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04.04.2015
Fill in the blanks is the last step to do once you have a social security card and driving license in your married name.
When you are digging up your parent and finding the flannel shirt, don’t throw it in the trash. Since the mid 1990a€™s the number of unmarried couples has doubled to almost 3 million and cohabitation has become much more socially acceptable.
This is a common misconception, when the reality is that in England and Wales there are no specific laws to protect the financial interests of couples living together. If you are living with your partner and are seeking financial protection, then a cohabitation agreement could be the right option for you.
A cohabitation agreement can set out in writing who owns the assets and what will happen to them if the couple should separate. Taylor Bracewell operates from offices in Thorne Road and Ten Pound Walk in Doncaster and Fountain Precinct in Sheffield. This year, Taylor Bracewell were once again proud to sponsor Doncastera€™s flagship annual Business Conference, held on Friday 22nd April at The Legacy Centre. Continued partnership working between public and private sector, raising aspirations, and promoting all that is great about Doncaster to the outside world were the key messages at this yeara€™s Conference. Taylor Bracewell was well represented in the audience, with members of all departments attending, including some of our Apprentices a€“ the future of business in Doncaster. Sophie Abson, also an Apprentice based within our Business Law team, added a€?The experience was very informative. In an interview with the Doncaster Free Press early in the day, Ed Milliband, MP, highlighted some of the exciting developments, such as the National College for High Speed Rail. In his conference speech, Dan Fell said a€?Sometimes, in order to fix internal issues, we must look outwards firsta€¦I would urge us first to concentrate on better promoting ourselves outwardly. The devolution of the Sheffield City Region, giving its leaders more decision-making powers over transport, skills and jobs growth, as well as access to £30m a year of government money over 30 years, was also discussed during the conference. Would you like to discuss your concerns with a very experienced and knowledgeable HR Specialist?
COME ALONG TO ONE OF OUR FREE CLINICS FOR SOME IMPARTIAL, PRACTICAL ADVICE FROM OUR HR CONSULTANT, JO CAIRNS.
Please come to our Leopold Street entrance and call 0114 272 1884 when you arrive; a member of the team will come and meet you.
You are welcome to drop in at any time between 3pm-5pm or if you would like to book a specific time, please call our reception on 0114 272 1884.We look forward to meeting you soon. In contrast, full-time working mothers earn 11percent less than women who do not have children.
A recent study of carried out by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) analysed the pay of 17,000 42-year-olds in full-time work. Working fathers tend to work longer hours after having children, while mothers tend to work shorter hours or go part-time. 77% of new mothers and pregnant women have experienced discrimination in the workplace according to the Equality and Human Rights Commission and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
The pay gap applies to those without children too; childless women earn 12% less than childless men working in similar jobs. If you'd like some practical advice and guidance regarding discrimination in the workplace or any other Employment Law or HR matter, please get in touch. When separated parents cannot agree arrangements about where their children will live or the time they should spend with each parent, they will need to look into the options available to resolve the dispute. Mediation is an option parents are encouraged to consider prior to making an application to the court. In February 2016, Cafcass (Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service) confirmed a 10% increase in the number of cases they dealt with, compared to February 2015.
In some circumstances, mediation may not be the best course of action, perhaps because one party refuses to attend or there are allegations of intimidation or harassment.
These statistics confirm that despite alternative dispute resolution methods being encouraged, more and more parents are going through the courts. In some instances children find themselves caught in the middle of their parentsa€™ disagreements and this can be worrying for them. Voices in the Middle is their current campaign, encouraging young people to share their stories. We have a specialist team of very experienced family law solicitors at Taylor Bracewell in both Doncaster and Sheffield. Having a formal tenancy agreement in place is not a legal requirement; however it is something that we would strongly advice.
Research carried out by Direct Line exposed worrying statistics about the lack of formal tenancy agreements in place.
Out of the contracts that are in place, 58% of landlords who do not use an agent used amended tenancy agreements from old contracts, 38% used contracts from other landlords and 20% used an updated template they found online. It is possible to have a verbal tenancy agreement in place, which would be construed as an Assured Shorthold Tenancy Agreement. Another concerning statistic is that despite the fact ita€™s a legal requirement to do so, 9% of landlords have failed to make their tenants aware that their deposit is held in a government-backed tenancy deposit protection scheme (TDP).
Wherever you are in Doncaster, there will be plenty of opportunities to watch the mena€™s and womena€™s races cycle past, as the Tour de Yorkshire will go via Hooton Pagnell, Sprotbrough, Warmsworth, Conisborough, Tickhill, Bawtry and Bessacarr, before finishing on Bennetthorpe in Doncaster town centre. Lots of information regarding parking, race timings, events and much more is available on the Doncaster Council website and you can pick up spectator guides from the Doncaster Tourist Information Centre on Priory Place.
Join the Tour de Yorkshire Party from 10.30am to 6pm on Doncastera€™s Town Field (leaflets listing all events are available from the Doncaster Tourist Information Centre).
If youa€™re lucky enough to have been invited to a hospitality event for the Tour de Yorkshire Stage 2 finish in Doncaster, take the opportunity to go.
Decorate your home or business on or around the route, with yellow and blue bikes, balloons, bunting or anything else you can think of!
The buy-to let-surge is expected to subside following the stamp duty changes, which took effect on the 1st April 2016. The latest figures released by E.surv Mortgage Monitor revealed that in the first quarter of 2016, home lending was at the highest level since 2007.
There has been an annual rise of 19.3% from 9,625 loans granted in March 2015 to 11,487 granted in March this year. The latest First Time Buyer Tracker by Your Move and Reeds Rains showed that, in February 2016, purchases made by first time buyers were up 6.6% to 21,100 compared to 19,800 in February 2015. This trend is expected to continue as schemes such as the Help to Buy ISA make saving for a deposit easier. Our experienced specialist team of 'Law Society Conveyancing Quality Scheme' accredited conveyancing lawyers in Sheffield and Doncaster have expert local knowledge to help you with your property purchase or sale. If you require advice about buying or selling property, contact Head of Conveyancing, Mark Walton on 01302 341 414. It has recently been announced that leading Sheffield Charity, Sheffield YWCA has re-launched as YWCA Yorkshire.
Whilst this growing influence is to be commended, there are several things that will have happened behind the scenes in order for this to happen. From a legal point of view any major change, such as a change of name, of a charity needs to be approved by the Charities Commission which governs and scrutinises charities within England to ensure they comply with the Charities Act 2011. What many people might not be aware of is that a registered charity that is set up as a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) is similar to a limited company, insofar as it is classed as a separate legal entity in the eyes of the law, and as such it needs to have a strong and robust constitution to help govern it. As the constitution is an extremely important document, it is always advisable to contact a specialist who may be able to help determine not only what the rights are under it, but also propose changes and draft them to allow a charity to develop and progress as YWCA Yorkshire has. The first wave of Help to Buy ISAs have been claimed since the scheme was made available in December 2015. One estimate suggests that those with the scheme have been able to purchase their first home up to two months earlier than those without a Help to Buy ISA. The scheme has received a thumbs up from Conveyancers across the country with the deposits being simple to claim.
If you are interested in setting up a Help to Buy ISA, click here to read our helpful summary blog. Our experienced specialist team of 'Law Society Conveyancing Quality Scheme' accredited conveyancing lawyers in Sheffield and Doncaster have expert local knowledge to help you buy or sell a property. Lauren Smith who dealt with our will was very helpful and explained everything that we wished to do re: our will in detail. Everyone was very helpful when I had to visit Taylor Bracewell, and I thank them very much. Former Welfare Officer at Leeds United, Lucy Ward, is claiming unfair dismissal and sex discrimination following her dismissal from Leeds United. The tribunal has heard claims that Ms Ward was dismissed on the basis that she was in a relationship with the cluba€™s former manager, Neil Redfern.
The club has stated that the dismissal was made due to Ms Ward exceeding her annual leave entitlement and denies improper conduct. Ms Ward argued a€?My working pattern was well known and agreed with my line manager each season. In a statement to the BBC after her successful hearing, Ms Ward stated a€?I look forward to the rest of my career, hopefully back into footballa€?. This is another case that highlights the importance of having a policy on workplace relationships! What further complicated matters in this case was Ms Warda€™s argument that this working pattern had been agreed and she had worked in this manner for the past 11 years.
If the Club genuinely believed Ms Ward was taking annual leave it raises the question of why her leave was not being managed correctly in order for this issue to have been picked up sooner and not 11 years later! Ms Ward was correct to argue that her contracted hours do not include Wednesdays, and to discipline and dismiss her for this was unfair. In 1999, while living in Hull, I secured employment with a law firm in Sheffield and started my journey by inputting client data on to internal computer systems.
Robert has achieved consistent 5-Star ratings on the independent a€?Vouched Fora€™ website and has been listed in the Sunday Times 175 Top UK Solicitors.
I have had many jobs, working almost full-time in a public house while studying before university, but my first "real" job after university was at a salad packing factory while I decided what I was going to do with my degree.
From a young age I was always told that I would argue black is white but it was not until a family member suffered life changing injuries that I knew I wanted to do everything I could to ensure that people were treated fairly and not left without help.
I am dedicated and passionate about helping people in their time of need and take real pride in getting to know clients so that I can be confident in identifying what they need and rightly deserve out of any dispute. The apprenticeship scheme and investment in people is really encouraging and, from my experience to date, unique in a law firm. Before the arrival of my two children, Lexi-Mae and Loui, I enjoyed competing with other pubs in the local pub pool team. I would be a Cat as they are independent, loving and loyal, they have 9 lives, can be fierce and if provoked can leave a lasting scar.
Witness the birth of my 2 children, the first of which I almost had to deliver on our living room floor. The people I saw at Taylor Bracewell were very polite and very helpful, Lauren explained things to me and simplified things when I didnt totally understand.
We had a very pleasant, courteous and efficient service, and everything was explained well. If you find yourself in this situation it might seem excessive to incur the significant costs and time making an application to the Court for an Order.
It is fairly common for grandparents to offer extensive support to working parents, take their grandchildren on holiday and even in have their grandchild live with them on a permanent basis.
Unless grandparents acquire legal Parental Responsibility through a Court Order, they may face difficulties dealing with routine appointments with doctors, dentists, schools or taking their grandchild on holiday abroad. The family team at Taylor Bracewell can draft a document which is signed by you and a parent with parent responsibility to record delegation of parental responsibility and provide permission to remove the child from the country for up to one month. The delegation of parental responsibility and permission within the document can be fine-tuned to meet your individual needs, dependent upon your family circumstances.
Provided the delegation of parental responsibility is agreed, and no unforeseen issues or delays arise, we can provide this service from as little as £180 plus VAT. Excellent professional service, we were advised and kept informed at all times and completed our sale very quickly.
The service I have received from Lauren has been no less than professional in doing my wills.
Emma Cornell joined Taylor Bracewell as Head of Dispute Resolution in January 2016, having progressed from Associate Solicitor to Partner in her previous firm after qualifying as a Solicitor in 2004. Emmaa€™s experience is extensive and varied and includes numerous Contested Probate and General Litigation cases that progressed to Appeal at the High Court.
Taylor Bracewell, a South Yorkshire law firm with offices in Doncaster and Sheffield, has experienced significant growth recently, resulting in the expansion of the Dispute Resolution team and appointment of a new Head of Department. Taylor Bracewell, a Legal 500 UK recommended firm, operates from offices in Thorne Road and Railway Court in Doncaster and the Fountain Precinct in Sheffield. A very helpful and friendly group of people who we would certainly recommend, also a big thankyou to Lauren Smith for sorting all three of us out. 31st March 2016 was one of the busiest days of the year for the Conveyancing department at Taylor Bracewell. Staff worked around the clock to ensure as many clients as possible completed before the 1st April to beat the stamp duty tax increase.
Our figures show a 43% Increase in the number of residential property purchases in March 2016 when compared with last years figures.
The majority of these purchases are likely to have been made by buy-to-let investors and those purchasing second homes, as they face the biggest increase in stamp duty. You may have already given us feedback on our customer feedback form after we completed the work, but we would love it if you could also take a couple of minutes to post a star rating and comment in the 'Reviews' section on our Facebook page. We are happy to have had Taylor Bracewell dealing with a difficult and awkward purchase in their professiomal and courteous manner. We are more than delighted with how Lauren Smith explained all the details to us regarding our business with her. Our dispute resolution specialists have an in-depth knowledge of relevant laws and legislation that, combined with their unbeatable skills, produces outstanding results for our clients. The Dispute Service Annual Review 2015 released by the Tenancy Deposit Scheme (TDS) reveals a 25% increase in the number of disputes since the previous year.
The most common reason for a dispute to arise is cleaning (58%), closely followed by damage (52%), then Redecoration (32%) and Gardening (17%), with rent arrears being the least common reason, causing only 10% of disputes.
Tenants are responsible for raising 53% of deposit disputes, agents raise 35% and landlords raise 12%. Disputes are often resolved to the satisfaction of both parties without the need to go to court. It was extremely easy to sell our house, the service was efficient, quick and the paper work easy to understand. Prompt, efficient and friendly service throughout, as were all the staff we were in contact with. Recent Research carried out by SunLife revealed that 55% of grandparents planning to leave their grandchildren an inheritance would rather do so directly rather than trusting their own children to pass it on in the future. If you are planning on leaving your grandchildren an inheritance, it is essential to have an up to date Will to ensure that your wishes are reflected.
You will be able to discuss any changes with a Solicitor who is experienced in issues relating to Wills and will be offered the best advice for your own circumstances. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make?
Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism. However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law.
In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany. Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires. Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders.
Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt.
In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments.
Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law.
The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor.
Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top.
Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D. In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution.
Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern. Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another. The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people. All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums.
Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people. After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X.
With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated.
Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down. Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe. Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government. Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold.
Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king.
Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated.
The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism.
Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534.
Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule.
When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England. Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici.
After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens. In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England. Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II. After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell. He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship).
His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England.
Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy.
When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism. He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act. James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament. With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James. The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France.
Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne. In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights.
This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament. Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority.
These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law?
How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms?
What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included? Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants?
What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U.
Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal. This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny.
In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival.
Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers.
Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power. Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory.
By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries.
Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands.
1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism. Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries.
In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688.
The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government.
The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic.
List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic.
List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France.
Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries.
There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay.
Cannabis may join the herb and spice rack in California kitchens as the most populous US state prepares for the possible legalization of recreational marijuana in November. Chef Chris Sayegh is leading the way by taking haute cuisine to a higher place with his cannabis-infused menus in private homes for as much as $500 a head, or in "pop-up" banquets around Los Angeles for $20 to $200 a person.
Sayegh, 23, who cut his teeth in the kitchens of top restaurants in New York and California, said incorporating cannabis into his recipes creates an entirely new consciousness for diners that goes beyond the effects of a fine wine. Edible marijuana products are nothing new, and the market for them has evolved into a multimillion-dollar industry.
Marijuana has been legally permitted in California for medical purposes since 1996, and voters are widely expected to pass a measure on the upcoming November election ballot to legalize pot as a recreational drug for adults statewide. Sayegh said he began experimenting with cannabis cuisine after growing tired of pot-baked brownies and other snacks. In the kitchen, Sayegh uses oil containing an extract of tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, and a "vaporizer" to infuse ingredients with THC.
The livestreamed Cats Meok Bang show is a twist on an online trend of young South Korean men and women tucking into feasts in real time, while viewers send messages and sometimes virtual cash. While the stars of those programs seek a rapport with their fans, cat TV has gained viewers despite its uneventfulness. Cats Meok Bang, a mash-up of the Korean words for broadcasting and eating, began by accident.
Four months on, 110,000 South Koreans a month on average watch the show and more than 10,000 of them have bookmarked the show. During the slow hours after patients leave his office, Yoo Young-hoon, 49, a physician in Seoul, said he always plays the cat TV on the screen next to the medical chart.
Unlike dogs that are considered loyal to their owners, cats do not have a positive image in South Korea. But viewers of the online cat show said they began paying attention to those animals roaming around the street with affection. Stray cats approach foods prepared by Koo Eunje, the 35yearold host of an online cat show in JeollaNamdo, South Korea.
Alberta declared a state of emergency on Wednesday as crews frantically held back wind-whipped wildfires that have already torched 1,600 homes and other buildings in Canada's main oil sands city of Fort McMurray, forcing more than 80,000 residents to flee. Alberta Premier Rachel Notley said fire had destroyed or damaged an estimated 1,600 structures. Unseasonably hot temperatures combined with dry conditions have transformed the boreal forest in much of Alberta into a tinder box. Danielle Larivee, Alberta's minister of municipal affairs, said the fire is actively burning in residential areas. Fatalities have been reported from a collision on a nearby highway but she was unaware if it was related to the evacuation or fire.


There were haunting images of scorched trucks, charred homes and telephone poles, burned out from the bottom up, hanging in the wires like little wooden crosses. Some residents were evacuated for a second time late on Wednesday when they were told to leave their emergency accommodations in the nearby hamlet of Anzac.
The blaze effectively cut Fort McMurray in two late on Tuesday, forcing about 10,000 north to the safety of oil sands work camps. The other 70,000 or so were sent streaming south in a bumper-to-bumper snake line of cars and trucks that stretched beyond the horizon down Highway 63. Firefighters were working to protect critical infrastructure, including the only bridge across the Athabasca River and Highway 63, the only major route to the city in or out. Labour's Sadiq Khan, the son of a bus driver from Pakistan, voted early in his multiethnic constituency of Tooting in south London.
His main rival, environmentalist Zac Goldsmith, cast his ballot in the posh Richmond neighborhood west of the city center. The vote is seen as the first major electoral test for opposition Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, whose party has been rived by infighting over allegations of anti-Semitism. The results of the regional elections that are also being held in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will likely set the tone for the final seven weeks of campaigning ahead of Britain's June 23 EU membership referendum. In the Scottish Parliament, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon's pro-independence party is looking to tighten its hold on power as it seeks to build support for a second vote on seceding from the UK following a failed referendum on the issue in 2014. If Britain as a whole votes to leave the European Union but Scotland votes to stay in, Sturgeon says that would be a pretext for her Scottish National Party to demand another independence referendum. In London, polls show the city facing a straight choice between Labour candidate Khan and his Conservative rival Goldsmith.
The campaign has been dominated by negative campaigning, with Goldsmith seeking to establish links between Khan and Muslim extremists, which Khan has consistently dismissed as "desperate stuff".
Khan, 45, is the son of a Pakistani immigrant bus driver who became a human rights lawyer and government minister, while ecologist Goldsmith, 41, is a son of the late tycoon financier James Goldsmith, a scion of one of Britain's wealthiest families.
Despite the surface-level rancor, both candidates accept that the sky-high cost of homes and the city's creaking transport system are the dominant issues for voters. Of the 12 candidates, second preference votes for the top two are added on to determine the winner. London's Evening Standard newspaper endorsed Goldsmith on Wednesday, as he spent the last day of campaigning on a 24-hour tour of the city. During a visit to a street market in south London on Wednesday, Khan told AFP his rival had run a "negative, divisive and increasingly desperate campaign". The new mayor replaces the eccentric Conservative Boris Johnson, whose eight-year term in office included the London 2012 Olympics and the launch of a cycle hire scheme dubbed "Boris Bikes". Out of London's City Hall, the fiercely-ambitious Johnson - a leading figure in the EU referendum's "Leave" campaign - is the bookmakers' favorite to become Britain's next prime minister. Sadiq Khan, Britain's Labour Party candidate for mayor of London, and his wife Saadiya pose for photographers after casting their votes for mayor in South London on Wednesday.
The leader of Bangladesh's top Islamist party Jamaat-e-Islami is set to hang within days after the Supreme Court on Thursday upheld his death sentence for war crimes.
Motiur Rahman Nizami was convicted of murder, rape and orchestrating the killing of intellectuals during the country's 1971 independence struggle.
A defense lawyer for the 73-year-old said he would not seek clemency and Alam said jail authorities would begin preparing for the execution once they received a copy of the verdict. Security has been stepped up in Dhaka, already tense after a string of killings of secular and liberal activists and religious minorities by suspected Islamist militants. Hundreds of people who had campaigned for the Islamist leaders to be tried for their roles in the 1971 war burst into impromptu celebrations at a square in central Dhaka and in the port city of Chittagong.
Three senior Jamaat officials and a key leader of Bangladesh Nationalist Party, the main opposition party, have been executed since December 2013 for war crimes despite global criticism of their trials by a controversial tribunal. Jamaat said the charges against Nizami were false and aimed at eliminating the leadership of the party, a key ally of the opposition BNP. Nizami took over as party leader in 2000 and was a minister in the Islamist-allied government of 2001-2006. Prosecutors said he was responsible for setting up the Al-Badr pro-Pakistani militia, which killed top writers, doctors and journalists in the most gruesome chapter of the 1971 conflict.
Their bodies were found blindfolded with their hands tied and dumped in a marsh on the outskirts of the capital.
Prosecutors said Nizami ordered the killings, designed to "intellectually cripple" the fledgling nation. The 1971 conflict, one of the bloodiest in world history, led to the creation of an independent Bangladesh from what was then East Pakistan. Nizami was convicted in October 2014 by the International Crimes Tribunal, which was established in 2010 by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina's government and has sentenced more than a dozen opposition leaders for war crimes.
Rodrigo Duterte has a commanding lead in opinion polls ahead of the May 9 election, much to the dismay of business chiefs, investors and diplomats who see him as a clown with no clear economic policies and a possible liability for the country.
Brash and openly scathing of the political establishment on the campaign trail, he has been likened to US presidential candidate Donald Trump.
And yet, Duterte's supporters point to his past to argue that as president, he would not be the disaster that critics fear. As mayor of Davao city in the south of the country, they say, the 71-year-old former prosecutor waged war on drugs, crushed crime rates, lifted investment levels, improved health and education, and delegated policy issues to technocrats. Eurasia Group, a global risk research firm, said in a report this week that the Philippines is likely to continue on the pro-growth and reform-oriented path set by outgoing President Benigno Aquino, regardless of who wins the election. It said that while Grace Poe, a senator who was at one stage the front-runner in opinion polls, appears more engaged and knowledgeable on economic policy, Duterte defers to capable advisers and is likely to pursue infrastructure development, administrative streamlining and openness to foreign investment. Last week, members of the country's leading business club were stunned when Duterte addressed them in his usual style, threatening to kill criminals and making risque comments about Viagra use and his sex life, but shedding little light on the economic policies he would pursue if he became president.
Presidential candidate Rodrigo Duterte (center) listens as Senate candidates Dionisio Santiago, right, and Sandra Camtalk to him while campaigning inManila. A senator selected as a fact-finder by a special Senate commission considering the impeachment of Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff recommended on Wednesday that she be put on trial for possible removal from office. The Israeli military launched airstrikes early on Thursday on four Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip in response to mortar rounds fired at Israel, the military said. A bleeding pregnant woman dropped dead at the gates of Haiti's largest public hospital after failing to get help on Wednesday amid a weeks-old strike by resident doctors, nurses and other staff. A woman has been found alive after six days in a collapsed building and rescuers were working to free her, a Kenyan government official said on Thursday.
Rescuers were creating room to release the woman who was speaking to medics waiting to treat her, said Pius Masai, the head of the National Disaster Management Unit. The New Day newspaper is shutting down after only nine weeks after its circulation failed to meet expectations.
Relative calm prevailed on Thursday in the Syrian city of Aleppo following a US-Russian agreement to extend a cessation of hostilities that had crumbled after nearly two weeks of violence between rebels and government forces that killed dozens.
Syrian state media said the army would abide by a "regime of calm" in the city that came into effect at 1:00 am for 48 hours. But the army again blamed Islamist insurgents for violating the agreement overnight by what it called indiscriminate shelling of some government-held residential areas of the divided city.
President Bashar Assad said on Thursday his country would not accept less than an outright victory against rebels in the northern city of Aleppo and across Syria, state media reported.
In a telegram sent to Russian President Vladimir Putin, Assad said the army would not accept less than "attaining final victory" in its fight against the rebels. Witnesses said at least one person was killed in rebel shelling overnight of the Midan neighborhood on the government side of the city. A resident contacted in the rebel-held eastern part of the city said although warplanes were flying overnight, there were none of the intense raids seen during more than 10 days of aerial bombing.
People in several districts ventured out onto the streets where more shops than normal had opened, the resident of al Shaar neighborhood said.
The only intense fighting reported was in the southern Aleppo countryside where Syria's al-Qaida offshoot Nusra Front is dug in close to where militias maintain a stronghold. The surge in bloodshed in Aleppo wrecked the first major "cessation of hostilities" agreement of the war, sponsored by Washington and Moscow, which had held since February. Meanwhile, around 64,000 Syrians are stranded at the border with Jordan after intensified violence around Aleppo, Jordanian border guards said on Thursday. Jordan, which is already home to more than 630,000 Syrian refugees, said it must screen newcomers to ensure they are genuine refugees and not jihadists seeking to infiltrate the country. A Syrian refugee woman, who is stuck between the Jordanian and Syrian borders, holds her child as she crosses into Jordan after a group of refugees had crossed into Jordanian territory on Wednesday.
Davutoglu, who had fallen out with President Recept Tayyip Erdogan, announced he was stepping aside following a meeting with executives of the ruling Justice and Development Party, or AKP, which has dominated Turkish politics since 2002.
Davutoglu indicated he did not plan to resign from the party, saying he would "continue the struggle" as a ruling party legislator. The shake-up is seen as the outcome of irreconcilable differences between Erdogan, who would like to see the country transition to a presidential system, and his once-trusted adviser. But the adviser to Erdogan tried to act independently on a range issues and often proved to be a more moderating force to Erdogan. Crisis talks between the former political allies dragged out for nearly two hours on Wednesday but clearly failed to resolve their differences. Divisions between the Erdogan and Davutoglu camps first spilled into the open over the conflict with Kurdish militants. Erdogan took issue with Davutoglu after he spoke of the possibility of resuming peace talks with the PKK if it withdraws its armed fighters from Turkish territory. Volunteers in opposition-held areas of Syria are forced to improvise as they carry out one of the world's most dangerous tasks: dismantling cluster munitions, land mines and explosive booby-traps as they work to make battle-torn areas safe for civilians to return. Booby-traps laid by the Islamic State group in the Kurdish-held town of Kobani, in northern Syria, have killed more than 20 volunteer sappers in 15 months, according to a senior regional official.
The sappers were all regular fighters in the main Syrian Kurdish militia, the YPG, who volunteered to take a munitions-clearance course based on Internet videos and shared experience.
Still, the amateur demining effort continues in other parts of Syria, often with minimal training and no specialized equipment. An estimated 5.1 million Syrians live in what the UN's demining coordination body, UNMAS, calls "contaminated" areas, where unexploded ordnance poses a threat to life and limb.
Defusing or otherwise neutralizing unexploded ordnance is a perilous task for even the best-trained technicians, to say nothing of volunteers. The weapons have been used extensively by the Syrian government, the Russian Air Force, and the Islamic State group in civilian areas throughout much of the war, according to evidence gathered by Human Rights Watch and other watchdog agencies. The Syrian government has been able to rely on Russian military technicians to secure areas under their control, such as the ancient city of Palmyra, which pro-government forces retook from IS in March. Clips broadcast from Palmyra on Russian media showed the technicians, clad in specialized protective gear, moving methodically across minefields and booby-trapped neighborhoods, sweeping the ground with metal detectors and explosives-sniffing dogs.
In contrast, hourslong amateur footage circulating on social media shows YPG volunteers in opposition-held areas prodding the ground with sticks, digging up bomblets with spades, and defusing them by hand.
They endure toxic fumes and backbreaking loads to earn pennies hauling out a substance used to bleach sugar and vulcanize rubber. Just after midnight, wearing headlamps to find their way through the darkness and volcanic smoke, the miners descend into the crater with shovels and crowbars, often without protective masks. They break up the mustard-yellow slabs of sulfur that are formed by planting pipes into the crater, forcing sulfuric gases to condense and then solidify.
Bearing loads of up 70 kilograms, the men make an agonizing climb out of the crater and then a 3-kilometer journey down the mountain.
They face deformities and shortened life spans working in a job that in other countries is mechanized because of the high dangers. The miners earn 1,000 rupiah (7 cents) for each kilogram, or about $10 a day if they make two trips up and down the smoldering 2,799-meter volcano. Marzuki, a sulfur miner, carries baskets of sulfur as he climbs up from the crater of Mount Ijen in Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. The Canadian province of Alberta raced to evacuate the entire population of Fort McMurray where an uncontrolled wildfire was taking hold in the heart of the country's oil sands region, with dry winds forecast for Wednesday that could fuel the blaze. Alberta appealed for military help to battle the fire and airlift people from the smoke-filled city after authorities issued a mandatory evacuation order for 80,000, but officials said army and air force assistance would take two days to arrive. About 44,000 people were estimated to be on the roads, fleeing the city, while approximately 8,000 had reached an evacuation center outside Fort McMurray, officials said. The 2,650-hectare fire, which was discovered on Sunday, shifted aggressively with the wind on Tuesday to breach city limits. The southern route eventually reopened but traffic was quickly gridlocked in both directions.
Alberta is much drier than normal for this time of year, strengthening prospects for a long and expensive wildfire season, in the wake of a mild winter with lower-than-average snowfall and a warm spring. Authorities expect increased winds on Wednesday that will make it harder to fight the fire.
Suncor Energy, whose oil sands operations are closest to the city, said its main plant, 25 km north of Fort McMurray, was safe, but it was reducing crude production in the region to allow employees and families to get to safety. Suncor said evacuees were welcome at its Firebag oil sands facility, while Canadian Natural Resources Ltd said it was working to ensure any affected CNRL workers and their families could use its camps. Shell Canada also said it would open its oil sands camp to evacuees and was looking to use its airstrip to fly out nonessential staff and accommodate displaced residents. A number of flights from Fort McMurray airport were canceled and the airport advised passengers to check with their airlines for updates.
The blaze started southwest of Fort McMurray and spread rapidly to the outskirts of the city, located about 430 km northeast of Alberta's capital, Edmonton. Television footage and photographs on Twitter showed flames and smoke billowing over the city and a destroyed trailer park. At least one residential neighborhood in the city's southeast had been destroyed by the fire and others were severely damaged or still under threat, local fire chief Allen said.
Fort McMurray resident Crystal Maltais buckles in her daughter, Mckennah Stapley, as they prepare to leave Conklin, Alberta, after evacuating their home threatened by a raging wildfire on Tuesday. Embattled President Dilma Rousseff greeted the Olympic flame in Brazil on Tuesday, promising not to allow a raging political crisis, which could see her suspended within days, to spoil the Rio Games.
The flame, which arrived in a small lantern from the ancient Greek site of Olympia, via Switzerland, was transferred to Brazil's Olympic torch featuring waves of tropical colors.
The torch will now be carried in a relay by 12,000 people through 329 cities, ending in Rio's Maracana stadium on Aug 5 for the opening ceremony. Air Force jets roared overhead in a clear blue sky to write "Rio 2016" and the five Olympic rings in their vapor trails.
Twelve-year-old Syrian refugee Hanan Daqqah, who arrived in Brazil's biggest city Sao Paulo with her family in 2015, was also among the 10 first torch bearers. But political and economic turmoil overshadowed the ceremony ahead of South America's first ever Olympics. Rousseff will be suspended from office for six months next week if the Senate votes on May 11 or 12 to open an impeachment trial, meaning that Tuesday could have been one of her final major public events as president. According to reports in the Globo, Folha de Sao Paulo and Estadao dailies, chief prosecutor Rodrigo Janot has requested authority to open an investigation into the embattled president and also her predecessor and key political ally Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. India's Supreme Court on Wednesday said the tobacco industry must adhere to federal rules requiring stringent health warnings on cigarette packs, in a major setback for the $11 billion industry that opposes the new policy. The court also turned down an industry plea to stay the implementation of the new tobacco-control rules introduced from April 1, which require health warnings to cover 85 percent of a cigarette pack's surface, up from 20 percent earlier. The tobacco industry "should not violate any rule prevailing as of today," the two-judge bench said during the 45-minute hearing inside a packed courtroom in New Delhi.
It also directed the high court of Karnataka state to hear dozens of pleas filed against the new rules in several Indian courts and decide on the matter within six weeks.
Last month, Indian tobacco companies, some backed by foreign "Big Tobacco", briefly shut down production as the new rules came into effect. The Supreme Court declined an industry lawyer's request that a stay obtained by a lower court be allowed to continue. Shares in India's biggest cigarette maker ITC Ltd, part-owned by British American Tobacco, fell nearly 1 percent after the court directive. US-based Philip Morris International's India partner Godfrey Phillips pared gains but was trading 1.3 percent higher.
Officials from the Tobacco Institute of India, an industry lobby group whose members include ITC and Godfrey, were not immediately available for comment. It was not immediately clear when the companies will start printing bigger warnings on their packs. The head of Korean Air, who just resigned as the chief organizer of the 2018 Winter Olympics, was sued on Wednesday by his carrier's pilots for allegedly demeaning their work. The airline's pilot union filed a defamation lawsuit with the Seoul district court against Cho Yang-ho over a Facebook posting the chairman made in March, a Korean Air spokesman said.
Responding to a Korean Air pilot who backed a pay rise demand by detailing the complex preflight checks required of the cockpit crew, Cho posted that flying a modern passenger plane on autopilot was "easier than driving a car". The posting infuriated Korean Air pilots already embroiled in a protracted wage dispute, and the union decided to take the matter to court.
Cho was already in the headlines on Tuesday when he resigned as head of the Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympic Games Committee, citing "critical financial issues" with Hanjin shipping which, like Korean Air, is part of the tycoon's Hanjin Group. Muslim militants have threatened to kill three more hostages in their jungle base in the southern Philippines more than a week after beheading a Canadian man when their multi-million dollar ransom demands were not met. In a video circulated on Tuesday by the SITE Intelligence Group, which monitors jihadi websites, the captives from Canada, Norway and the Philippines pleaded for the Canadian and Philippine governments to heed the Abu Sayyaf militants' demand.
Six heavily armed Abu Sayyaf fighters stood behind the hostages, who were made to sit in a clearing and spoke briefly before a camera. The militants beheaded John Ridsdel on April 25 in the southern Philippine province of Sulu, an impoverished Muslim province in the south of the largely Roman Catholic country, after they failed to get a ransom of $6.3 million.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau condemned the killing but vowed not to give in to the kidnappers' ransom demands.
Canadian captive Robert Hall asked the Philippine government to "please stop shooting at us and trying to kill us. The four were seized from a marina on southern Samal Island and taken by boat to Sulu, where Abu Sayyaf gunmen continue to hold several captives, including a Dutch bird watcher who was kidnapped more than three years ago, and eight Indonesian and Malaysian crewmen who were snatched recently from three tugboats. The militants freed 10 Indonesian tugboat crewmen a few days ago reportedly in exchange for ransom. The United States and the Philippines have separately blacklisted the Abu Sayyaf for kidnappings for ransom, beheadings and bombings. Republican front-runner Donald Trump went from long-shot contender to become the party's presumptive nominee on Tuesday with a commanding win in Indiana, and the party began to coalesce around him as top rival Ted Cruz bowed out of the race.
The New York billionaire, who has never held public office, had repeatedly defied pundits' predictions that his campaign would implode.
The former reality TV star now can prepare for a match-up in the Nov 8 election with Hillary Clinton expected to be his Democratic opponent. Trump's immediate challenge is to unite deep fissures within the Republican Party as many party loyalists are appalled at his bullying style, his treatment of women and his signature proposals to build a wall on the border with Mexico and deport 11 million illegal immigrants. Trump himself called for unity in a speech at a victory rally that was free of his usual bombast and flamboyance. Trump's victory put to rest a belief that Republicans would choose their nominee at a contested convention when party leaders gather in Cleveland July 18-21. At his victory rally at Trump Tower in New York, Trump walked on stage with wife Melania and other family members as the Rolling Stones' Start Me Up blared over loudspeakers. He is likely to formally wrap up the nomination on June 7 when California votes, although Ohio Governor John Kasich vowed to stay in the race as Trump's last challenger. Republican National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus called Trump the party's presumptive nominee in a tweet and said, "We all need to unite and focus" on defeating Clinton. As the vote returns flowed in, Cruz announced that he has ended his campaign in Indianapolis, with his wife, Heidi, at his side. Trump won at least 51 of 57 possible delegates awarded in Indiana, according to the Associated Press delegate tracker.
US presidential candidate Donald Trump smiles during his speech at the start of a victory party at Trump Tower in New York on Tuesday. Bernie Sanders said on Tuesday that his primary bid against Hillary Clinton was far from over, pointing to his victory in Indiana and strength in upcoming races as a sign of his durability in the presidential campaign. Sanders spoke to the AP after he defeated Clinton in Indiana's primary, predicting that he would achieve "more victories in the weeks to come" in West Virginia, Kentucky, Oregon and California. Sanders' win in Indiana likely won't make much of a dent in Clinton's lead of more than 300 pledged delegates.
With Donald Trump all but clinching the Republican nomination for president, Clinton is beginning to explore ways to woo Republicans turned off by the brash billionaire. Sanders said in the interview that he would be the best-positioned Democrat to take on Trump. Sanders said he had no intention to drop out of the race and rejected the notion that his criticism of Clinton's record on issues like trade, campaign finance and the Iraq war would help Trump. Kenyan police have disrupted a cell of extremist medics linked to the Islamic State group suspected of plotting a biological attack on Kenya and recruiting university students to join the group in Libya and Syria, Kenya's police chief said on Tuesday. A court allowed anti-terrorism police officers to keep Mohammed Abdi Ali, a medical intern at the Wote District Hospital in Makueni County who was arrested on Friday, for 30 days to complete investigations, Joseph Boinnet said in a statement. Kenya is struggling to battle the Islamic State group's recruitment of some of the country's youths. The newly-appointed head of the UN environment agency said on Tuesday he wants to change the organization to relate more to the average person and plans to further engage the private sector to achieve global environmental goals. Erik Solheim, Norway's former environment minister, said he will take over as executive director of the United Nations Environment Program, known as UNEP, succeeding Achim Steiner, "sometime in the summer". Solheim, 61, currently heads the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's committee on development assistance based in Paris, and serves as UNEP's special envoy for environment, conflict and disaster. UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric announced Solheim's appointment on Tuesday and Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's intention to appoint Mexican Ambassador Patricia Espinosa Cantellano for the UN's top post to tackle climate change - as executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or UNFCCC. The appointment of Espinosa, a career diplomat who has been Mexico's ambassador to Germany since 2012, needs final approval from the convention's member nations.
Solheim said Nairobi-based UNEP, which calls itself "the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda", has achieved "quite a lot," but that more can be done.
Thirty-one passengers and a crew member aboard an Etihad Airways flight were injured on Wednesday when their plane ran into sudden turbulence as it prepared to land in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Russia says it will form new military divisions to be stationed along the country's borders with Europe to counter a planned NATO buildup. Germany's Cabinet has approved a bill that will allow patients to get cannabis as a prescription-only medication.
A 3-billion-year-old diamond the size of a tennis ball - the largest discovered in over a century could sell for more than $70 million, auctioneer Sotheby's said on Wednesday.
European Union countries that refuse to accept refugees under proposals to overhaul the EU's failed asylum laws could face large fines for each asylum seeker rejected. Part of a UNESCO World Heritage area, the saltwater lake has long been a source of wonder for tourists, who have delighted in snorkeling among the millions of golden jellyfish that can fill the water as thick as corn chowder.
Scientists blame a severe drought, coupled with hotter temperatures caused by the El Nino weather pattern, a warming of parts of the Pacific Ocean that changes weather worldwide and tends to push up global temperatures. While scientists say there's every chance jellyfish numbers will rebound when conditions improve, they also worry that global warming poses a long-term threat to the delicate ecosystem of Palau, a tiny western Pacific island chain. About a month ago, scientists at Palau's Coral Reef Research Foundation estimated the numbers of golden jellyfish at the lake had declined from about 8 million to 600,000.
The decline is particularly concerning because the jellyfish in the lake are a unique subspecies that have developed in isolation from their lagoon ancestors. Koror State Governor Yositaka Adachi last week decided to keep the lake open, at least for now.
Scientists are still trying to figure out exactly how the hot and dry conditions are affecting the jellyfish. The Coral Reef Research Foundation also noted the lack of rain had caused the lake to become saltier than ever previously recorded, in monitoring which dates back to 1998. From pop icons Beyonce, to Lady Gaga, and a cheeky Madonna, to a goth-looking Taylor Swift, and almost unrecognizably intergalactic Katy Perry, it was the most glamorous night of the year in a city that likes to dress up.
Supermodel Gigi Hadid posed with pop star significant other Zayn Malik, who wore a metallic arm contraption.
Hollywood heavy hitters Orlando Bloom, Johnny Depp and Bradley Cooper, also turned out looking more old-school than sci-fi.
Hosted by American Vogue's editor-in-chief Anna Wintour, the benefit brought out stars of film, television, fashion, politics and sports: from Lupita Nyong'o with a towering hairdo, to Kim Kardashian posing away in a metallic outfit that looked ready for NASA.
In line with the technology theme, there was an abundance of black and metallics, cutouts, thigh-high boots and a few people in princess dresses who did not know there was a theme.
This year, the theme was "Manus X Machina: Fashion in an Age of Technology," which is also the title of the Costume Institute's big annual exhibition opening May 5. The future of Asia's largest, most-awaited film festival is in question as South Korean filmmakers threaten to boycott the red carpet over what they view as government interference.
Officials of the Busan International Film Festival say the feud between organizers and the host city of Busan, its largest financial sponsor, started two years ago when the festival's program displeased government officials.
Their biggest objection was over the film, Truth Shall Not Sink With The Sewol, which excoriated South Korean authorities for botching rescue operations during a ferry disaster that left 304 people, mostly high school students, dead or missing. Festival organizers defied Busan Mayor Suh Byung-soo's request they not screen the documentary, and "That's where all the problems started," Kim Ji-seok, its executive programmer, said in an interview. Kim and other festival organizers and filmmakers say authorities retaliated, with the central government slashing its budget for the event last year by half. South Korean prosecutors pushed ahead on Tuesday with embezzlement charges against Lee, despite widespread criticism that the allegations are politically motivated. Three other former and current senior festival officials were also formally charged on Tuesday. The Busan festival premieres films from novice Asian directors and has often spotlighted major new talent, including Venice Film Festival Golden Lion winner Jia Zhangke. Officials say the screening of the ferry disaster film in 2014 was not the reason for the festival's audit, which they say will help ensure its long-term viability. Ahead of the Oct 6-15 annual event, when they should be focusing on scouting new talent and viewing film submissions from around the world, city and festival officials are deadlocked over how to reform the festival. The two sides are feuding over who should succeed the Busan mayor as the festival's executive chairman.
South Korean leaders view the entertainment industry as a lifeline for their country that can help offset the weakness of traditional economic heavyweights such as shipbuilders and steel-makers. While Park's government is championing "cultural enrichment," Nemo Kim, a film critic and lecturer of contemporary Korean culture at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, says the local theater scene is growing less diverse, with big conglomerates, or "chaebols," gaining influence.
Australia blamed refugee advocates on Tuesday for "encouraging" asylum seekers held in remote camps toward acts of self-harm after a woman set herself on fire, while the United Nations renewed its criticism of Australia's harsh immigration policy. Australian officials said an unidentified 21-year-old Somali woman was in a critical condition after she set herself alight at an Australian detention camp on the tiny South Pacific island of Nauru on Monday, the second such incident in a week.
A 23-year-old Iranian man also set himself on fire last week in protest against his treatment on Nauru and later died. The Papua New Guinea government ordered the Manus Island camp, which holds about 850 people, closed last week after its Supreme Court ruled the facility unlawful. The harsh conditions and reports of systemic child abuse at the camps have drawn wide criticism inside and outside Australia and have become a major headache for Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull during campaigning for likely July elections. Australia however has vowed there will be no change to the policy, which has been pursued by successive governments.
On Tuesday, Immigration Minister Peter Dutton acknowledged there had been a rise in cases of self-harm in the camps but accused refugee advocates of giving the asylum seekers false hope they would one day be settled in Australia.
Her said some advocates were "encouraging some of these people to behave in a certain way". However, the peak UN body for refugees said such incidents in the camps, which hold asylum seekers fleeing violence in the Middle East, Afghanistan and South Asia, were a result of Australia's tough offshore detention polices. Rescue workers pulled a six-month-old baby girl out of the rubble of a building in Kenya's capital on Tuesday and reunited her with her father, more than three days after it collapsed following days of heavy rain. At least 21 people have so far been confirmed dead after the six-story residential block in Nairobi's poor Huruma district crumbled on Friday night. The baby, named as Dealeryn Saisi Wasike, was identified by her father after making a rapid recovery in hospital. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position.
Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well.
There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship.
When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow.
Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath.
Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death.
Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him.
Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe.
Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem.
Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615.
The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard.
When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen.
In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English.
After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away.
As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. It should be fairly easy because some places only need a phone call but others may require a copy of your certificate of marriage or social security card. On average, one in four people assume that unmarried couples have the same rights as married couples. In addition and in a case involving property, a Declaration of Trust can specify the percentage share each party would receive from a property.
He explained that he felt the day was about showcasing Doncastera€™s great talent and learning from each other and outlined his focus on skills, raising aspirations for young people and using our resources to give our young people the best opportunities for the future.
This is because doing so will bring in investments, training, tourism, wealth and jobs.a€? He added a€?Meaningful and lasting partnerships between the private and public sector are key. I am proud to be Partner in a growing legal firm that is solidly rooted in South Yorkshire and am excited about what the future holdsa€?, says Alison Kitchman, Partner and Collaborative Family Lawyer at Taylor Bracewell. We are proud, but not at all surprised, to say that Robert Clarke, Solicitor in our Dispute Resolution team, was featured. At certain points in life the majority of us would benefit from expert help with complex issues such as pension planning, securing a mortgage or for advice on a legal issue. Those who have their first child after reaching 33 earn 12% more than those without children. The mediation process enables parents to meet in a neutral location in the presence of a mediator to discuss the situation and attempt to come to an agreement. They also noted a 6% overall increase over the past six months, compared to the previous year. The next stage after mediation, if an agreement has not been reached, would be court proceedings. As members of Resolution, and with trained Collaborative Family Lawyers in our team, the Taylor Bracewell Family Law Team in Sheffield and Doncaster will work with you to work towards achieving your desired outcome. Our Family team have been recommended for the second year running in the 'Legal 500 UK' - one of only two legal firms based in Doncaster and Sheffield whose family departments have been recommended.
Having a document in place protects the interests of both the landlord and the tenant, setting out clear expectations for each party. These agreements can, however, be unreliable and can make things more difficult, should a dispute arise. Landlords should provide their tenant with the name and contact details of the TDP and its dispute resolution service within 30 days of taking the deposit.
The Tour de Yorkshire starts this week and, on Saturday, Doncaster will be hosting the last stretch of Stage 2, starting in Otley.


There will be fun activities for the whole family, including a giant puppet show, fun fair rides, street entertainers, an army climbing wall & assault course, sports and community stalls, street food and drink stalls, live music and much more! Our Head of Commercial Property, Alison Turner, will be in the Yorkshire Bank hospitality marquee at the finish line. We will be decorating our Thorne Road office reception with yellow and blue balloons to celebrate the Tour de Yorkshire! For example, Alison Kitchman, Family Partner at Taylor Bracewell, will be cycling to her beauticiana€™s appointment on Saturday! We look forward to seeing you soon, hopefully somewhere along the Tour de Yorkshire route on Saturday. This is to reflect the great work that they do to support exploited young women, children and families, and shows their growing influence in South Yorkshire. Rajinder Singh, Commercial Paralegal, looks behind the scenes and explains important aspects of running a charity. It is generally the constitution that sets out how and where a charity operates, what its objectives are and what powers those who are trustees of the charity wield. If the Club did have a problem with staff being in relationships, a clear policy on what the Club expects of its employees in this respect would have made it easier to manage the relationship. This would have been a potentially fair reason to dismiss an employee, as long as the right procedure had been followed by the Club in dismissing Ms Ward. If this is true, ita€™s likely that custom and practice means that Ms Ward will have an implied term in her contract of employment that she doesna€™t work Wednesdays. I would have also argued that in such circumstances, to go as far as a dismissal is unreasonable and goes beyond other reasonable responses the Club had available to them, further advancing her claim of unfair dismissal, as demonstrated by the Tribunal awarding in Ms Warda€™s favour. After 6 months, the time and expense of the journey from Hull to Sheffield every day was becoming too much so I secured alternative employment with a debt recovery company in Hull. I thrive on the challenge of securing more compensation than previous Solicitors have suggested would be reasonable. I also enjoyed fly fishing in scenic locations such as Chew Valley and have even tried my hand at sea fishing in Hartlepool, Bridlington and Whitby. He brings excellent Personal Injury and Consumer Disputes experience from his previous role at L A Steel Solicitors.
This trend was reflected throughout the property industry with most companies recording increases. Her Facebook review said a€?Richard at Doncaster branch has just dealt with the sale of my mums bungalow & I can't praise him enough. We will help you get matters into perspective and find the most timely and cost-effective solution. If you would like to review your Will to ensure it meets your needs, or discuss any changes that may be required, please contact Lauren Smith on 0114 272 1884. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance. This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648).
The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation.
In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy. It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain.
They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism. The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king.
The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII.
Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work).
But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection.
Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific. The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings.
The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered.
Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary. She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights.
Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future. Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I. Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose).
Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?.
In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed!
He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause. In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France. Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces.
While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment.
In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health. The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights.
It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation.
It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact.
The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power.
The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them.
The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany. He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine. Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige.
This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism. England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
Cannabis dining, on the other hand, is a relatively new concept, and Sayegh wants to bring it to the masses. Carrot confit gnocchi with cannabis-infused pea emulsion was followed by New York strip steak with parsnip puree and a "medicated" red wine reduction. In a country where young adults increasingly live and dine alone, the shows have become so popular, some hosts have made small or big fortunes from the virtual cash sent from viewers. Some avid fans say they quit watching soap operas, reading online news or playing mobile phone game to watch.
While visiting his mother-in-law in a mountainous village, Koo Eun-je, 35, saw a cat outside, wondered how it survived and put out leftover fish for it. Some viewers have sent Koo virtual cash items, which help cover his living expenses and cat food. The show has replaced his time on Facebook and his day is full of newfound cat-related activities although he still does not plan to adopt one.
Stray cats are called "thief cats" because they are believed to survive by stealing food from humans. But now once in a while I look down, like beneath a car, to see what kind of cats live near my house," said Park Tae-kyung, a 33-year-old computer graphic designer. Flames are being kept from the downtown area thanks to the "herculean'" efforts of firefighters, said Scott Long of the Alberta Emergency Management Agency. Fort McMurray is surrounded by wilderness in the heart of Canada's oil sands - the third largest reserves of oil in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
There had been 2,500 evacuees registered at the local recreation center, although it was not known how many were still there when they were told to get on buses for Edmonton further to the south.
Federal Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale called it one of the largest fire evacuations in Canadian history, if not the largest.
Now there is no bar to execute him unless he seeks clemency from the president and the president pardons him," said Attorney General Mahbubey Alam after the Supreme Court dismissed Nizami's final appeal. We hope the government will now execute him without wasting any time," said Imran Sarker, a secular blogger. The Senate's website said Senator Antonio Anastasia made the recommendation for a Senate trial in a 126-page report he presented to the 21-member commission. The military said it hit "terrorist infrastructure sites" belonging to Hamas, the Islamic militant group which rules Gaza. Hundreds of people gathered around the woman just outside the General Hospital compound in Port-au-Prince's crowded downtown. The party will hold an emergency convention on May 22 to select a new party leader who would also replace the premier. It comes a day after Davutoglu's government scored a victory of sorts, with the European Union's executive commission recommending approval of a deal to give Turkish citizens the right to travel to Europe without visas. Davutoglu was expected to play a backseat role as Erdogan pushed ahead with plans to make the largely ceremonial presidency into an all-powerful position. But the death toll in the Kobani area was so high that the campaign there has been suspended, Hisso said. Members of the Civil Defense demining teams in Aleppo province have developed their own methods, including burning explosives in primitive pits and detonating unexploded cluster munitions by shooting at them. Volunteer sappers in oppositionheld areas of Syria are improvising their approaches to one of the world's most dangerous tasks.
Stunning Mount Ijen in east Java draws tourists by day and hundreds of sulfur miners by night.
The blaze closed off the main southern exit from the city, Highway 93, prompting many residents to head north toward the oil sands camps. Gas stations throughout the area were out of fuel and police were patrolling the highway with gas cans. Officials said a gas station had exploded and flames engulfed the roof of a Super 8 Hotel during a live report on Canadian television.
Then there were cheers as the first relay runner, double Olympic gold winning women's volleyball captain Fabiana Claudino, set off. But if confirmed, the probe into Rousseff would be on top of a separate investigation that Janot earlier on Tuesday asked the Supreme Court to open against Lula and three of Rousseff's ministers in relation to corruption at the state oil giant Petrobras. The industry says the new policy is impractical and says it will boost cigarette smuggling. Ranjit Kumar, solicitor general of India, told the court New Delhi was committed to the new rules and opposes any stay on their implementation. The World Health Organization says tobacco-related diseases cost India $16 billion annually.
Following the beheading, the Philippine military launched an offensive, which security officials believe have killed more than a dozen gunmen so far. They're gonna do a good job at that." He asked his government to heed the militants' demand. The brutal group emerged in the early 1990s as an extremist offshoot of a decades-long Muslim separatist rebellion in the south. He prevailed despite making outrageous statements along the way that drew biting criticism but still fed his anti-establishment appeal. Clinton's march to the Democratic nomination was slowed by rival Bernie Sanders' victory over her in Indiana. Cruz, 45, sounding beaten but defiant, said he no longer sees a viable path to the nomination. But the voters chose another path, and so with a heavy heart, but with boundless optimism for the long-term future of our nation, we are suspending our campaign," said Cruz, a US senator from Texas. Some at his event expressed shock at the decision by Cruz, who had been the last serious challenger to Trump out of an original field of 17 candidates. His victory in the state pushed him to 1,047 delegates of the 1,237 needed to clinch the nomination, compared with 153 for Kasich. Trump was jubilant after his win in the state of Indiana and his chief rival Senator Ted Cruz dropped out of the race for the Republican presidential nomination.
The Vermont senator acknowledged that he faced an "uphill climb" to the Democratic nomination but said he was "in this campaign to win and we are going to fight until the last vote is cast". Clinton is still more than 90 percent of the way to clinching the Democratic nomination when the count includes superdelegates, the elected officials and party leaders who are free to support the candidate of their choice. Two of Ali's alleged accomplices Ahmed Hish and Farah Dagane, medical interns in the western town of Kitale, have gone into hiding, he said.
At least 20 Kenyan young people have travelled to Libya to join the extremist group, according to police. Unless you can make the average Finn, Chinese or South African engage with the environment you get nowhere.
The United Arab Emirates' national airline said flight EY474, which departed from its hub in the Emirati capital of Abu Dhabi, was hit by "severe and unexpected turbulence" about 45 minutes before landing at Soekarno Hatta International Airport. Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said on Wednesday that two new divisions would be formed along the western border and one along the southern border by the end of the year. The Health Ministry said on Wednesday that the legislation will allow doctors to prescribe cannabis in the form of dried flowers or extracts if there are no alternative treatments. But some tourists in recent weeks have struggled to find even a single jellyfish, prompting at least one tour operator to suspend its trips. He said the adult jellyfish have pretty much died out completely, while some juveniles remain. He said in a statement that rainfall in the area over the past four months was the lowest in 65 years, but that there remained enough polyps, which produce jellyfish, to ensure the population could eventually recover.
Governor Adachi wrote that the lack of rain had reduced runoff into the lake, which had affected the tiny plants and animals the jellyfish consume.
It added: "The golden jelly population could be on the verge of crashing" to the point where there were no more swimming about the lake. Part of a UNESCO World Heritage area, the saltwater lake has long been a source of wonder for tourists, who have delighted in snorkeling among the millions of golden jellyfish which can fill the water as thick as corn chowder. The city ordered an audit, which found misuse or unexplained uses of some of the festival's budget, and filed a complaint against festival director Lee Yong-kwan. For the past 20 years, moviegoers and industry officials have watched Busan, hoping to discover Asia's next-generation Wong Kar Wai or Ang Lee. The city approved a 6 billion won ($5.2 million) sponsorship for this year's festival, level with last year. They aren't protests against healthcare, they aren't protests against the lack of financial support," Dutton told a news conference in Canberra.
She appeared dehydrated, and with no visible physical injuries," the Kenya Red Cross said in a statement.
At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations.
She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.
Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. It is thought that these rights are automatically accrued after the couple have lived together for a period of time.
Listing professionals alongside verified reviews from their existing clients makes it easy to find a respected and trusted expert like Robert to help. The mediator is unable to give legal advice; they remain neutral and ensure all options are being considered.
Taylor Bracewell is a founding member of this fantastic charity and keen supporters of the work they do for young people.
Bonne chance to all the cyclists & teams, and of course a little extra dose of luck to the GB teams ! There are also distinct benefits of having a charity as a CIO, mainly for the trustees, as it limits their liability if the charity for should fail for any reason. Even if the Tribunal had accepted that she was dismissed due to her exceeding her annual leave entitlement, Ms Ward could still have succeeded in her claim for unfair dismissal if the Club had failed to follow the correct absence management procedure. This is why it is important to review the contracts of your employees regularly to ensure that they reflect the true nature of their working relationship, particularly those who have been there a while and whose roles may have changed. The Partners in the law firm in Sheffield did not want me to leave so they persuaded me to stay with the incentive of a guaranteed training contract if I passed my Legal Practice Course, which I did at Huddersfield University while still working full time in Sheffield.
Nowadays my spare time is spent with my family and we frequently escape for caravan weekends away. I was kept informed the whole way through & any questions I had were answered with the utmost speed. This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live.
He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them.
It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots!
Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean. If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home.
A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution.
His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17. Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII.
In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism.
Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers. James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants.
The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740. Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy.
After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government.
Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city.
The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary.
The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship.
It throws off the whole flavor of the dish," he said, adding that he "micro-doses" his dishes to the desired potency of individual clients. When the stray cats finally come to eat the food left out for them, people watching online sit enraptured by their feline charms. But it has helped change negative images of stray cats in South Korea, which has traditionally seen them as thieves. An update from the Municipality of Wood Buffalo later in the evening indicated the fire was continuing to claim homes and had destroyed a new school. Rousseff is facing impeachment over allegations her administration violated fiscal laws by shifting around government funds to plug holes in the budget.
The Gaza Health Ministry said three children and a 65-year-old Palestinian suffered light-to-moderate injuries in an airstrike that hit a metal workshop in Gaza City.
They covered her body in a blanket and carried it to a nearby radio station in an impromptu protest, chanting: "Medicine needs to work!" "This woman came here to get help but couldn't find any doctors. The newspaperi??i??the first title to launch in Britain in 30 yearsi??i??had been seen as a counter to the trend of declining newspaper sales in an online world. Authorities fear that IS is trying to establish a presence in Kenya, East Africa's biggest economy and transport hub. So we need to change our language into a more emotional, more scientific and less bureaucratic mode," he said. The diamond was unearthed in November in Botswana at a mine owned by Canada's Lucara Diamond Corporation. Lee, whose term ended in February, is under investigation for allegedly providing 474 million won ($416,800) as commission fees to brokers without proper documentation.
Under Australia's hard line immigration policy, asylum seekers intercepted trying to reach Australia after paying people smugglers are sent for processing to camps on Nauru, which holds about 500 people, and on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. You can find How To Change Your Name After Marriage In Pa guide and see the latest Change Your Name After Marriage? We would like to congratulate Robert on being one of the Top 175 - ita€™s a great endorsement of the service Robert provides. Paul specialises in Commercial Disputes and can assist clients with Commercial Property Disputes as well as disputes involving directors, shareholders and partnerships. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow. The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic.
Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown.
In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic. At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived.
Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors.
But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament.
But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary.
The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent.
If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy.
Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes.
This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army.
The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. That's not right," computer technician Jean Michel Tius said as he watched the crowd march away with the body.
US Defense Secretary Ash Carter said on Monday that the NATO alliance was considering establishing a continuous rotation of up to 4,000 troops in the Baltic states and possibly Poland.
Health Minister Hermann Groehe stressed that it does not imply a general legalization of cannabis in Germany. Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia.
Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII.
The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports.
They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat.
The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome. The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not.
The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage.
After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth.
Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611). James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations. The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development.
Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. The woman has been given oxygen and she is trapped in small corner of her room, said Abbas Gullet, head of the Kenya Red Cross. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs.
Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire.
The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan.
The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna!
And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors.



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