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Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
Turkish Miniature & Painting Workshops,(2 Hours Lesson - Per Student ) ,2 - 5 Student,55 Euro ,6 - more 40 Euro ,1 Student,65 Euro ,Lesson Includes.
The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook. In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period.
Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace. Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture. The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns. Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt. The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life. The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire.
Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century.
Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire. Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems. The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction.
At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.
Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect.
The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers.
Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression. The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events.
Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”.
In an effort to deal with this confusion, this record relies heavily on the Genealogies of Connecticut Families from the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. It seems quite probable that the son, Richard II, who inherited the tenement lands at Cholesbury, would be the father of Richard III, of Cholesbury, whose three sons migrated to Milford, Conn.
John, the son of Richard I, remained on the farm at Dungrove long enough to be the the executor of his Mother's will in 1565, and as the overseer of his brother, Henry's, will dated January 2, 1599.
Still there were other Baldwins, from the same area in Buckinghamshire, England, who came to Milford, Connecticut at about the same time. There was at least one other Richard Baldwin born in Milford at about the same time as the one listed above, and who was a nephew to the above Richard. It is possible there were other Richard Baldwins in Milford at this time, but no others can be found in the records who would be anywhere close to the age of Ann Warrups. Ann Warrups resided with her Father, Chicken Warrups, at Greenfarms, between Westport and Fairfield and about 12 miles southwest of Milford. The Indians continued to move farther inland and set up new settlements only to have white settlers follow them and either buy, or take, their lands.
This couple had at least three daughters: Mary, Caroline and Rebecca, and one son, John Baldwin II.
Josiah Bearce II, probably died in New Milford, Connecticut, in late 1787, at almost 67 years of age.
Before the colonial period, Connecticut had a large Indian population but most of the tribes were small, autonomous villages and not well organized into federations.
The Mahican Nation, was a large group of Algonquian tribes living in the area of western Massachusetts and Vermont, and into New York as far west as the Hudson River. Being the reigning overlords of the area, the Pequots fought any group that tried to exercise any control over their newly claimed territory. Another point of confusion is the personage of Tatobam (Totobam, Tatobem) often given as another name for Sassacus. Sassacus ruled over 26 lesser sachems, some of which included the Mohegans (a subdivision of the Pequots, not to be confused with the Mahicans, from whom they had earlier descended, just east of the Hudson River), the Western Niantics, the River tribes and, at various times, some Long Island tribes.
Among Woipequand's children was a daughter named Meekenump who married a Pequot War Sagamore named Oweneko. Prior to 1631, Europeans had spent little time in the Connecticut area, other than to sail along its coast. By 1634, the Pequots had still almost no direct contact with the English but were known by them to be at war with almost every surrounding tribe, and most especially with the Narragansetts and the Dutch. In 1634, a Captain John Stone of Virginia, who had sailed up the coast causing trouble everywhere he landed, was fined 100 pounds and banished from Massachusetts.
In July, John Gallop, while sailing his small ship by Block Island, came across Oldham's vessel crowded with Indians and no white men to be seen. In late August, Massachusetts sent John Endicott, with ninety volunteers, to Block Island to avenge the murder of Oldham. Sassacus's main village was at Pequot Harbor, (the present towns of New London and Groton, Conn.), with a second large village about seven miles east at Mystic.
The colonists were aware of the reputation the Pequots had for cruelty and knew they were in for some rough times. Various stories are told of one Englishman, John Tilley, who was ambushed and tortured over a three day period, which included cutting off his fingers, toes, hands and feet, flaying his skin off and putting hot embers between the flesh and skin. By this time, the English were outraged by the aggressive acts of the Pequots and all three colonies agreed to unite in a war against them. Connecticut decided not to wait for the troops from the other colonies and raised an army of ninety men under Captain John Mason of Windsor. On Friday, May 19, 1637, Mason put his army on board ship and sailed east along the coast line.
The next day, the ship approached Narragansett Bay, in Rhode Island, and three days later, the soldiers arrived at Miantonomoa€™s village. After the death of Wequash, his younger brother, Cushawashet, took a form of his deceased brother's name and was thereafter known as Wequashcook (Wequashcuk.) In addition, he also took on the Christian name of Harmon Garret, (Herman Garret) by which name he is most often known in the histories.
After the conquest of the Pequots, Harmon Garret (Wequashcook), was appointed by the English to be one of the two governors over the residue of this tribe. Returning now to the Pequot War, the original goal of the army had been Sassacusa€™s main village but, coming from the east, they first approached the fortress at Mystic and Mason felt they should attack rather than risk being detected by the enemy before the battle began. The undetected English army surrounded the fort and at dawn, on May 26th, they marched up the hill to begin the battle. Shortly after the battle was ended, Sassacus, with his main body of warriors, arrived on the scene. Munitions were low so Mason armed a strong rear guard to hold off the pursuing Indians and they headed for the ship.
The invasion had been so unexpected and so devastating that the Pequots were completely demoralized. The Connecticut troops were allowed to return home as replacements arrived from the other colonies.
To avoid being captured and killed by their Indian enemies, some of the remaining Pequots, who were still in hiding, sent messengers to Hartford to ask for leniency if they surrendered. Following the total destruction of the Pequot Nation, other New England tribes, even those which had assisted the English in this campaign, were so shocked at the total annihilation of their enemy, that many sachems, including Massasoit, sent delegations to Boston to assure the English of their friendship and to renew old treaties. Uncas, who had been the most aggressive Indian in the pursuit of his own fellow Pequots, now got his wish of becoming the Great Sachem of what was left of that people. Along the Connecticut River, and particularly in the area of present day Windsor, Hartford, Wethersfield and Middletown, were numerous, small, independent tribes referred to as the a€?River Tribesa€?. Not wanting to alienate the English, the Mohawks would not barge into a colonista€™s home uninvited. The treatment the River Indians received from the Pequots was not much better and they were compelled to pay heavy monetary tribute to both nations or suffer severe destruction. Rather than fight, Sowheag moved his people south to Middletown, where he built a fort, or castle, on the bank overlooking the River. Early in the morning of April 23rd, 1637, a small group of Wethersfield settlers was attacked by two hundred Pequot warriors, while working in a meadow on the edge of town. Not wanting to open up more fronts in the Indian war, the colonists left Sowheag alone until the Pequot Nation was destroyed. Friendship with the English had not proven too valuable in the past and Sowheag could not see where their offer of friendship would help much now. As time past, some Pequots began to feel that the old hostilities must have been forgotten. The only known children of Sowheag are: Montowese, Sequasson, Turramuggus, and a daughter, Sepannamaw.
In 1675, the court provided a 300 acre tract of land on the east side of the Connecticut River near Middletown, for the heirs of Sowheag and the Mattabeseck Indians. Sowheag's son, Montowese, was a Sachem of a smaller tribe, just north of the Quinnipiac tribe, who resided around New Haven Harbor. During the Pequot War, some of the Massachusetts Colonists marched along the Connecticut shore pursuing Sassacus. Montowese, and his wife, spent the remainder of their days farming on the small parcel of land which still bears his name.
It is logical to assume that Noh-took-saet may well have been the son of Epenow, although there is no proof of it. The fact that the Aquiniuh Tribe either sent to the mainland for Noh-took-saet to come and be their Sachem, or that he came on his own to claim the title, seems to be good evidence that he was the rightful heir to the sachemship after the passing of Epenow. In 1675, Metaark was "challenged in his rights by the person called Omphannut, who claimed he was the eldest son of the deceased sachem. The above described court case, between Metaark and his brother, (most likely a half-brother) occurred less than three months after the start of the King Philip War.
Over the next few years, Metaark saw the selling off of Indian lands to settlers and was quick to realize this would be devastating to the tribes. Following the sale of their lands, the local Indians were unhappy to find themselves as tenent farmers on what had always been their own lands. This still did not satisfy the local Indians who were convinced the document was valid and not a forgery.
According to Franklin Ele-wath-thum Bearce (9), Isaac Siem was a Sachem at She-co-me-co, NY., perhaps as early as the late 1600's but at least very early in the 1700a€™s. On the skeptical side one must ask: Why would the son of a Marthas Vineyard Island sachem travel all the way to She-ko-me-ko, NY to make a new home for himself? Probably the greatest indication of a tie between Siem and Marthas Vineyard Island is in the name of his two known sons, Gideon and Joshua Mauweehu (or Mauwee). In a list of his ancestors, Bearce also lists Noh-took-saet, although he does not say where, or how, he fits into the pedigree.
It may be supposed that, after marrying a Pequot and a Mohegan, Isaac Siem spent much of his life in south-central Connecticut. Gideon Mauweehu (Mauwehu, Mauwee, Ma-hu-wee-hu, Mayhew) was first known to lead a small following of Indians on the lower Housatonic River and held land around Derby. As the English began filling up this part of the valley, Gideon first moved to Newtown and then to New Milford. In 1744, the English were again at war with the French, and the conflict was extended to this side of the ocean.
Colonial laws at this time forbade the purchase of Indian lands without the authorization of the colonial government. For a short time all seemed well, with the English staying on the east side of the Housatonic and the Indians on the west. Land disputes continued between the two societies for the next five years, and in 1757 Jabez Smith was chosen overseer of the tribe. In 1764 Eunice Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, and granddaughter of Gideon Mauweehu, was born. Gideon reached an advanced age and, after serving his people well all of his life, past away sometime before 1767, probably at Scatacook. Although the band of Scatacooks continued to dwindle and move away until by 1774 there were only sixty-two remaining in Kent, it was reported that during the Revolutionary War one hundred Scatacook warriors assisted the American army by sending military messages up and down the River by means of Indian message fires and drum beats. There is another theory, however, about the origin of Chuse's name that this author would like to propose.


Joseph was married to Ann Warrups (called the 2nd, to differentiate her from her aunt, Ann Warrups 1st, the daughter of Old Chicken Warrups.) Ann II was the daughter of Captain Thomas Chicken Warrups, who was a son of Old Chicken Warrups. Joseph and his family lived on the most amicable terms with the white settlers for forty-eight years in Chusetown, during which time more and more settlers took up residence in the area. At the time when Joseph travelled to Scatacook, the Indians in that area were poor, hungry, and sick.
Not long after this Joseph Mauwee arrived at Scatacook and took up his residence in his father's tribe. The petition lists the number of males in the tribe at thirty-six, females at thirty-five, and twenty of their numbers being children of an age suitable for attending school. Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee and Ann Warrups II, was born at Chusetown (Humphreysville), Connecticut, about 1730-40.
As a young woman, probably living in the Canfield home, she had a baby fathered by Oliver Canfield.
The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known.
In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons.
For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues.
The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state. In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court.
These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz. A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders.
A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak. Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library. These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand. The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display. The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah.
Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase.
The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day. The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society. The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs. In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent.
The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans. Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation.
The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. Leonards in Aston-Clinton, near Dundridge, where he owned the 'Chapel Farm.' He married Sarah Bryan, early in 1620. Saybrook and on April 23, 1637, they attacked the plantation at Wethersfield killing nine people, including one woman and a child.
While we don't know his birthdate, he was old enough to have a daughter, Catherine, who married a German immigrant, John Rau, in 1721, and his oldest son, Gideon Mauweehu, was probably born about 1680-90.
Some adults felt he was trying to teach kids bad behavior, but other adults found it humorous too.
The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480. The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period. Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets. Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century.
While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions. We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection. In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new. There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture. In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.
There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting.
The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject.
Goodwin were appointed to resolve all differences and to demand that he turn over the Pequot murderers he was harboring.
Shel Silverstein thought that kids shouldn't look up to characters in books that were impossible to become, so he made characters that were silly and misbehaved instead of characters that were well behaved and "perfect". The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below. In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found. One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R. His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style. This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century.
We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli.
According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils. The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia.
Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style.
While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base.
Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin.
Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality. After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace. Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720). Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application. The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism. The central region was occupied by a large number of small individual tribes referred to as the River Tribes (sometimes called Mattabesecks, because that was the name of the most dominant subtribe.) The Housatonic River Tribes (as described in Chapter 12) lived in the western part of Connecticut.
Shel Silverstein really did have a passion for writing and drawing, and he was very happy to help change people's lives for the better. Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989). At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent. The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608. The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95). Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made. After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted.
His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting. Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced. Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi. Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam. From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book.
The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life. This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish. The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting. The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits.
The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque.
In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude. It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century. The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. Amy (Amey) Oviatt (who was born 10 Feb 1667 as the dau of Thomas Oviatt and Frances Bryan.) Richard was a cordwainer (shoe maker).
There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting.


However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character. Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio.
The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent. Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work. Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence. Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. 1st Hannah Bruen 3 (30) Oct 1663, daughter of Obadiah Bruen [and a niece to his step-mother, Mary (Marie) Bruen. The few who participated in the war usually did so on the side of the English, against their own people.
To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance. By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts. Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period. Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it. Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting). The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part. In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India.
Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works. This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style. Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style. Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art.
Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art. It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90.
The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities.
Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures.
Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word. Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio). Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well. Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts.
It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures.
They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures. Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718.
Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing. When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art.
In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time. For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work. The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library. The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting.
Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen.
Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works. In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse. The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures.
In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen"). New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted.
The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world.
Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed.
The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories. Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs. Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks. Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities.
For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities.
The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy".
The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul.
This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician.
Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595).
The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink. The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period.
From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat. In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes. New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent.
The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404). The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines.
One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (?
With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion. Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames. The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200). The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision. The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature.
These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief. Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants.
Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended. The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed.
They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars.
No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art. Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures. Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced. Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art.
The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples.
Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy. Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi.



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