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29.01.2014
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License. The European Parliament has elected former Luxembourg Prime minister Jean-Claude Juncker as the next EU Commission's president after an unprecedented secret ballot vote. Born in Ludwigshafen in 1939, Rainer Hachfeld is a German playwright and political cartoonist. 1) an interview with historian William Hogeland about his terrific book on one of the biggest tax revolts in US history, the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. In 1773, the same year as the Boston Tea Party, Mulligan met a 16-year-old orphan from the British West Indies. In 1775 Hamilton penned a widely read article highly critical of Great Britain’s increasingly harsh treatment of the colonies. As the war progressed, George Washington recognized the importance of establishing an intelligence network in New York to acquire information on British military plans. Fortunately for Hercules Mulligan, his business put him in an ideal position to gather information without arousing suspicion. General George Washington arrives with Governor Clinton and troops in New York on November 26, 1783 as the defeated British evacuated the city. Mulligan, unlike the ill-fated Hamilton, went on to enjoy a long and prosperous life in the years that followed.
Ron Chernow’s biography of Hamilton helped rescue Hercules Mulligan from historical obscurity. Voting in modern America is done privately, but this practice became widespread only in the early 20th century. This month, when Americans head to the polls to elect men and women to public offices, they will cast their ballots in secret, beyond the watchful eyes of their fellow citizens.  Few Americans would have it any other way. The earliest voting in colonial America did not even involve a ballot.  The most common form of voting was by show of hands or viva voce (voice vote).
As each freeholder came before the sheriff, his name was called out in a loud voice, and the sheriff inquired how he would vote. This practice of public voting lasted in many communities well into the early nineteenth century.
Voting remained public and transparent in the nineteenth century even as more and more communities began to use paper ballots.  The turn to paper ballots was made necessary by population growth (especially in cities) and the elimination of property requirements for voting that opened up voting to nearly all while males by 1830.
Just how transparent voting was in the nineteenth century is exemplified in the wide adoption of the glass globe “ballot box” in the second half of the nineteenth century. Political cartoonist Thomas Nast was a reformer who despised Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall for their corrupt political practices. This Nast cartoon depicting William “Boss” Tweed explains why Americans eventually rejected public voting in favor of secret voting, or what the reformers called the “Australian ballot” (Australia was one of the first nations to adopt the secret ballot).
Gradually reformers in the late nineteenth began to call for a revamping of voting practices to purify and revive American democracy.
In this cartoon from Reconstruction, Thomas Nast makes the case for granting voting rights to African Americans. Every summer Americans spend millions of dollars to destroy, or at least repel, the pesky mosquito.
Anopheles quadrimaculatus, the mosquito that helped with the Battle of Yorktown and the American Revolution.
We asked four industry insiders to reveal how they'll vote for this year's Emmy Awards on Sept.
EW talked to four anonymous TV insiders about how they’ll be voting for this year’s Emmys, set to air Sept. Outstanding Actress, Comedy: “Julia Louis-Dreyfus, but if I could have a second I would have gone with Lisa Kudrow. A repeat nominee who’s worked on some of NBC’s most beloved comedies, this scribe isn’t too thrilled with one (or more) of the acting categories. Outstanding Drama: “Mad Men closed out its run with a cool episode, but hasn’t the world heard Matt Weiner talk about himself enough? Outstanding Actor, Comedy: “Most of the nominees in this category are actually giving dramatic performances. This Emmy-winning actress, who is seldom out of work for long because she’s in high demand, found it hard to pick winners in the actor categories because everyone gave incredible performances.
This Emmy-nominated writer, who oversees a huge critical fave, would rather pick two winners in the Best Actress, Drama, category than be forced to choose.
A version of this story appeared in this week’s issue of Entertainment Weekly on newsstands now, or buy it here.
A secret ballot is often called the Australian ballot because the practice of confidential voting started in Australia in the 1850s and rapidly spread to other countries.


Under the old system of voting, political parties printed their own ballots with only their own candidates listed.
After the turn of the century, pressure gradually increased in North Carolina to eliminate party-produced ballots and replace them with official government ballots listing all candidates for a given office on a single ballot. The first piece of legislation addressed by the 1929 session of the General Assembly was a secret ballot bill presented by J. PLEASE NOTE: NCpedia will not publish personal contact information in comments, questions, or responses. This early Patriot group had formed in 1765 to resist the Stamp Act—you know, the whole, “No taxation without representation” thing.
Two months later, the first shots of the American Revolution were fired at Lexington and Concord.
In September 1776, the British caught Nathan Hale spying in the New York area and hanged him in Manhattan, not far from Mulligan’s home. His shop had to become very popular among colonial elites before the war, and during the military occupation it proved equally popular among British officers who were convinced that Mulligan was a Loyalist. On November 26, 1783, General Washington triumphantly processed into New York City as the last British ships departed.
In it, he related the role Mulligan played in Hamilton’s early life and his role as a spy in the Revolutionary War. We are accustomed to think of voting as a very private matter, akin to a visit to the doctor.
This accompanying painting by George Caleb Bingham, however, makes it clear that paper balloting was anything but private. So popular was this glass ballot box, it was used by political cartoonists as a symbol of democracy. Tweed was the boss of the notorious New York City political machine, Tammany Hall.  Tammany and machines like it in other cities derived their power from their ability to garner the working-class vote. Some of these Progressive Era (1890-1920) reforms, such as the adoption of the referendum and initiative, as well as election primaries (to eliminate undemocratic nominations in smoke-filled rooms), are well known.  Equally important, however, was the adoption of secret balloting.
Note how the recently freed slave and Union Army veteran reaches for the ballot box as he is set upon by racists determined to keep him (and all blacks) in a condition as close to slavery as possible. As a people, we hate mosquitoes.  But we might be a little less hostile toward these creatures if we realized the role mosquitoes played in winning the American Revolution. George Washington and the fortitude and bravery of the men of the Continental Army rightfully deserve most of the credit in earning the victory over the British. I saw her one-woman show The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe four times! Viola Davis does such a grounded and nuanced interpretation of a messy, sexualized and incredibly conflicted character.
She’s really fabulous in that role and can deliver heartbreaking and hilarious at the same time.
Numerous American states adopted the secret ballot in the 1890s, but North Carolina maintained partisan ballot voting until the General Assembly passed a new ballot law in 1929. Morgan Kousser, The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880-1910 (1974). His father was a wealthy merchant, so Hercules enjoyed a comfortable life and received a very good education.
The year 1765 was just the beginning of a decade of turmoil over British policies and Mulligan remained active member of the Sons of Liberty. Mulligan offered to rent him a room while he studied at Kings College (the forerunner to Columbia University). Sixteen months after that, the British invaded New York with a massive army and armada of 300 ships. In those days, tailoring shops were kind of like barbershops or coffee shops where customers hung out and talked freely about news and gossip. He had performed so convincingly as a Loyalist, that most New Yorkers were convinced that he WAS a Loyalist. And this is the book Lin-Manuel Miranda read that inspired him to create, “Hamilton, the Musical.” Miranda has said in interviews that he was drawn to Mulligan both for his unique name and for the important role he played in Hamilton’s life.
And yet the truth is that secret balloting is a relatively recent innovation in American democracy.  Most Americans would be shocked to know that it was only in the early 20th century that the nation began adopting a secret ballot. The appropriate clerk then wrote down the voter’s name, the sheriff announced it as enrolled, and often the candidate for whom he had voted arose, bowed, and publicly thanked him. Because voting was restricted to a relatively small number of people—white male property owners—there was no need for an elaborate system of balloting.  Second, Americans considered public voting a virtue and a necessity. In Bingham’s 1852 scene a voter, having made his way through a gauntlet of men trying to influence his vote, hands his ballot to a public official.


Note its inclusion in many Thomas Nast cartoons published in Harper’s Weekly in the 1860s and 1870s (see gallery of images at the end of this article).
To ensure the masses voted “the right way,” Tammany employed legions of “shoulder hitters” (thugs who threatened voters with violence if they failed to vote for Tammany) to ensure that men voted for the machine.
But historians also recognize the key role played by the mighty Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes, the malaria bearing mosquitoes that flourished in the coastal regions of the American South.
Downton Abbey, Game of Thrones, House of Cards and Mad Men are good but overrated, and Orange is the New Black is just not really a drama in my book.
Party officials and poll workers could tell how a person voted by observing the ballots he took and inserted into the ballot box. Max Gardner, of Shelby, an early proponent of the secret ballot, was elected governor on a pledge to introduce it in the state. But beyond that great name, Hercules Mulligan has existed as a mere footnote for the last 200+ years of American history. By the mid 1760s, he was himself a prosperous businessman, operating a shop that sold cloth and custom tailored suits. When Hamilton wasn’t studying, he hung around Mulligan’s store and listened to him talk with his friends, many of them fellow Sons of Liberty, about British abuses and the need to resist them.
In the ensuing Battle of Long Island in August 1776, George Washington and his Continental Army barely escaped capture and destruction.
In all likelihood, it was Hamilton—now an officer in Washington’s army—who recommended him.
So while Mulligan went about his business of selling cloth and measuring, tailoring, and fitting British officers into their new suits, he listened for loose talk of military plans. The two enjoyed a breakfast together after which Washington publicly praised Mulligan as, “A true friend of liberty.” No one threatened Hercules Mulligan again after that! To use a familiar modern term, the nation’s early practitioners of democracy valued transparency. But who he voted for is plain for all to see because the ballot he turned in had been handed to him moments earlier by a candidate or party operative (if you look closely, you will notice that the man behind him wearing the top hat is handing out ballots). Because voters deposited colored ballots (to distinguish between the parties) and deposited them in glass spheres, shoulder hitters could easily spot any transgressors. From that point until the end of the war, New York City remained under British occupation and it became a key center of military planning for the British. Whenever he obtained important information about troop movements or changes in overall strategy, he passed it on to George Washington. Public voting diminished the possibility that corrupt officials might manipulate the final tally. Often these ballots were distinguished from one another by color, making it extremely easy to see how a person voted.
Tammany punished wayward voters not only with violence, but also by firing them (or their family members) from public jobs or withholding charity from them. There was some opposition in the Senate, primarily from partisans who feared a diminution of the Democratic vote, but the bill finally passed on a vote of 41 to 9. The show, which has gone on to become one of the biggest hits in recent Broadway history, chronicles the life of the founding father Alexander Hamilton. Official ballots printed and distributed by the government only became the norm in the early 20th century—at the very same time and for the very same reasons that secret balloting took hold. With the South under British control the redcoats would then move to defeat the rebellion in the remaining colonies. The House approved it by a wider margin-92 to 14-with some amendments that the Senate readily accepted. It features well-known figures like Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, but also people lost to history like Hercules Mulligan. He played a key role in the life of Hamilton, and served as one of Washington’s most important spies during the American Revolution. Cornwallis had almost no previous exposure to malaria when they arrived in the Tidewater region near Yorktown in June 1781.
Fortunately for the American and French soldiers who opposed Cornwallis, they had arrived in the Tidewater region in September.



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