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11.03.2014
The follow-up volume (see Vol 1) of the (then) All-New, All-Hilarious Justice League completes the year long story-arc that introduced businessman and 1980’s archetype Max Lord, who reshaped the World’s greatest super-team for his own mysterious purposes. The Rocket Red attached to the JLI is in fact a Manhunter, who first tries to co-opt then destroy the team with an oil refinery, but by the second part, ‘Soul of the Machine,’ the team are in space attacking the Manhunter home planet as part of a Green Lantern strike force. The volume ends by resolving all the mysteries of the first year by exposing the secret mastermind behind the League’s reformation. The starting-point for preparation of the original version of this key, in my 1998 BSJ Christmas Annual a€?Entertainment and Fantasya€?: The 1940 Dinner, was a partial one by Harry Hazard, Jr.
Two listed in Smitha€™s minutes, Frank Henry and Malcolm Johnson, were old associates of Christopher Morley from his Doubleday years, and early Irregulars, but are not in the photograph nor in surviving copies of 221B from that night. Reviewing Russell McLauchina€™s 1946 memoir of his youth, Alfred Street, I reported that he wrote in one chapter about his boyhood interest in Sherlock Holmes going beyond mere enjoyable reading of the stories.
He was born in 1894, and was nine years old when the Return of Sherlock Holmes stories began to appear in Colliera€™s Weekly in 1903. I was too young to know the wave of dismay that went round the English-speaking world when Sherlock and Professor Moriarty supposedly perished together in the Reichenbach Fall, but I can well remember the sombre effect on my ten-year-old spirits when I first read the closing paragraphs of the Memoirs. Elmer Davis, born the same year as Morley, wrote in his introduction to The Return of Sherlock Holmes in their 1952 Limited Editions Club appearance: a€?We who were born around the year 1890 have seen many things that we would just as soon have missed seeing.
I can testify to the domestic excitement among subscribers to Colliera€™s, and gratefully acknowledge the self-abnegation of my parents who let me have first look at the issue that finally came in with The Return of Sherlock Holmes . Thanks to William Gillette, the second establishing factor in Russell McLauchlina€™s account in Alfred Street. In the Sherlock Holmes Collections Newsletter, June 2009, I wrote the a€?50 Years Agoa€? column about Evelyn Waugha€™s 1959 biography of Msgr. I actually heard John Bennett Shaw explain the Cult of Sherlock Holmes and began my collecting mania with the Shaw 100, and organize my bookshelves by the religious categories: Canon, Apocrypha, and Writings about the Sacred Writings.
2011 will be the 100th anniversary of the lecture a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmes,a€? and by it the founding of Sherlockian scholarship, by Ronald Knox.
For those bibliographers, a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmesa€? has been published six times, the first being The Blue Book (conducted by Oxford undergraduates) Vol. As a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford in 1911, Christopher Morley heard Knoxa€™s lecture a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmesa€? and wrote about it in Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Of special note is that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a letter to Knox dated July 5, 1912, which Waugh quotes in his book. In the letter Conan Doyle plays the Game and refers to the commentators as the learned and profound Sauwosch and the no less erudite Piff-Pouff, and ended with a€?renewed amazementa€”at the trouble you have taken.a€? The Great Game and Sherlockian studies were blessed by the Literary Agent.
There to supplement his meager stipend as chaplain he began writing classic detective stories, publishing six in all including five novels and a short story featuring Miles Bredon, who is employed as a private investigator by the Indescribable Insurance Company. The criminal must be mentioned in the early part of the story, but must not be anyone whose thoughts the reader has been allowed to know. No hitherto undiscovered poisons may be used, nor any appliance which will need a long scientific explanation at the end. No accident must ever help the detective, nor must he ever have an unaccountable intuition which proves to be right.
The stupid friend of the detective, the Watson, must not conceal from the reader any thoughts which pass through his mind: his intelligence must be slightly, but very slightly, below that of the average reader. Twin brothers, and doubles generally, must not appear unless we have been duly prepared for them. In his will, Ronald Knox left his manuscripts and copyrights to Evelyn Waugh and the royalties to the Asquith family. The game of applying the methods of the a€?Higher Criticisma€? to the Sherlock Holmes canon was begun, many years ago, by Monsignor Ronald Knox, with the aim of showing that, by those methods, one could disintegrate a modern classic as speciously as a certain school of critics have endeavoured to disintegrate the Bible. Waugh notes that thirty years after a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmesa€? was published, it had brought Knox a form of fame he found tedious.
Both Christopher Morley and Ronald Knox died in 1957.A Knox is gone but not forgotten and is especially remembered by us for starting Sherlockian scholarship. Wella€” I am no expert in false-memory disorder, but must point out that none of us remembers Ronald Knox starting Sherlockian scholarship. We have come to think that a€?the Mastera€? and a€?the Sacred Writingsa€? are religious affectations derived from Knoxa€™s talk. As for Morley bringing Knoxa€™s paper to America, we dona€™t even know if he heard it in 1911. But let us assume Morley did a€” for it reinforces my point that he didna€™t bring it to America and spread the gospel. Only in 1926, said Morley in the Saturday Review of Literature that year, was his enthusiasm rekindled. It was a game Morley proceeded to transfer to a luncheon club of his wherein the BSI gestated (or perhaps marinated) at his favorite Manhattan speakeasy.
In 1930 a€?Studies in the Literaturea€? came out in America, but it wasna€™t Morleya€™s kind of game, and he went his own way. Roberts earned this accolade through two critical works, influential where Knox was not except in terms of refutable error that Roberts exposed in the lesser of them, a 1929 leaflet called A Note on the Watson Problem.
Smith explained that Knoxa€™s paper, appearing in Essays in Satire, a€?elicited a rejoinder in 1929 from S.
He said so because of the biographical treatment of Watson that Roberts was commissioned to write in 1930. Davis was also at Oxford in 1911, and his Constitution refers a€?the study of the Sacred Writings.a€? But Davis was a devotee long before, and in any event the term a€?Sacred Writingsa€? does not appear in Knoxa€™s talk. There is no hint of Knox in that 1941 memoir about the BSIa€™s beginnings, nor in Morleya€™s rewriting of it in 1946 for the Baker Street Journal. We Baker Street Irregulars possess more than a few religious parallels in our structure and lore.A For example, Sherlockianaa€™s beginnings in a 1912 parody of contemporary biblical exegesis by Ronald A.
Poor Jon, Ia€™m sorry to hear that you lost your faith in Knox and no longer believe that Christopher Morley brought the gospel to America. Roberts goes on to say that it was Desmond MacCarthy who first printed his early life of Watson essay in Life and Letters.A After he wrote about Watsona€™s later life the two essays were combined for the Criterion Miscellany series and there by association with Frank Morley. Vincent Starretta€™s The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes reprinted a€?A Final Examination Paper on the Life and Work of Sherlock Holmesa€? by E. The Knox brothers, much like the Morleys, had an early interest in Sherlock Holmes and wrote to Doyle in 1905 their a€?Sign of Foura€? letter.A Knox also wrote the Decalogue Symposium, an early play with Sherlock Holmes along with sixteen named characters from history and literature along with New Women, Bimetallists, Flagellants, Seventh Day Baptists, and Choruses of Virtue and Vices.
I realize some Sherlockians are deeply invested in the Knox myth, even unto multiple revenue streams for the BSI over the next two years.
And people at that time, when so much was suddenly stirring in canonical scholarship, did not believe Knox was its founder.
The question of the Sherlock Holmes canon is once more before the public, and it will not be out of place to make some remarks on it in these columns, the place in which the Higher Criticism of the Holmes saga was first originated by Frank Sidgwick in 1902.
It is not unfair to say that the article then published by Sidgwick has determined the whole tendency of this branch of learning. I am interested in what you wrote me in your last letter: you spoke of Monsignor Ronald Knox and Mr. In fact there is another important a€?Clinical Notea€? from Morley that you omitted to mention in your debate. Well, like Lady Frances Carfax, therea€™s still some fight in the corpse, but we shall see.
1931a€™s Saturday Review comment nodded to Knox in the course of Morley lavishly praising S.
Elmer Davis, born the same year as Morley, wrote in his introduction to The ReturnA  of Sherlock Holmes in their 1952 Limited Editions Club appearance: a€?We who were born around the year 1890 have seen many things that we would just as soon have missed seeing. 1.The criminal must be mentioned in the early part of the story, but must not be anyone whose thoughts the reader has been allowed to know. In this case the problem is deftly solved by inserting (mercifully) brief text pages explaining what’s happened elsewhere. Nevertheless, the story is surprising coherent, and the all-out action is still well-leavened with superbly banter and hilarity. With ‘Constructions!’ and ‘Who is Maxwell Lord?’ the series comes full circle, the whacky humour proves to have been the veneer over a sharp and subtle conspiracy plot worthy of the classic team, the action kicks into high gear and the characters are seen to have evolved from shallow, if competent buffoons into a tightly knit team of world-beating super-stars – but still pretty darned addicted to buffoonery. Harris (a€?The Creeping Man,a€? BSI) described the spirit of the BSIa€™s annual dinners at the Murray Hill Hotel and Cavanagha€™s in the 1930s through the 1960s, before growing numbers brought it to an end by forcing the annual dinner to move to many round tables (instead of close proximity as shown in the 1947 photograph on the websitea€™s The BSI page), in huge banquet rooms in overplush hotels and clubs, ever since.
Colling, a theater and broadcast media friend of Morleya€™s from their Hoboken theater days in the late 1920s.
The intolerable pathos of the cigarette-case on the rocky ledge; the firm clear handwriting of that last stoic message! And for another twelve pages of his introduction, Elmer Davis expounded upon the exegetical scholarship that was applied, initially by excited young readers like himself in 1903-04, to the Adventures and Memoirs stories as well in light of the revelations of the Return stories in Colliera€™s Weekly. Smith was born in 1894, like McLauchlin, hence nine years old when the Return stories began to appear in Colliera€™s. I shall look into Edgara€™s correspondent at the time, Vincent Starrett, but I know that in his autobiography Born in a Bookshop he related being captivated by the historical novels of A.
Sveum championed the Baker Street Irregulars party line that Ronald Knox created Sherlockian scholarship, and Christopher Morley brought it to America and spread the gospel.
Knox, so I foolishly challenged him to come to Minnesota and, using Oxford Union rules, debate the Motion that Ronald Knox founded Sherlockian Scholarship.
I thought everyone knew that Sherlockian Higher Criticism and calling Holmes the Master was due to Knoxa€™s religious influence.
Living in Shropshire, he was able to devote his time to translating the Vulgate Bible into English, a project that took nine years.
Since then, the thing has become a hobby among a select set of jesters here and in America. Knox wrote to an editor who asked for a review, a€?I cana€™t bear books about Sherlock Holmes. We werena€™t around in 1911, nor in the early a€?30s when the scholarship took off and the BSI and Sherlock Holmes Society were founded.
It was as you say a rather juvenile talk, with its Monsieur Piff-Pouffs and Herr Bilgemanns. Others had done so a decade earlier, Arthur Bartlett Maurice in The Bookman in America and Frank Sidgwick in The Cambridge Review in England, in January 1902 as Hound of the Baskervilles was appearing serially.
Someone else did, and was in the thoughts of the BSIa€™s and Sherlock Holmes Societya€™s scholars and founders in 1934. Morley was inflicting examinations in the Canon upon his brothers Felix and Frank long before 1911, and forming, in turn-of-the-century Baltimore, a Sherlock Holmes club with other youngsters.
By the time Morley arrived in Oxford in 1910 at age 20, having discovered girls, booze, and ambition, his boyhood Sherlock Holmes enthusiasm had gone dormant a€” and by his own admission it was still dormant when he came home in 1913 to begin his career as a writer. Not by Knox, but an unnamed printer he met in New York; and what rekindled it was an impromptu trivia game of the kind Morley had often played as a boy with brothers and chums.
Doctor Watson, published by Faber & Faber in early 1931, had tremendous impact upon devotees on both sides of the ocean. Watson: A Chronology of Their Adventures also gave Roberts first place among students of the Canon, while referring to Knox but once. There was little religious terminology in Knoxa€™s paper, which satirized German scholarship, not religious rites.
What Morley identified specifically as the BSIa€™s inspirations were William Gillettea€™s Farewell Tour of 1928-32, Robertsa€™ Doctor Watson, Starretta€™s Private Life, and Davisa€™s Roberts-besotted review of Starrett in the Saturday Review. Knoxa€™s talk cracked up Oxford lads compelled to read nineteenth-century biblical criticism, but in our scholarship and movement, Knox is only a latter-day saint: no evidence of having been in Morleya€™s mind when his zest for Holmesiana was revived in 1926, nor when he turned his luncheon club into a Baker Street club, nor when he founded the BSI. Our scholarshipa€™s starting point is Frank Sidgwicka€™s examination of Watsonian chronology in 1902, and our movement was triggered by S. In that year the editor of the Cambridge Review invited me to review the omnibus edition of the short stories of Sherlock Holmes together with R. If there is anything pleasant in criticism, it is finding out what we arena€™t meant to find out. Sveum quoting an article of mine from the Baker Street Journal at me, but that was written in 1992, when my BSI history researches were still young.
Our Wiggins recently re-asserted the faith in an encyclical letter of sorts to Irregulars, though strangely it did not arrive in my in-box. He was mainly concerned with pointing out discrepancies a€” and very serious ones a€” in the dates of the a€?Hound of the Baskervillesa€?; and since that time, critics have faithfully followed his method, have concentrated their attention on questions of chronology, of text, of the minutiae of the literary technique.
His Chicago Tribune column was written not for us, but for the masses, a€?the great unobservant public, who can hardly tell a weaver by his tooth or a compositor by his left thumb.a€? He knew better.
We are Sherlockians and Irregulars, and should adhere to what Christopher Morley called a€?the metal actuality of Baker Street doctrine.a€? Like Sherlock Holmes, we do not take things on faith. Parliament and the Savoy Hotel were blown up and the Minister of Traffic was hanged from a lamp-post. Morleya€™s column in the Baker Street Journala€™s debut issue would have been a new opportunity to say he heard Father Knox give his talk at Oxford in 1911, or cite its supposed foundation of our scholarship, or the making of BSI. Of course this is not a declaration of Knoxa€™s a€?supposed foundation of our scholarship, or the making of BSI,a€? as you say.
Robertsa€™s pamphlet Doctor Watson (1931) -- a€?a delightful bit of serio-spoofa€? -- stating that a€?his essay, together with that of Father Ronald Knox in Studies in Satire [sic], is a necessary addition to the Holmes-Watson codex.a€? (Saturday Review of Literature, March 7, 1931, p. I have to wonder why Morley put these references to Knoxa€™s paper in Stanley Hopkinsa€™ mouth, not his own. 20121 Kings 8:28 -- But please listen to my prayer and my request, because I am your servant. We have only a dim comprehension of the conflict He passed through and the kind of agonizing death He experienced. These sublime words describe the condescension of Jesus from the throne to the manger and then to the cross.
At the end of one of my crusades I visited a businessman who had attended every night but who had made no commitment. Only then will we be able to understand why God the Father turned away from His Son on the cross. He did not sense the real suffering of the cross and, therefore, had no true understanding of the cost of salvation. They could inherit only what their father had to give, so they were born with a sinful, fallen nature. This second probation was conditioned upon acceptance of a Saviour who would bear man's penalty through His own substitutionary death.
How could God uphold His integrity by carrying out the penalty of the first failure, and still hold out the offer of a new life to everyone through another probation? In this case, however, there will be no further probation extended, and their death will be the second death-final, eternal extinction.
The plan of salvation involves a resurrection of all men from the first death, so that they can be placed beyond the effects of Adam's sin. Just as the entire human race was represented by Adam in the Garden of Eden, so every man would be represented by Jesus, the second Adam. Now we are told by Paul that the experience of the second Adam will directly affect all men.


All the descendants of Adam lay under the influence of his weakness and failure, making it impossible for any of them to obey the law.
The second Adam passed on the results of His sinless experience through spiritual birth-partaking of the divine nature, victory, and eternal life.
Christ did not change the first death penalty for Adam's failure under the first probation, but He did abolish the second death for all those who received Him under the second probation. Was it easy for the Father to withdraw from His beloved Son and treat Him as though He was guilty of the most atrocious blasphemy and crime? Because he had initially failed to believe that God could give him a son from Sarah's dead womb, Abraham was subjected to another test concerning life from the dead. It would have been terrible enough to take his son's life, but with one stroke of the knife he was about to destroy the only hope of salvation for himself and every person who would be born. He experienced all the pain, heartbreak, and horror that attends the death of an only child. How does the death of one man, the second Adam, provide forgiveness for all who have sinned? Whoever forgives another person must actually substitute himself for the one he forgives, and be willing to suffer the consequences of the wrong done. He would, in effect, be consenting to his own death in order that the killer would not be punished. From the Garden of Gethsemane Jesus bore the accumulated sins of mankind on His breaking heart. The divine forbearance of God in allowing wicked men to torture His Son to death is the ultimate proof that He loves us with the same love that He loved Jesus.
God looked upon those wicked men as they spat upon Jesus and hit Him in the face with their fists. Even though He saw all our miserable failures He still wanted us to be with Him for eternity.
We are assured that some joyful motive girded Him for the shame and humiliation of the crucifixion.
You can be that soul who will bear an everlasting witness to the love and grace of our Saviour.
It also doesn’t hurt that being a comedy-adventure, plot isn’t as vital as character and dialogue in this instance. To keep the spirit alive, we have this department for occasional items of Irregular controversy. 15), plus the signatures in surviving copies of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes, edited by Vincent Starrett, that were distributed to the attendees that evening as the first collection of BSI Writings about the Writings. CBS News broadcast, according to Basil Davenport in a letter to his mother several days later thata€™s in his papers at Yalea€™s Beinecke Library. Warren) Force and Warren Jones, are presumably in the photograph since their signatures are in surviving copies of 221B from that night, but they cannot be even tentatively identified at this time. 20 against the wall behind Steele and Morley has sometimes been taken to be a Murray Hill Hotel waiter.
I know of no explicit statement by him about reading the stories at that time in that magazine, but ita€™s hard to doubt it when we read, in his very first letter to Vincent Starrett, dated October 15, 1936 (found in its entirety on pp. Conan Doyle before he was by Sherlock Holmes; and being born in 1886, he had reached a somewhat less impressionable age than had Morley, Davis, Smith, and McLauchlin in 1903. Hill Barton,a€? BSI) at the 2010 Sherlock Holmes Collections weekend at the University of Minnesotaa€™s Andersen Library. Your humble Irregular historian endeavored to demonstrate that this is a myth a€” myth of long standing, but myth nonetheless. 2 (July 1912), 111-32, and was included in Edgar Smitha€™s 1958 The Incunabular Sherlock Holmes and James Edward Holroyda€™s 1967 Seventeen Steps to 221B.
The lecture was a mock-serious inquiry into inconsistencies in the Sherlock Holmes stories, and a satire on Biblical Higher Criticism. Ronald Arbuthnott Knox was an English theologian, priest and crime writer born February 17, 188, 122 years ago.
The Waugh biography was controversial by implying that Cardinal Bourne, Archbishop of Westminster, did not use Knoxa€™s talents wisely. The rule of the game is that it must be played as solemnly as a county cricket match at Lorda€™s: the slightest touch of extravagance or burlesque ruins the atmosphere.
What you think you remember is what others have told you a€” and odds are, they werena€™t around then either. Sveum in mentioning where it appeared over the decades glossed over the fact that it didna€™t appear anywhere Holmes devotees could read it until 1928 in England and 1930 in America, when it was included in Knoxa€™s Essays in Satire. But when I started researching the BSIa€™s history, reading dozens of essays and hundreds of letters by our founding fathers, slowly it dawned upon me that they werena€™t talking about Ronald Knox.
The evangelistic Morley had all the makings of a cult leader from the start, without Knox to inspire him. On the sole occasion he referred to it as having been given at Oxford while he was there, in 1944 in Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Leavitta€™s indispensable a€?Origin of 221B Worship,a€? a first-hand account of our origins, tells how competitive examination in the Canon at those lunches in the late a€™20s and early a€™30s gave birth to the BSI. Another that October was Vincent Starretta€™s Private Life of Sherlock Holmes a€” a rapturous tribute barely mentioning Knox. Roberts in A Note on the Watson Problem, and the foundation for what was to follow may be said by that action to have been laid.a€? The importance of that observation by a student, contributor, and editor of Holmesian scholarship like Edgar W. It not only entranced, it showed what could be done, prompting further effort by others a€” not least Christopher Morley. Only much later was Knox grafted onto our movement retroactively, assigned a place he had not occupied in the 1920s and a€™30s. As I said in my opening statement, I was raised in the Knox faith myself; it was only considerably later that I realized how little there is to it.
But a kind Irregular forwarded it to me, and in it I saw quoted the same two authorities on behalf of the Knox myth. Knoxa€™s paper did not set the tone for all subsequent students of the Canon, certainly not for Starrett himself whose 1933 Private Life of Sherlock Holmes did not echo the Knox tone in the slightest, which is why we still read it when we dona€™t bother to read Knox. However, he faces one basic problem in trying to prove that the Knox essay was the basis for Sherlockian scholarship.
It opens thus:a€?a€? a€?All the Knoxes loved jokes and spoofs, as Penelope Fitzgerald shows in her wonderful joint biography of them, The Knox Brothers, just republished.
The piece in question is not, actually, a trial version of the classic biography; it is, rather, a gentle but well-merited attack on the atrocious Holmesian scholarship of that other a€?incunable,a€™ Monsignor (then Father) Knox. Smith did not bother to reprint Knoxa€™s paper, then or later, nor has any other editor since. But ita€™s an enthusiastic evaluation of Knoxa€™s essay and certainly more than a call for attention to any student of the Corpus Watsonicum.
Aren't you thankful for that red spot of Calvary that rescued this world from the control of our great enemy?
There it was that he met his Waterloo and suffered a decisive defeat from which he will never fully recover. Could our eyes be opened to grasp the true significance of His sacrifice, there would be no more miserable collaborating with Satan. We get glimpses that boggle our minds, but still, we are only scratching the surface of a subject which will continue unfolding for all eternity. We had developed a warm friendship during the four-week series, so I felt bold to ask him why he had made no decision for Christ. It is simply not true that He died just like all the thousands of others who were crucified on crosses around the wall of Jerusalem. Please note that they did not inherit the guilt of their father, but only his weakened, sin-loving nature.
A new hope was set before Adam and all his posterity through this second arrangement, but it did not alter the consequences of failing the first probation. This is necessary so that they can be judged on the basis of their personal actions and choices.
Jesus, the Creator, was incorporated into humanity, and stood before God as though He were every man. Had He possessed any supernatural advantage over His brethren in conquering sin Jesus would have given support to Satan's charge of injustice. All the effects of the first Adam's failure are completely counteracted by the second Adam. Just as the transformation of nature is dramatically real, so the privileges of the new family are also real.
This was made possible only because He submitted to suffer the horrible penalty of the second death in place of man. Only one man in the world has come near to understanding the intense suffering of the Father and the Son in that situation. No one except Jesus would ever hold the destiny of a world in his hand as Abraham did in that moment. For example, if I forgive someone a debt, I must be prepared to suffer the loss of the amount. By accepting the results of the offense against him, he allows his own death to satisfy the penalty which could be legally laid upon the murderer. Thousands of criminals were crucified in the same physical way that Christ was nailed to the cross, but they suffered only the bodily pain of the first death.
Not one ray of light was permitted to penetrate the blanket of total alienation from His Father in heaven. He knew the great majority would not accept the offer of eternal life with Him, even though it would be provided at such a fearful cost. The quality of that love which brought Jesus to His death on the cross was such that He would have made the same sacrifice for even one soul.
He saw in every soul the glorious potential of reflecting His own holy character for both time and eternity. Consider the amazing fact that one redeemed soul will outlive all the combined years of earth's total population.
It is an uncharacteristically grim horror tale involving inhuman sacrifice and sentient Germ-warfare. But since hea€™s the only person in the photograph young enough to have been Peter Williams, who from the 1920 U.S. But I shall investigate and report, and would be happy for any other examples readers of this may send me.
Ronald Knox in his 1918 autobiography A Spiritual Aeneid writes that part of a dona€™s function is to read papers to undergraduate societies. Certainly you know a great deal more about it than I do,a€? and he continued for four pages to discuss the criticism in detail. The sixth and last child of an Anglican Bishop, he attended Eton College and took a first in Classics at Balliol College, Oxford, in 1905. He wrote the introduction to The Best Detective Stories 1928-1929, and in it he codified the rules of the gamea€”and Golden Age mysteries were considered games, different than our game. They were brilliant, came from middle-class families, were educated at Oxford, were temporary schoolmasters, wrote satire, and enjoyed the company of the British Catholic aristocracy.
XIV, Detective Stories, the rules that he first wrote in 1924 were reprinted with commentary.
Watson: The Chronology of Their Adventures and Thomas Blakeneya€™s Sherlock Holmes: Fact or Fiction? And after that, only a few times at infrequent intervals, the last 26 years ago, and never in the Baker Street Journal or Sherlock Holmes Journal.
Knoxa€™s paper, in fact, is only the seventh in the anthologya€™s chronologically ordered contents.
And the decisive factor was another development of which Starrett and Morley were keenly aware, and led to Englanda€™s society as well: a 1931 monograph riveting Holmes devotees as Knoxa€™s paper had not.
Bella€™s anthology Baker Street Studies, said: a€?It is true that as far back as 1912 a young priest named Ronald Knox had contributed an article to the Oxford Blue Book in which a tongue-in-cheek probing of some esoterica in the Saga was tentatively undertakena€? a€” words lending little support to the idea that Knox was our scholarshipa€™s fountainhead.
It was in Morleya€™s hands quickly, and he praised it lavishly in the Saturday Review of March 7, 1931.
But in 1966 he was writing about events nearly forty years earlier; he was now seventy-nine years old and in the last year of his life. In the early 1930s, Starrett paid very little attention to Knox, as wea€™ve seen a€” but great attention to S.
As boys, for example, they wrote a letter to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, denouncing inconsistencies in the Sherlock Holmes stories and including five dried orange pips, in allusion to the threatening letter in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Robertsa€™ Note on the Watson Problem as a a€?gentle but well-merited attack on the atrocious Holmesian scholarship of that other a€?incunablea€™, Monsignor (then Father) Knox.a€? BSJ (OS), vol.
Roberts as the two a€?incunablesa€? (whatever that meant,) of your modern Baker Street studies, but I dona€™t think you knew that Mr. Perhaps Steve Rothman, reading this, will rush to do so in the so-called Year of Ronald Knox coming in 2011, in hopes Ia€™ll stop pointing out this embarrassing fact. Perhaps one clue is found in the remark a€?I have a sad feeling that many of your members only read their own stuffa€? -- for by that time Morley was very tired of the BSI, in fact declaring that there would be no more BSI dinners (a draconian position from which Edgar Smith dislodged him only with great difficulty).
Never before, to my knowledge, had Morley mentioned Knox anywhere, let alone describe his 1911 paper. It is postulated that if one human being would only submit to become one of the dogs, the entire pack could be saved from imminent death. His vague answer indicated to me that he had no understanding of the seriousness of accepting the gift of salvation. Jesus had to be treated as though He were guilty of every terrible sin which has ever been committed. There is no such thing as original sin, in the sense that Adam's descendants were accountable for his sin. He would let men live their limited life span and then die, regardless of whether they did good or evil.
Adam died because he ate the fruit of the forbidden tree, not because of anything he did after that.
But the victory of the second Adam opened a door of escape for the family of the first Adam. Please don't miss the point that one can join the new family only through a spiritual birth.
One of the hardest things for the newborn Christian to accept is the total change of position, authority, and ownership under the new family arrangement. But under the new birth, man begins to lose his Adamic features and to look like the One who created him-Jesus.
That man, Abraham, gave up his only son also, and became the first human to share the agony of the cross. The account of that lonely journey to Mount Moriah is one of the most moving stories in the sacred Word.


The promise had been confirmed repeatedly that Isaac was the seed through whom the Messiah would come. No resurrection from the dead had ever occurred, but Abraham believed that God would fulfill His promise concerning Isaac's seed. God intervened only after it was fully apparent that Abraham would not hesitate to offer up Isaac. If I forgive a blow, I must be willing to suffer the pain of it, without requiring the one who gave it to be punished.
The forgiver accepts the consequence himself in order that the guilty one can go free without punishment. He experienced the awful condemnation and separation from God that the vilest of sinners will feel in the lake of fire.
In order to take the place of guilty sinners and to provide forgiveness there could be no difference in their penalty and His penalty. But He also knew that a few would love Him and gladly receive the substitutionary death of His Son in their behalf.
We see it also in the dangerous voyage He made across the sea to deliver the Gadarene demoniac.
Eventually, in eternity, the life of that one person will outstrip by a million times all the life spans of all the inhabitants of this world put together. By a single step of faith we may exchange the deadly birthrights of the first Adam for the unsearchable riches of the second Adam.
It is followed by ‘A Moving Experience’, where the heroes take possession of their various new UN embassy buildings, possibly one of the funniest single stories in American comic book history. Smitha€™s minutes list 35 attendees, and 35 are in the photograph, but Morley told Vincent Starrett that 36 had attended.
Census was 27 or 28 years old in January 1940, it may be him; if so, since he came in black tie his father likely did too, making no. Steve Doyle will soon publish the entire letter in a book by Notre Dame Professor Michael Crowe titled Ronald Knox and Sherlock Holmes: The Origin of Sherlockian Studies. By 1910 he was a Fellow at Trinity College, ordained an Anglican priest in 1912, and became a Roman Catholic in 1917. Knox helped Waugh by proofreading Brideshead Revisited and asked him to be his literary executor in 1950. Smith remarked in 1958 that Knoxa€™s death was a€?mourned by all who look to him as the originator of the Sherlockian critique.a€? So the notion that Knox was the genesis was afoot fifty years ago a€” though Smith, we shall see, felt otherwise. Elmer Davis, reviewing Starretta€™s Private Life in December 1933, discussed Roberts almost more than he did Starretta€™s book, without once mentioning Knox. Messages from absent friends were read that night, from Blakeney, Starrett, Morley, and Desmond MacCarthy, but not from Knox.
Smith in Baker Street Inventory has a€?Studies in the Literaturea€? as a€?The first essay in the order of higher criticism.a€? It was not Knoxa€™s intention to start a game or a cult. By the time Smith wrote his introduction for The Incunabular Sherlock Holmes in 1958, he had done his homework too, and learned differently. Later, Ronald Knox expanded the joke into an essay called a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmes,a€™ a parody of Biblical scholarship in which he pretended to detect, from careful study of the text, that some of the stories must be fictitious inventions by a drunken Watson.
I thought it would be interesting to quote here this Knox-Roberts Sherlockian Connection so dear to Morley. Could anyone be found who would voluntarily lay aside his human condition, and suffer the unspeakable indignity of turning into a dog? He had never made any kind of response to the gospel and, under my gentle questioning, confessed that he had no assurance of being saved. Under the weight of that condemnation and guilt, He sweat great drops of blood and fell fainting to the ground in the Garden. It is true that they also were subject to death just like Adam, but their death was not the punishment for Adam's sin. But if, after the judgment, Adam is found worthy of the second death, it will not be because he ate the fruit, but because of other sins committed after that experience which were not confessed and forgiven. Justice requires that each individual be held accountable only for meeting the conditions of his own salvation.
Christ came to disprove the devil's false accusation by meeting the requirements of God in the same human nature that any man may obtain through faith in the Father. Through faith in Christ a new creation takes place, lifting man out of the hopeless, carnal state of the family of Adam.
On the cross, with no ray of hope from the Father, Jesus was enveloped in the darkness of a billion lost souls.
Now he was asked to take the life of that child of his old age through whom the world would be blessed and redeemed. Thank God for the faith of Abraham and for the equal faith and submission of his beloved son.
Thus there is clearly a substitution of the innocent for the guilty in every act of forgiveness. His sensitive nature was traumatized by sharing vicariously the guilt of foul rapes, murders, and atrocities.
He could save His Son from cruel taunts and blows, but if He intervened not one human being would ever live again. So God turned away from His Son, and allowed Him to be crushed to death under the weight of sins He did not commit.
The genius of the entire plan of salvation revolved around the application of His death to individuals. He did it in the strength of the anticipated joy of opening wide the gates of Paradise to welcome us into His never-ending kingdom. In this sense, one saved person represents more life, more accomplishment, and greater fulfillment than all the lost people combined.
In a moment of surrender and acceptance we begin to share the life He deserved, because He was willing to bear the guilt, condemnation, and death we deserved.
At least two in the photograph are not in Smitha€™s minutesa€™ list, but in surviving copies of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes signed that night by dinner attendees, William C. Paul for theological societies and one on Sherlock Holmes for secular societies, but found the Sherlock Holmes paper would do for both since it was interpreted as a religious tract.
Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion (1950) by Ronald Knox was dedicated to Evelyn Waugh. Barton, the senior censor, confirming the a€?Hierarchya€™s displeasurea€? because it violated the unwritten law that bishops are not criticized in any public way. The Detection Club also put out three serial novels, with each member writing a chapter full of clues and passing it on; Ronald Knox contributed to all three. Who stood out instead as source and strawman for canonical scholarship was Cambridgea€™s S.
Morley, for his 1933 collection of essays Internal Revenue, added to In Memoriama€™s 1930 text a lengthy discussion of Robertsa€™ Doctor Watson; Knox went unmentioned once again. Attendees discussed the impetus behind their new club: of mention of Knox there was none, nor in connection with the BSI whose recent founding was discussed. But his methodology is what endures.A Those that followed who played the game so well must admit that Knox was the unintended founder.
Finally, one comes away from the Knox paper not really learning new or insightful about Holmes. Conan Doyle was delighted by the spoof and wrote to Ronald Knox to thank him.a€?a€? a€?Nowadays wea€™re rather more sensitive.
Robertsa€™ own trial version of the same, his A Note on the Watson Problem1 of which only 100 copies were printed at the University Press, Camb., in 1929.
Dramatic as it may sound, that is a feeble illustration of the humiliation of the divine Son of God.
Then, let all men be raised from that first death, into which they fell through no fault of their own, and let them stand before God to answer for their own personal sins, for which they are responsible. Without a resurrection no such judgment could be made, and no just retribution could be given.
Does God create only an illusion to make it seem that man is being restored to the divine image, or does He powerfully provide for the change to take place?
He became sin in order to allow the full wrath of the law to fall upon Him in exactly the same way it would fall upon the lost. Now that you see a little clearer what it cost, do you find yourself responding to the investment He made in your salvation? Only one man was directly contacted during that unpleasant excursion, but that man, later, turned the whole countryside toward the Saviour.
Those were the faces which came into His mind as He hung on the cross, strengthening Him to drain the cup of His suffering.
It was love for us, and the desire to be with us for eternity which led Him to endure the unendurable. Jesus must have recognized that truth every time He looked into the face of a man, woman, or child. He took the Sherlock Holmes stories as a form of literary art and divided them into eleven characteristic divisions with Greek names.
And with the BSI launched in 1934, Knox might not have existed to tell from what Morley wrote that year.
But: a€?A genial note of welcome was struck by placing in front of each member a copy of Mr. The meticulous Rodger Prescott comes nearer the point, but does not deliver the knockout blow. Or so it would seem from the first programme, called a€?Panic in the Streets,a€™ in a new series, The History of Fear (Radio 4, Monday), presented by the feminist historian, Joanna Bourke.
We cannot grasp the glory and position from which He separated when He emptied Himself and came into the condemned, dying family of Adam. Others were enduring the same torture of the flesh, but none died from the same causes which took the life of the Son of God.
You and I were there, represented by the genes and chromosomes which later produced the hereditary pattern of Adam's children. Adam's happy future was conditional upon staying away from the forbidden tree, but he did not meet the condition. Their death resulted from the degenerated constitution which Adam transmitted to his offspring.
And if God had done nothing more, that's the way it would have ended-for Adam and all of his descendants. Then their destiny would be determined on the basis of the second probation (between birth and the first death), and how they met the conditions of salvation through Christ.
There is a theological debate as to whether God's righteousness is only accounted to man or whether it is truly imparted as well. It brings the love and sacrifice of the atonement within the understanding of every child of Adam.
It was necessary for Jesus to suffer the second death in order to acquire the power to forgive. Only two courses are possible: either justice will exact the prescribed penalty, or there must be forgiveness from the offended one. Here is a positive assurance that He was thinking of you and me as He bore the wrenching cruelties of the cross. In even the most degraded human being He saw a life that could memorialize His love for longer than time had been computed.
Knox invented a controversy about authenticity of the stories with comments by imaginary German scholars.
We must rely instead on what they and others wrote about Knoxa€™s paper around the time it appeared back then a€” to the extent that they wrote about it at all, which wea€™ve seen was very little.
While it is true that Sidgwick and others wrote important papers, papers with real content, before Knox, it was Morley who put it all together. As partakers of his body and mind, all his descendants had to be affected by what affected him. Those who feel that man is only accounted righteous, do not believe that he can really overcome sin and live a holy life, even in Christ. Now we can grasp a little better how the Father and His only begotten Son suffered at the cross.
If forgiveness is extended, the forgiver will have to accept the consequences of the sin, and suffer it in place of the guilty. In His omniscience God must have remembered every individual face and name, even of those who had not yet been born. And as ages roll by, we will continue to get new, thrilling insights into the nature of His atoning love and sacrifice. Ronald Knox lived first at Lady Actona€™s Aldenham in Shropshire from 1933 to 1947, and at the Manor House, Mells, Somerset, from 1947 until his death in 1957, the country home of Katharine Asquith. Between his work in Saturday Review and his founding of the BSI, this truly was the basis of the long-term study of the Canon, both institutionally and in print. He is our father, and there are laws of heredity which reproduce the genetic pattern from age to age.
By faith we try to grasp hold of the reality: Jesus and I share and share alike in all the spiritual riches of the Father. Indeed, in one respect he was better than ever; for here in Colliera€™s appeared, for the first time in print, what has become the classic, final and unalterable portrait of Sherlock Holmes.
So in order to grant forgiveness to the sinner, Jesus must be willing to bear in His own body the same punishment that the broken law would demand of the sinner.
His final contribution to Sherlockian literature was a€?The Apocryphal Sherlock Holmes: The Adventure of the First Class Carriage,a€? a pastiche that appeared in The Strand Magazine in 1947. Roberts a€“- and even his fellow Cantabrigian Frank Sidgwick, who first tackled Watsonian chronology in 1902. So you may imagine the thrilling excitementa€”in 1903, wasna€™t it?a€”when The Return began printing in Colliera€™s. Weber was director of advertising at Scribnera€™s, and a mystery reviewer (a€?Judge Lyncha€?) for the Saturday Review of Literature. The great, loving God who made us, and who gave up His only Son to die for us, now wants us to have everything His Son has, and also everything that He has! He had attended the 1936 BSI dinner, and would be at the 1941, a€™42, a€™43, a€™46 and a€™47 dinners as well, and the 1944 Trilogy Dinner.



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