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15.04.2014
This article originally appeared on io9 and appears here courtesy of the author, Chanda Phelan. Most major religions, going back thousands of years, tell stories about the End of the World. I recently finished a thesis project on post-apocalyptic genre fiction, and in my research I made a list of 423 books, poems, and short stories about the apocalypse, published between 1826-2007, and charted them by the way their earth met its demise (humans, nature, god, etc.) to see the trends over time.
It’s not the idea of Ending itself that has faded – that will be around until we are actually mopped off the face of the Earth. That was the idea behind this chart – I wanted to see if there were patterns in how writers saw the monster. The post-apocalyptic technological utopias of the turn of the century are replaced by dystopias and robot rebellions after World War I (the first expansion of the green region devoted to human-made disaster), when everyone began to suspect that technology was only going to help us go about killing each other more efficiently, not cure us of the need to kill in the first place. The easily spotted trends make the patterns’ total collapse in the mid-1990s even weirder. Preceding victory with annihilation disguises how dizzily optimistic some of these narratives are. During the pilgrimage through the wasteland, the survivors – and the readers – are left feeling ostracized from reality. Destroying the world in books about apocalypse is one way we can entirely take ownership of it. Chanda Phelan graduated from Pomona College, where she completed a thesis on post-apocalyptic literature.
I first started my personal blog back in 2005, which I’m pretty sure makes it the one of the oldest continually updated sites devoted to the post-apocalyptic genre.
My interest in the post-apocalyptic genre remains as strong as ever, but over the last couple of years, real life has conspired to eat into the time I have to devote to writing reviews and other articles, so my posts there have been few and far between. Its purpose is not to replace, or stand above, the other genre sites, but rather to create additional exposure and share traffic with the sites listed. So, it’s a site of the post-apocalyptic genre, made by content creators in the post-apocalyptic genre, for the fans of the post-apocalyptic genre. I’ve had the movie 5ive on my to-see list for a long time, and finally took the time to sit down and watch it. Released in 1951, 5ive is the earliest example of a true post-nuclear war survival story that I know of.  Other movies like Things to Come from 1936 showed a future where civilization had crumbled due to extended war, but coming out just six years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 5ive is likely the first such story of the Atomic Era. The titular five are survivors of a world-wide nuclear apocalypse, four men and a woman, who stumble across each other and gather in a home up in the mountains. Also considering it’s age, there were a lot of plot points that were fairly progressive for the time.
On a recent episode of Podcast at Ground Zero, Jarred mentioned that he was on the lookout for a British documentary called On the 8th Day, that had been shown in the US after the airing of Threadson TBS in 1984. The 70s appetite for post-apocalyptic tales rolled on with the American release of The Ultimate Warrior (TUW) in late June of 1976.
Seeing the civilized world we like to assume is permanent, in a state of abandon and decay, has a curious fascination. TEOTWAWKI — Exploring the notion of The End Of The World As We Know It, has shown up periodically in books since the early 1800s, and later in movies. Taint of Doom — Within The Baron’s group, can be seen the legacy problems that plagued mankind since Cain slew Abel.
We’re Not in New York Anymore, Toto — Even though the story takes place in the ruins of New York City, the filming was actually done in California, mostly on sound stages and back lot generic “city” sets.
This article originally appeared on John Kenneth Muir’s Reflections on Cult Movies and Classic TV blog.
Although it was likely He-Man and the Masters of the Universe (1983 – 1985) that captured fully the imagination of young fantasy audiences in the early 1980s, I have always boasted tremendous affection as well for another genre piece of roughly the same age:Thundarr the Barbarian (1980 – 1982). This NBC Saturday morning series was created by Steve Gerber of Howard the Duck fame, and featured production design from Jack Kirby and Alex Toth. The premise of the series is that in the far-flung year of 1994, a runaway planet passes between the Earth and the moon, destroying man’s civilization virtually overnight.
Two-thousand years later, a new world has arisen from the ashes, one of monsters, mutants, barbarians, and even heroes like Thundarr.
These three warriors ride together through the ruined and dangerous landscape, and battle many different colorful villains, including Groundlings (humanoid rat creatures), powerful wizards, and lizard people too. In Thundarr The Barbarian’s first episode, “Secret of the Black Pearl,” Ariel, Ookla and Thundarr rush to the aid of a “courier of the black pearl,” named Tyron. Tyron has been attempting to keep the mystical black pearl out of the hands of a deadly wizard named Gemini.
Now Thundarr assumes that mission, but faces the minions of Gemini, who are hell-bent on stopping delivery of the pearl. In one of the first episode’s finest visual inventions, we see the sword-carrying knights of Gemini jump from a hovering helicopter to attack Thundarr and his friends on the ground below. The latter half of “Secret of the Black Pearl” involves Thundarr, Ookla, and Ariel battling Gemini in the ruins of Manhattan, and there are many impressive frames of the ruination. Later, Gemini utilizes his evil magic to bring the Statue of Liberty to terrifying life (a moment that forecasts the Weeping Angel Statue of Liberty in the new Doctor Who), but Thundarr is able to vanquish the monstrosity by using Gemini’s pearl against him. Overall, “The Secret of the Black Pearl” is a pretty straightforward fantasy adventure, with elements of the productions I have listed above, as well as Star Wars, and Beneath the Planet of the Apes. But clearly, Thundarr the Barbarian is a kid’s version of much of the adult entertainment of the era, focusing on the end of technological civilization, and what might come next, after the fall of man. A tweet and a blog post gave me the idea for the next set of post-apocalyptic media to archive, a collection of public domain apocalyptic or post-apocalyptic comics. There are hundreds of reviews of the book around the web, so I’ll just stick with a few thoughts.
But the material that’s covered is perfect for anyone who wonders about how civilization would fare after an apocalypse. Ish struggles with the answers to these kinds of questions as he tries to preserve and pass on enough knowledge to keep some semblance of civilization, if not simply his people, alive.
So like I said before, if you’re not a fan of the genre, or are looking for a more action-oriented story, this might not be for you. Also the book has a couple of nifty little Easter eggs scattered around for the careful reader to discover. The next book you really need to look into is The Brief History of the Dead by Kevin Brockmeir. This book centers on a farmer (who is somewhat intelligent) stumbling on a time capsule containing relics of the past. It all starts at a laboratory with a scientist who creates a bacteria that reanimates ancient life. The general premise Year Zero is that a very nasty, super contagious, and uniformly fatal plague is unleashed. Reposted with permission of the author, Fear Death by Water, author of the Cosy Catastrophe blog. Now we’re back with a completely redesigned look, and some new features that should make it easier to just let the site keep going on its own. There may be some paid options in the future for enhanced or featured listings, but those are just vague ideas right now. Blog Posts – In addition to the directory listings of sites, registered users will also be able to submit posts to the site blog. It’s the actual moment of disaster, the blood and guts and fire, that has been losing ground in stories of the End. Other trends are there, too: anxiety about pollution and global warming tend to spike whenever nuclear fears fade, for example. Human-created apocalypses shrink dramatically, and there’s a sudden spike of unexplained apocalypse scenarios at the turn of the century. Stories about the End are so beautifully paradoxical; they are some of the most powerful affirmation stories we have. The characters are probably more concerned with where their next meal is coming from, but the reader sees how they are cut loose from the anchors that previously protected us from being overwhelmed by the meaninglessness of existence. We can only see the world the way we have been raised to, the way our parents saw it, so we need to raze the old world and build a new one in its place in order to have a world that is really and entirely our own.
Initially, they appear to get along and work together, but eventually differing opinions lead to arguments, and ultimately, to violence. That newspaper thing has been used countless times since then, but considering the movie is 60 years old, that was probably an original idea back then. Roseanne is revealed to be pregnant early on, and in a photograph we see that her husband was African-American.  One of the survivors, Charles, is also African-American, and when the racist Eric arrives, that sets up a conflict where his exclusionary beliefs are definitely shown in a negative light.
The story is not really “science” fiction, as much as it belongs in the post-apocalyptic genre. Writers and audiences had a sinking feeling (every now and then) that the civilization to which people had grown accustomed to mightfail.
They cling to hope, and try to maintain some semblance of order, but the fallen nature of humanity shows through the widening cracks. The only visuals to place the action in New York, are still photos at the beginning and end.
The opening credits of the series are very picturesque, and reveal the moon shattered in two, and volcano lava encroaching on imperiled urban areas. This great hero (another descendant, no doubt, of Howard’s Conan…) carries a special high-tech weapon called a “sun sword” which, like a light-saber, can retract into a special hilt. Thundarr’s journeys often take him inside the ruins of ancient cities, where danger and intrigue await.
He was en route to the ancient city of “Manhat” (Manhattan…) when intercepted by Groundlings.
I find the series generally inventive, in part, because it couches its premise of apocalypse in terms of being an accident or disaster, rather than the result of nuclear war.
It follows Isherwood Williams, known as just Ish, for a period of about 50 or 60 years, starting after The Great Disaster, an unknown plague that wipes out all but just a few pockets of survivors.
They face actual dangers, such as wanderers bearing disease, but the greatest threat to the future of The Tribe is their apathy.


These relics are books and diagrams as well as scale models of fantastic machines that just might be able to send the society on a path back to its former greatness. Also everything as well.Fossils in the museum, cuts of meat in the grocery store, and all people in the all the cemeteries. It spreads from the tiny island of Corfu in Greece and eventually spreads all across the globe and the last bastion for humanity turns out to be Los Alamos. It’s offered as the journal of boy who is seven years and seven days old as the book starts. They can be be dispatched in the traditional way; a good blow to the head that shatters the skull will do it. He chooses to spend the last six weeks of his life watching television, smoking pot, spanking the monkey almost constantly and also hanging out with his parents.
Post-apocalyptic fiction is a 200-year-old trend, and for 170 of those years, the ways writers imagined the end were pretty transparently a reflection of whatever was going on around them – nuclear war, environmental concerns, etc.
There are an increasing number of books and films, like The Road and Zombieland, which pick up after the catastrophe and sometimes don’t bother to explain what happened at all.
They can hardly be classified as optimistic, but no matter what happens, even if the End came by human hands, in most stories we are fixable. I think everyone’s had that feeling of wanting to just heave everything out the window and start over.
The only way to fix it is to find new ways of looking, new patterns to create meaning in the new world. The story of the End, after all, is not nearly as compelling as the story of the Beginning that comes after it. In the city, there is a compound, fortified with junk ramparts, in which a remnant of civilized mankind lives.
It interesting to see in the beginning montage, that the Twin Towers were still standing in “2012”.
Here, the ancient helicopter has been re-purposed as the weapon of primitives who would have no idea, even, about its construction centuries ago. We see The Tribe, as they call themselves, started from just seven survivors, as it develops into a group of over a hundred people in the hills of San Francisco.
Would they care to learn to read or to carry on the knowledge of the “Old Ones”? I’ve noticed that most people when listing their favorite book will normally put the first one they read at the top of the list. Basically that humans can be divided into three groups: Those still alive on earth, the recently departed (remembered) (sasha), and the dead (forgotten) (zamani). It starts because Niko, the collector, liked to find artifacts and the best of these in his opinion were sealed vials.
I haven’t read The Dying in a good long time but as I read it I kept thinking about how it reminded me of that book.
He’s a book smart sort and gets help from another scientist who specialises in Arctic Peoples and customs. In this brave new world they have thought of some pretty interesting plans to outwit hunger. A future archaeologist stumbles upon a vast complex that has been untouched since the time of the great cataclysm. A glowing high light of this work is Abraham Lincoln’s vengeance against John Wilkes Booth. The deal is that a giant asteroid is going to strike the Earth just off the coast of New Zealand.
If you preordered it the book came autographed and with a bonus chapter called ‘Speaking of Butler’. Stories of the End have never been about ending – they’re about the beginning that comes after.
For the most part, we have faith that though we may screw up, and very badly, we will learn from our mistakes and the world will be better for it. Yul Brynner stars as a freelance “warrior” amid the tribal societies of a post-apocalyptic New York City.
Max von Sydow does a good job as The Baron, the world-weary (yet resolutely hopeful) leader of a decaying society.
In the industrializing era of the 19th century, teotwawki fiction did not get a lot of traction. The Baron saw the only hope for the survival of civilized man, was to once again become producers of food, not scavengers. One, Carson may not have had the strength left, after all those fights, to pull heavy Carrot up high enough. Even when a few of them gather to start a community, the writing style is mostly descriptive, without a lot of talk. Would they view the Old Ones as people like themselves, or would they look on them as gods who created all the indecipherable wonders they see around them? So they live off the corpse of the old world, eating wild animals or out of cans for decades, not bothering to learn how to plant their own crops or keep their own farms. While The Stand is my favorite book, I consider the portions when the survivors are regrouping and the denouement as my favorite parts. Residents of the city stay as long as there are people living on earth that still remember them well; their faces, their personalities, the actual sound of their voices.
He broke them open a give the ol’ sniffer sniff to the rarefied air of millennia past.
Loves the part where the scientists were tracking the progress of the virus with satellites. The whole family is under the stairs with their dog (a wolfhound my personal favorite dog breed) because the bombs have fallen.
Anyhow one day she told me about this book she used to use when she taught an archeology unit. So he says his final tearful goodbye to his mom and dad and sets out through a world that has no tomorrow, second thoughts, regrets or punishment.
The terror of a possible nuclear war faded, and no new extravagant ways to kill ourselves appeared to replace it. They are puzzled by a man who just stands in front of the library, for days, in a meditative trance. Between the two tribal camps were the “street people” — unorganized feral humans who preyed on the weak or the stray. A few lines of dialogue explain that there was a plague which not only affected people (in the subway tunnels are skeletons wearing gas masks), but more importantly, the plague killed the world’s food crops.
One man, a sort of Judas character, steals a tomato (forbidden fruit) and plants it in another man’s hut. Second, is that Carrot would not have simply held still enough for Carson to make the chop, which leads to: Third, to have his cable-gripped hand within range of the axe, would put the axe within range of Carrot’s free hand. Fans of Clouse for his martial arts and fight scenes may be disappointed, as fighting is not the focal point. Also I am surprised to find out from time-to-time that there are apocalypse geeks who haven’t heard of nor read The Stand. When the last person remembering them dies, they go to the zamani and are then recalled by name only.
When all of the people who remember them live in the city, they vanish along with all their belongings, house and stuff.
The Stand is clearly Good (Mother Abigail) versus Evil (Randal Flagg) and in Swan Song it Life (Sue Wanda) Versus Death (The Man With The Scarlet Eye). The point of the specific lesson was how sometimes professional archaeologists have to take a guess about the purpose and function of some of the things they find.
I’ll open the cover start reading and before I know it half the night and the book are simultaniously gone. Convinced that the man is the warrior he needs, The Baron makes him an offer of food, lodging, freedom and cigars.
Those who did not die of plague, or starved to death, were reduced to scavengers of whatever food existed before the plague.
The framed man gets no support from his neighbors, hinting at offstage tensions or rivalries. To swing at Carrot’s wrist was to risk Carrot grabbing the axe and pulling Carson down too.
The governments of the world knew about the asteroid for years but chose to keep the knowledge from everyone until there was only six weeks left. Robert Clouse, famous as the director of martial arts films such as, Enter The Dragon, wrote the story as well as directed. He was even willing to sacrifice his own hand to insure the micro-family would be safe from evil. Fourth, is that pulling Carrot up high enough to chop his wrist, would put Carrot’s free hand within grabbing distance of the edge of the hole. The basic premise of the book is a military project to engineer biological weapons has a breech. They deal with hunger (them and the dog), cabin fever from being sequestered in the closet under the stairs for weeks on end, and roaming scavengers looking for food. With the advent of the nuclear era, the prospect of comfy civilization crumbling looked a lot more plausible.
Carson and Melinda, while never cast as a romantic pair, become a sort of Adam and Eve with their Garden sanctuary off the coast. Also a sequel that picks up the action right where this book ends and ties up all the loose ends.
Her teachers use the looming disaster as an excuse to pile on the homework with not one, not two, but three essays about the moon. When the late 60s-early 70s added angst over pollution and overpopulation, people had even more reasons to picture teotwawki. He is growing food plants that are immune to the plague that decimated the earth decades ago.


Only The Baron’s lieutenant seems to realize afterward how they had suddenly decayed into a savage mob, ala The Lord of the Flies. Just when you think they can finally settle in for simple survival, volcanoes begin erupting bringing on an ice age.
He wants Carson to take his pregnant daughter, Melinda and Cal out of the city via subway tunnels, to go live on an idyllic island off the North Carolina coast. 689-692 (1962)A Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energyby Allan Frey, Science, Vol. One shrew of a woman ventures out beyond the gates, assuming that she knows where some powdered milk is hidden. Members of the rival (and criminal) gang, led by a read-headed man named Carrot, catch the couple in the bakery and kill them.
Baker, Youth Action Newsletter, Dec 1994.A "A nation can survive its' fools, and even the ambitious. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly. But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the galleys, heard in the very hall of government itself. For the traitor appears not a traitor--He speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and wears their face and their garment, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation--he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city--he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. The CIA also claims it is not obligated to provide the veterans with medical care for side effects of the drugs.
Its the CIAs third attempt to get the case dismissed.In a 2009 federal lawsuit, Vietnam Veterans of America claimed that the Army and CIA had used at least 7,800 soldiers as guinea pigs in Project Paperclip. They were given at least 250 and as many as 400 types of drugs, among them sarin, one of the most deadly drugs known to man, amphetamines, barbiturates, mustard gas, phosgene gas and LSD.Among the projects goals were to control human behavior, develop drugs that would cause confusion, promote weakness or temporarily cause loss of hearing or vision, create a drug to induce hypnosis and identify drugs that could enhance a persons ability to withstand torture. The suit was filed in federal court in San Francisco against the Department of Defense and the CIA. The plaintiffs seek to force the government to contact all the subjects of the experiments and give them proper health care. Department of Veterans Affairs released a pamphlet said nearly 7,000 soldiers had been involved and more than 250 chemicals used on them, including hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP as well as biological and chemical agents. According to the lawsuit, some of the volunteers were even implanted with electrical devices in an effort to control their behavior. Rochelle, 60, who has come back to live in Onslow County, said in an interview Saturday that there were about two dozen volunteers when he was taken to Edgewood.
They were told that the experiments were harmless and that their health would be carefully monitored, not just during the tests but afterward, too. The doctors running the experiments, though, couldnt have known the drugs were safe, because safety was one of the things they were trying to find out, Rochelle said. The veterans say they volunteered for military experiments as part of a wide-ranging program started in the 1950s to test nerve agents, biological weapons and mind-control techniques, but were not properly informed of the nature of the experiments.
They blame the experiments for poor health and are demanding the government provide their health care. In virtually all cases, troops served in the same capacity as laboratory rats or guinea pigs, the lawsuit states. The suit contends that veterans were wrongfully used as test subjects in experiments such as MK-ULTRA, a CIA project from the 1950s and 60s that involved brainwashing and administering experimental drugs like LSD to unsuspecting individuals.
The project was the target of several congressional inquiries in the 1970s and was tied to at least one death.
Harf said that MK-ULTRA was thoroughly investigated and the CIA fully cooperated with each of the investigations.
The plaintiffs say many of the volunteers records have been destroyed or remain sealed as top secret documents. They also say they were denied medals and other citations they were promised for participating in the experiments. They are not seeking monetary damages but have demanded access to health care for veterans they say were turned away at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities because they could not prove their ailments were related to their military service. It grew out of the Agencys Operation BLACKBIRD and was a forerunner to the Agencys MKULTRA.
Project ARTICHOKE also known as Operation ARTICHOKE was run by the CIAs Office of Scientific Intelligence. ARTICHOKE offensive mind control techniques experiments attempted to induce amnesia and highly suggestive states in its subjects. ARTICHOKE focused on the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, forced morphine addiction withdrawal, along with other drugs, chemicals, and techniques.
The main focus of the program was summarized in a January 1952 CIA memo, Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?One program experiment attempted to see if it was possible to produce a Manchurian Candidate. In Richard Condons 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate an American soldier, who has been placed into a hypnotic state by Communist forces, returns home to assassinate on command. A January 1954 CIA report asks the question, Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?
Argued December 4, 1984 Decided April 16, 1985 .Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior. 159, 162] program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. Because the Agency funded MKULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.MKULTRA was established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques. Over the years the program included various medical and psychological experiments, some of which led to untoward results. These aspects of MKULTRA surfaced publicly during the 1970's and became the subject of executive and congressional investigations. Argued April 21, 1987 Decided June 25, 1987 Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage.
Upon being informed by the Army that he had been given LSD, respondent filed a Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) suit. The District Court granted the Government summary judgment on the ground that the suit was barred by the doctrine of Feres v. 135 , which precludes governmental FTCA liability for injuries to servicemen resulting from activity incident to service. Although agreeing with this holding, the Court of Appeals remanded the case upon concluding that respondent had at least a colorable constitutional claim under the doctrine of Bivens v. 388 , whereby a violation of constitutional rights can give rise to a damages action against the offending federal officials even in the absence of a statute authorizing such relief, unless there are special factors counselling hesitation or an explicit congressional declaration of another, exclusive remedy. Respondent then amended his complaint to add Bivens claims and attempted to resurrect his FTCA claim. Although dismissing the latter claim, the District Court refused to dismiss the Bivens claims, rejecting, inter alia, the Governments argument that the same considerations giving rise to the Feres doctrine should constitute special factors barring a Bivens action.In February 1958, James B. Stanley, a master sergeant in the Army stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, volunteered to participate in a program ostensibly designed to test the effectiveness of protective clothing and equipment as defenses against chemical warfare. He was released from his then-current duties and went to the Armys Chemical Warfare Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Four times that month, Stanley was secretly administered doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), pursuant to an Army plan to study the effects of the drug on human subjects. According to his Second Amended Complaint (the allegations of which we accept for purposes of this decision), as a result of the LSD exposure, Stanley has suffered from hallucinations and periods of incoherence and memory loss, was impaired in his military performance, and would on occasion awake from sleep at night and, without reason, violently beat his wife and children, later being unable to recall the entire incident.
One year later, his marriage dissolved because of the personality changes wrought by the LSD. December 10, 1975, the Army sent Stanley a letter soliciting his cooperation in a study of the long-term effects of LSD on volunteers who participated in the 1958 tests.
669, 672] This was the Governments first notification to Stanley that he had been given LSD during his time in Maryland. 2671 et seq., alleging negligence in the administration, supervision, and subsequent monitoring of the drug testing program. Ewen Cameron): The man who I had thought cared about what happened to me didnt give a damn. Ewen Cameron conducted CIA-funded experiments on troubled Canadian patients he was meant to help MacIntyre: the CIA caved in the day before the trial was to begin. They settled out of court for $750,000 at the time it was the largest settlement the CIA had ever awarded. 28, 1984 (digital clip) It sounds like a science fiction plot or a horror movie: A front organization for the American CIA sets up shop in Canada to engage in mind control experiments. But its no fiction, its the discussion on the floor of the House of Commons and among lawyers for the Department of External Affairs.
Canadians caught up in the research, including a member of Parliaments wife, may finally get some action from the government in their pursuit of answers and compensation.
Recruited Ex-Nazis By SAM ROBERTS December 11, 2010 After World War II, American counterintelligence recruited former Gestapo officers, SS veterans and Nazi collaborators to an even greater extent than had been previously disclosed and helped many of them avoid prosecution or looked the other way when they escaped, according to thousands of newly declassified documents. Men who were classified as ardent Nazis were chosen just weeks after Hitlers defeat to become respectable U.S.
Reinhard Gehlen (middle) and his SS united were hired, and swiftly became agents of the CIA when they revealed their massive records on the Soviet Union to the US. The men designed the CIAs interrogation program and also personally took part in the waterboarding sessions.
But to do the job, the CIA had to promise to cover at least $5 million in legal fees for them in case there was trouble down the road, former U.S. For the simple reason that it would inexorably lead to the covert biological war programmes of the 1950's. According to CIA documents, K indicates both knockout and kill, depending upon the circumstances under which researched biological products were employed by CIA operatives in the field operations conducted under Project Artichoke and later programs.



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