Pierre da€™Ailly had great influence on the theological controversies of the late 14th, early 15th centuries, especially during the council at Constance. That da€™Ailly was soon aware of the shortcomings of his Ymago Mundi may, perhaps, be inferred from the appearance of a subsequent treatise. While the original treatises were, of course, produced in manuscript form, of which many copies are still extant attesting to its widespread popularity and circulation, the best known form to modern scholars is probably that of the printed (woodcut) edition of ca.1483 (Louvain). Cardinal da€™Aillya€™s work is marked by great erudition, although he seldom pronounces any positive opinion of his own. The reasons given, however, such as the claim that the elevation of the sun there makes life impossible, presumably because it scorches the earth, are highly improbable. Thus the water runs from one Pole to the other forming a sea which extends between the extremity of Spain and the beginning of India, of small width, in such a way that the beginning of India comes to beyond the half of the equinoctial line [i.e.
Now the greatest interest of these and similar extracts from da€™Ailly is that they were of fundamental importance in governing the ideas of the last of the medieval travelers, Christopher Columbus.
After his three historic voyages westward, Columbus in 1498, in letters to his sovereigns, attempting to substantiate his claims of discovering a new route to the Indies, proved that he was a man whose philosophical foundation lay firmly in the Middle Ages. With specific reference to the writings of da€™Ailly after his discovery of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, it can be seen that the Cardinal was a critical scholar. Whereas Meroe was formerly da€™Aillya€™s most southerly outpost of the oikoumene [inhabited world], now it is Montes Barditi qui meridionalem limitem nostre habitabilis terminant, and to those he gives the latitude of 16A° S Ethiopia is similarly affected, receiving an ill-defined southern extension and made to adjoin the hitherto unmentioned land of Agysimba.
An excerpt from da€™Aillya€™s Ymago Mundi with annotations made by Columbus in the margins.
So it must not be imagined that the Cardinal followed his new-found authority unquestioned. After elaborating the various geographical concepts transmitted by Pierre da€™Ailly and noting his impressive list of sources, it is curious to take note of the particulars of the mappamundi (drawn about 1410 perhaps after an original by Roger Bacon of the 13th century) that accompanied both the manuscript and printed editions of the Ymago Mundi. Again, the map by itself does not speculate or promote new geographical ideas, however, given the concepts and ideas expressed in da€™Aillya€™s text and using the analogy between present-day radio, this seemingly blank map with the provocative text and combined with an active imagination may have been the most appropriate design for da€™Ailly to have chosen.
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Mick looks out from his executive office window after a big lunch, and sees his Mercedes parked 500m down the street. However, the cosmographical writings of this Archbishop of Cambrai, though immensely popular during the 15th century, were almost forgotten after the great discoveries of the early 16th century. Three years later, in 1413, the Cardinal, having acquired the new Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, began writing another geographical work entitled the Cosmographiae Tractatus Duo, or the Compendium Cosmographiae (1414), especially to summarize the useful things contained in Ptolemya€™s work. The learned prelate, otherwise so orthodox, often allows a doubt to glimpse forth as to the geographical dogmas of the Church. For da€™Aillya€™s personal opinion on this subject, or for that matter on any other, one is hard put to find them within his writings. Aristotle pretends, contrary to Ptolemy, that more than a quarter of the whole globe is inhabited, and Averroes sustains the same opinion. However uncertain the premises and unsound the conclusions may appear to a modern reader, they were seized on by Columbus and his contemporaries and stimulated exploration to the west and south. Not a discriminating scholar, Columbus took his arguments ready-made from old fashioned, handy compendia, but assumed an appearance of immense erudition by quoting passage after passage from classical authors, both Greek and Latin, to prove that the islands and mainland he had discovered are part of Asia. While he makes no attempt to incorporate or assimilate all of the Ptolemaic technique into his own system, he is not slow to exploit it.

Again, whereas in his first treatise da€™Ailly describes Africa parem Europae longitudine, tamen multo angustiorem, now he tacitly refutes it by admitting it to be habitable as far as 16 degrees South and to extend still farther. Occasionally he leans towards the arguments of Pliny and others, and this, so it would seem, less from caprice than from an appreciation of their intrinsic merit. There is not a single idea in any of his geographical writings which cannot be traced back, sooner or later to some impeccably orthodox source. Unlike the more provocative text, this circular map itself would probably never have stimulated or inspired such exploration as that undertaken by Columbus. By omitting any real or speculative coastlines, the author could leave the interpretation of the textual material and speculation up to his reader. Completely sealed and 100% nitrogen filled, the ACCUSHOT series of scopes is shock, fog, and rain proof for maximum reliability when mounted on your firearm or airgun application. Most significantly, it includes a Smart Spherical Structure(SSS) controlling the joint-like interaction between a scope’s inner and outer tubes. We gather usage intelligence from all deployment aspects, carefully analyze their impacts and develop appropriate test parameters to ensure optimal performance under all conditions.
According to the Google Earth Digital Elevation Model (GE DEM) the highest elevation on the mound is 2624 feet (800 meters). Thanks to the research of scholars such as Alexander von Humboldt, da€™Aillya€™s influence on subsequent exploration has received proper recognition and general acceptance. Da€™Ailly is, therefore, not only the last of the medieval geographers before the Ptolemaic revival, but also the first of the Western scholars who began that revival and thus had a great an influence on contemporary thought. He expounds on controversial theories and supports various arguments by quotations from famous Greek and Latin writers such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Seneca, Pliny, Augustine, Esra; and even Arab authors like Averroes, Hali, Alfragan and Avicenna - obviously a remarkably well read scholar.
Probably the most significant passages of da€™Aillya€™s writings are those in which he discusses the extent of the habitable globe.
The Stagyrite affirms also that the extent of sea is small between the coast of Spain in the West and the shores of India in the East. It has now been proved that practically the only books on cosmogony that were familiar to Columbus were two, the Ymago Mundi of da€™Ailly, an edition published between 1480 and 1487, and the Historia rerum ubique gestarum of Aeneas Silvius (Pope Pius II), published at Venice in 1477. He refers incidentally to da€™Ailly as an authority supporting his view, but he does not reveal the fact that almost every scrap of his classical learning is lifted bodily out of the Cardinala€™s pages.
Thus he finds the 22 parallels of the Alexandrine climatic division too cumbersome for his own use and reduces them to 12. Thus, for instance, in a passage made famous by its association with the name Columbus, he demonstrates that the length of the habitable earth is greater than that postulated by Ptolemy and points out, as a corollary, that the commencement of India in the East could not be very far distant from the western extremity of Africa.
At the same time there is a keen sense of proportion pervading them all and an obvious sincerity of intention.
A world map in the tradition of the medieval schematic zone-climate types, da€™Aillya€™s map is hemispherical (20.2 cm in diameter), and displays the entire habitable world within the northern half. Premium lockable and resettable turrets allow for the most consistency and precision capability for maintaining a proper zero. TS has been at the heart of every genuine Leapers scope for more than a decade and has been fully tested on scope-killer airguns and elephant rifles with extreme recoil. Customer testimonials also tell us that the IE technology is a God-sent for color blind shooters to be able to find a color workable to their eye sight. Leveraging our years of experience in this area, UTG developed and refined the unique Tactical Range Estimating(TRE) mil-dot reticle and offers this feature in almost all of our optics. On the image below, the mound is coincident with the ovoid contour line in the center of the black one-mile-square box. Overall, the text, generally referred to only as Ymago Mundi, is actually a series of twelve short treatises which contain geographical and astronomical speculations and a reform of the calendar, all of which are bound up with four contributions by Jean Gerson. Besides these two treatises the Cardinal also drew a mappamundi to illustrate his geographical ideas and wrote a short explanatory note, the Epilogus Mappe Mundi, to accompany it.
A singularly significant literary source frequently quoted by da€™Ailly, often verbatim, is the Opus Majus by Roger Bacon. We are not concerned here with the actual Spain, but with the Further Spain, which is Africa. There are still preserved in the Library of the Colombine at Seville the original copies of these books that were used by Christopher and his brother Bartholomew, and their margins are filled from end to end with remarks and notes in their own hands. Seven of these correspond to seven of Ptolemya€™s climata; three, namely, Montes Barditi, Raptum and Cattigara, are adopted from the ante-climata, while the remaining two, Britain and Thule, pass through the post-climata.
From this same passage we learn that da€™Ailly favors the concept of an open, rather than an enclosed Indian Ocean, and, in consequence, a sea-girt Africa, although this is nowhere stated categorically.
Thus, the Cardinal refuses to have anything to do with such superstitions as the monstrous one-eyed giants, the Monoculi, and the a€?umbrella-footeda€™ folk, the Sciapodae, who were commonly reputed to be inhabitants of central Africa.

It is one of the earliest medieval maps from Europe that was oriented with the North at the top. The well received Mil-Dot reticle found in every ACCUSHOT Scope, familiar to many, is complemented by crisp ¼ MOA click adjustments. Low profile control console with 2 finger-friendly soft buttons sits on top of the ocular tube for illumination management.
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The most important and influential treatise, called Tractatus de Imagine Mundi, is the first one in the published volume. Although da€™Ailly compiled his Tractatus de Imagine Mundi 140 years after the time of Roger Bacon, the Cardinal chooses not to name a single medieval explorer, whether Asiatic or African.
However, according to them, there can be no communication between the Antipodes and us because of the impossibility of crossing the intervening Torrid Zone and the Tropics.
One was underestimating the unknown waters to the west of Europe because he adopted Marinus of Tyrea€™s concept of the world through da€™Aillya€™s work; the other error Columbusa€™ acceptance of Ptolemya€™s calculation of distance around the world and, of course the size of a degree of longitude. Out of the thousands of places tabulated in the Geographia, da€™Ailly selects 353, the choice of which hardly commends itself from a geographical standpoint, giving them their Ptolemaic latitude and longitude. Conversely, it is regrettable that his preoccupation with classical erudition should have blinded him to the importance of events nearer his own time. Standard for SCP3-UM312AOIEW is an integral angled sunshade, quality flip-open lens caps, and quick detachable rings.
Regular mil-dot reticles found on the market usually have 4 dots in each direction of the cross hair, giving you 9 different aiming points for either windage or elevation. It was written in 1410 when da€™Ailly knew the astronomical work of Ptolemy through his Almagest, but had not yet read his other work, Geographia, which was being translated into Latin for the first time by Jacobus Angelus almost concurrently with da€™Aillya€™s production of his twelve treatises. That all knowledge of recent explorations should have escaped his notice is hard to believe. According to this opinion, the population of this region would be ignorant of the teachings of Christ and the Apostles, which is contrary to the sacred affirmation that a€?their sound went into all the earth and their words unto the ends of the worlda€™. Again, Pliny teaches us that ships from the Gulf of Arabia can arrive in a short time at Gades in the South of Spain. Thus, according to authorities such as Humboldt, Newton, and Vignaud, Columbus in 1498 cribbed his views from da€™Ailly who wrote in 1410, da€™Ailly cribbed from Roger Bacon whose work dates from 1267, Roger Bacon derives through the Arabs from the Greeks. Instead various countries are indicated by name only, with their relative positions to one another thus conveyed. If you count the 2 inner tips of the opposite duplex cross hairs, you get 11 aiming points. Had not his own countrymen, Jean de Bethencourt and Gadifer de la Salle, for instance, attempted to conquer and evangelize the Canary Islands at the very beginning of the 15th century? The most famous of the explorers of the new age, in fact, drew none of his ideas directly from the newly recovered geographical literature of the Greeks as did the true Renaissance thinkers like Peter Martyr or Damian Goes.
The whole work, with the exception of a few Arabic citations, mainly from Latin translations of the works of Avicenna and Averroes, might have been composed a thousand years previously. Esdras affirms in his fourth book that six parts of the earth are habitable and inhabited and that the seventh part alone is covered by the waters.
Therefore, according to some scholars, his discovery of a new world was accomplished not with Greek or modern geographical concepts but with medieval concepts.
Exceptions in this regard being the Nile River, indicated by wavy vertical lines extending from Alexandria to Meroe, the Mons Athlas in Africa sketched half-heartedly near the Hesperides, and a few wavy lines called Oceanus. The authority of that work has been recognized by the saints, who have made use of it for confirming the sacred verities. Otherwise, there are only carefully ruled climate zones and a few legends among the jumbled typography and no display of monsters or mythical figures that could often be distributed throughout other medieval and even Renaissance maps. Beyond Thule, the last island of the Ocean, after one daya€™s sail the sea is frozen and stiff. In approaching this controversy, da€™Ailly states it with such clarity that we expect to hear him assert the truth.
Water abounds there, because those places are cold, and cold multiplies humors [or vapors].

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