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30.03.2016
This study investigates the effect of Jordanian Eleventh grade students’ self-assessment on their performance in reading in English.
In a broad sense, assessment is “any methods used to better understand the current knowledge that a student possesses” (Collins & O’Brien, 2003, p. However, formative assessment takes place during a course of teaching and is used essentially as feedback to the teaching-learning process (O’Malley & Pierce, 1996).
Formative assessments do not inundate students with questions to be answered within a time limit. Formative assessment, or assessment for learning as it is sometimes called, is a continuous process in which the main purpose is beyond measurement, rather, it is used to help students improve. One technique in assessment is the “One-Minute Paper.” [1] Angelo and Cross (1993) argue that the One-Minute Paper can be used to provide quick feedback on student learning. Student self-assessment is one of the most important formative classroom assessment techniques. By assessing their own learning, students can increase their awareness of what is happening in class (Gipps, 1994). The Ministry of Education in Jordan (MOEJ) seeks the implementation of all these skills in its schools in order to improve students’ achievement in reading. Because of the importance of English, the MOEJ introduced a new educational system in which English is taught from Grade 1 instead of Grade 4.
The MOEJ started a new evaluation system in its schools–formative assessment, seeking improvement in students’ performance.
Although classroom assessment has been given much attention in the educational and evaluation system in Jordanian schools, the performance of students is still not at the desired level. In Jordanian schools, students are assessed solely by instructors; this activity is intended to improve the students’ performance. Are there significant differences in the Jordanian Grade 11 EFL students’ performance in English reading due to either assessment methods (self-assessment method and traditional method) or gender?
There are no significant difference (? = 0.05) between the mean scores of the self-assessment method and traditional method) in the English reading performance test.
There is no significant difference (? = 0.05) between the mean scores of the male and female eleventh grade students in the English reading performance test. The difference between the mean scores of the control group and the mean scores of the experimental group is not practically significant. Before the study started, permission to carry out the study was obtained from the principals of the male and the female schools.
The two sections of the experimental group were taught by two trained instructors (one male and one female), using student self-assessment along with other more traditional classroom assessment methods.
In order to examine the equivalence of the experimental and control groups, I developed and administered a reading test before the subjects were exposed to the treatment. Table 2 shows that the mean scores of the two groups (Control and Experimental) were very similar. To guarantee the validity of the instrument, it was given to a jury of TEFL specialists: three professors in the Curriculum and Instruction Department in the faculty of education at Yarmouk University, three school supervisors at Irbid First Directorate of Education, and three experienced EFL instructors working in schools at the same directorate. To establish the reliability of the instrument, a pilot study was conducted in a nearby school three weeks before the pre-test was given to the two groups. To collect the data for this study, I used an adapted One-Minute Paper assignment (Angelo & Cross, 1993) in which students gave short answers to three questions (Appendix 1). In addition, the instructor sometimes asked the students to discuss their thoughts in pairs.
To ensure the appropriate use of the One-Minute Paper, I trained the subjects of the experimental group for two weeks before the treatment on how to self-assess so that they were able to use the One-Minute Paper correctly and effectively. I implemented the reading test twice with both groups; before the treatment to check the equivalence of the two groups, and after the treatment to check if there was any significant difference between the two groups concerning performance in reading attributed to the treatment.
The study lasted for six weeks, from the February 4 to March 15, 2009, during which time I used student self-assessment to teach the experimental group to monitor their progress in reading.
The effect size equation was used to check the significance of the practical effect of student self-assessment, along with the statistical significance through the level of improvement in standard deviation. Table 4 presents the means and standard deviations of the students of the experimental and control groups after the treatment. This table shows that there are differences between the mean scores of the students of the experimental and control groups. Table 5 shows that there is no significant interaction between the method of assessment and the students’ gender (for more clarification see Figure 1). Comparing the average scores of the subjects in the experimental group to the scores of the students in the control group on the same test, the value of F was found to be 17.03. The effect size equation was used to check the significance of the practical effect of student self-assessment along with the statistical significance through the level of improvement in standard deviation. Figure 1 shows that although male students scored better than female students in the two methods of assessment, there is no significant interaction between the students’ gender and the method of assessment. This study found three significant differences due to the implementation of the self-assessment technique. Through attending many sections of the classes that used the self-assessment method, I noticed that student self-assessment had several advantages. Comparing the raw scores of the high achievers in both groups before and after the treatment, the experimental group subjects progressed more in comparison to the control group subjects.
This study shows that self-assessment is an effective method in improving students’ reading performance.
The sample of the study consisted of an experimental group and a control group; each group consisted of two eleventh grade sections (67 male and 69 female students).
Sufficient data need to be collected about each student’s learning proficiency to take whatever action needed to meet each student’s learning needs and to adjust the system.
Summative assessment takes place at the end of a term or a course and is used to provide information about how much students have learned or how effective a course has been (Gipps, 1994). In other words, it is an ongoing process of collecting information about students’ performance through various techniques of classroom assessment.
On the contrary, they “reflect the concepts and skills that the instructor emphasized in class, along with the instructor’s clear criteria for judging students’ performance,” (Guskey, 2003, p. Summative assessment, or assessment of learning, tends to be an endpoint, usually expressed in grades and concerned with making judgment (Oskarsson, 1980).
Self-assessment does not mean that students are allowed to assess themselves in the form of grades.
They also claim that various studies demonstrate that students in classes where One-Minute Papers are used out-gain those not using this technique.
According to this definition, assessment includes instructor observation, classroom discussion, marking tests, and collecting information from the students themselves about their own learning; namely student self-assessment.


Perhaps the most important factor of a successful teaching-learning process is active student involvement (Stiggins, 2001). This change has brought to light new continuous assessment (CA) techniques that are now used to assess students’ achievement. I believe that neglecting students’ role in assessments may be one of the main factors behind this low performance.
More specifically, the population of the study consisted of (3,012) male and female students (1,537 males and 1,465 females). Table 2 shows the results of ANOVA test of the students’ scores in the test of equivalence. The jury examined the test and provided their comments and suggestions for modifications to fit the purpose of the study. The One-Minute Paper had a typical format–students were given three short questions asking to reflect on their learning. The instructor also brought interesting student responses for the next class, in order to encourage students to give thoughtful responses.
This indicates that the implementation of student self-assessment had a positive effect on the students’ performance in reading at ?=0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the performance of the subjects of the experimental group over the period of the study compared to the mean scores of the subjects of the control group. However, the number decreased into 6 failures, whereas, the number of failures in the control group decreased by 2 only (from 19 failures to 17).
However, comparing the increase in the scores of the high achievers and the low achievers of the experimental group, I found that low achievers had greater score increases. Moreover, students can benefit from the results of this study by helping them consider their strengths and weaknesses, and improve their learning.
Self-assessment helps students to give more accurate and honest responses, especially when they feel that they will not be judged solely by marks.
Students can be allowed to respond anonymously, to encourage them to admit points of confusion they might hesitate to put their name to, or they can be asked to write their names so that the instructor can write a brief, personal response to each question or encourage thoughtful answers by giving extra credit. In one variation described by Angelo and Cross, the instructor asked each student to name five significant points that had been made in that session. Abdallah Ahmad Baniabdelrahman is an assistant professor at the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Yarmouk University in Irbid, Jordan.
According to Crooks (2001), assessment is “any process that provides information about the thinking, achievement or progress of students,” (p.
To reach this end, different kinds of assessment could be used to provide reliable information about students’ learning progress. Summative assessment is “assessment performance at the end of a term of instruction to evaluate a pupil’s total learning of a subject matter and arrive at a grade,” (Spafford, Pesce, & Grosser, 1998, p.
The purpose of formative assessment is not only to measure proficiency, but also to improve it as well.
Both forms of classroom assessment, formative and summative, are needed to determine how much learning has occurred. It is a process of continuous feedback by students on their own progress to help both the students and the instructor. It can also lead to modifications when teaching strategies have not met the required learning outcomes. Yet, instructors should provide their students with feedback and teach them to use it effectively for learning.
This system was introduced in the basic and secondary stages at the beginning of the academic year 2006 – 2007.
The aim of this study is to investigate more closely the impact of student self-assessment on their performance in reading in English. Moreover, student self-assessment, in particular, has so far been disregarded, even though it may have a powerful and positive effect on student learning.
One issue is large class size (35-45 students in each section), which has a negative effect on learning and teaching. The sample of the study consisted of four Grade 11 sections (two males and two females) from the same directorate. After that, the subjects of the study signed the required permission forms to conduct the study. They evaluated the test according to language, clarity, appropriateness of the questions to the level of the students, relevance to the skill it has meant to test, and timing. The purpose of this instrument was to let the students “think aloud,” which provided both the instructor and the students with true data about the students’ learning outcomes.
The first was to prepare printed sheets and giving them to the EFL instructor of the experimental group so that he could distribute them to the students more easily.
At the end of the study, a post-test was administered to both groups to investigate the students’ achievement in reading.
Moreover, the results of the study reveal that there is a significant difference in variance of achievement between the two groups. I also noticed that the One-Minute Papers and the rating-scale sheets were useful, especially for shy students who were reluctant to say that they did not understand something. This indicates that the low achievers in the experimental group showed progress, which may be attributable to the implementation of student self-assessment. This indicates that low achievers could benefit more from the implementation of the technique of student self-assessment, of course high achievers could benefit from it as well. It also helps students to direct their own learning efforts more effectively, as was evidenced in this study. Nonlinguistic variables in advanced second language reading: Learner’s self-assessment and enjoyment. Improvements in mathematics performance as a consequence of self-assessment in Portuguese primary school pupils.
A handbook of techniques for formative evaluation: Mapping the students’ learning experience. Planning and conducting formative evaluation: Improving the quality of education and training. To collect data about the students’ progress, I used student self-assessment through one-minute papers and rating-scale sheets. Assessment has “the most powerful influence on student learning” (George & Cowan, 1999, p. Some educators argue that students often find external assessment by instructors or supervisors unfair. Consequently, students can learn how to assess themselves in order to learn what is required for success (Black & Wiliam, 1998b).


This system of CA is currently implemented along with the other formal assessment techniques, namely semester tests. The significance of the study is derived from the fact that studies investigating the effect of student self-assessment on students’ performance in reading in English in Jordan are rare and non-comprehensive. In classes greater than 25 students, instructors cannot always understand their students’ needs (Hattie, 1998; Sebatane, 1998). Both were used as quick diagnostics to encourage students to reflect on their learning and to give the instructor immediate feedback.
The students had to match each item, located on the left, with the suitable text, located on the right.
The jurors’ comments and recommendations were taken into consideration, and necessary modifications were made. This One-Minute Paper helped students to reflect on the reading lessons, and gave the instructor immediate feedback about the students’ learning. After analyzing the students’ feedback, if the instructor felt that the students had failed to understand a certain point, he or she could try another teaching strategy for the next class to teach that particular point again.
The second action was to emphasize the reason behind using the One-Minute Paper and what we hoped to achieve. I marked the test, and the results, along with the results of the pre-test, were analyzed using SAS software. More importantly, it helps students become more involved and motivated in the learning process, which was clear in their participation inside and outside the classroom. His research interests include teacher preparation, teaching English to foreign students, practicum teaching, and technology in language teaching.
Paper presented to The British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, 13-15 September, 2001. Teaching cannot be effective unless the instructor comes to know your strengths and weaknesses. The findings of the study revealed that student self-assessment had positive effect on their performance in reading in English.
Because assessment is important in teaching and learning, instructors assess their students’ learning regularly. The purpose of such an assessment is to further the education process rather than to decide on a grade,” (Spafford, Pesce, & Grosser, 1998, p. Therefore, if students are given the chance to assess themselves, they will be more confident to give more accurate information about their progress (Angelo & Cross, 1993). Therefore, this study will shed some light on the value of the self assessment technique and its effect on students’ performance in reading in English.
In these cases, it is important that students play a role to help themselves become better learners. The two sections in the control group were taught by the same instructors, using traditional classroom assessment techniques. The One-Minute Paper was used at the end of each class period to check the students’ understanding of what had been taught in that class period.
To achieve this goal, the instructor collected the students’ feedback and sorted it into topics.
In order to guarantee the best use of the self-assessment technique, the instructors of the experimental group trained their students on how to undertake each of the tasks listed in the self-assessment. Means, standard deviations, and an ANOVA test were used to determine differences between the reading achievements of the two groups. This indicates that the self-assessment method was more effective than the traditional method of assessment in improving students’ reading comprehension. Your responses will help me find out how the course is going on and give me an idea on whether any changes are needed. In light of the findings, it is recommended that students be trained on how to use self-assessment, and that instructors become aware of the positive effect of student self-assessment on their performance in reading. Some of the methods which instructors use to measure their students’ learning are written tests, book reports, project work, homework exercises, oral presentations, and question-and-answer activities. Self-assessment enhances the role and responsibilities of the student; however, the instructor remains the main source of assessment (Borg, 2006). The majority of the jurors suggested that the number of questions should be reduced to 4 questions in order to fit the allotted time.
Thus, the One Minute Papers and rating-scale sheets had a positive effect on students’ understanding in reading.
Therefore, instructors spend a great deal of their class time engaged in one type of assessment or another (Stiggins, 2001).
The students had to read the 6 short texts given and then write one word to complete the sentences that follow each text.
Other modifications concerning structure, choice of words, and layout of the test were recommended.
Three weeks later, the same test was given to the same subjects another time, using the same procedures.
These results might be due to the effect of active learning on students’ understanding and achievement. The more you are open and accurate in answering these questions, the more progress in teaching and learning there will be. On the other hand, student assessment entails using a well-organized system, namely tests, to make judgments about achievement (Gronlund & Linn, 1990).
A third group said that they encountered difficulty in finding the main idea of a given paragraph. The use of active learning techniques in the classroom has powerful impact upon students’ learning. These tests bring anxiety, fear, or disappointment to students, which might negatively affect language learning. The students had to read the text and then answer the 9 multiple-choice items that followed.
Previous research has shown that traditional teaching through lecturing methods dominates students classrooms.
Students might suffer from spending long hours of study and preparation for tests haunted by mixed feelings of hope and fear. In this, the students read a text and then ticked the items according to whether they were TRUE, FALSE, or DOESN’T SAY.



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