Secret island by sheer romance books,secret world youre next wiki,teenage girl self esteem facts,personal and professional development skills needed - 2016 Feature

06.12.2014
His music is what some would call a€?adult acoustic rock,a€? full of catchy phrases and big hooks. Recently, Grega€™s new album, Maybe the Sun, drew the attention of WFUVa€™s John Platt, who featured Greg on his a€?Sunday Breakfasta€? radio show and in his monthly a€?On Your Radara€? live show at the revered East Village songwriter mecca, The Living Room. Elements of bold performance, musical chops and clever wordplay in the family lineage hint at what was to come for Greg and his brothers. Louis Tannen, Grega€™s grandfather, was an influential magician who opened a magic shop in New York City in 1925.
At around 9 or 10 years old, Greg studied clarinet, but said, a€?I was terrible at it.a€? After maybe a year of cacophonic practice, he switched to guitar.
After that, they both left Colorado and together went to North Carolina, where the third Tannen brother, Robert (today a successful screenwriter), was living.
Greg and Steve wrote together quite a bit in Colorado and, in New York, theya€™d hang out together at their respective apartments and at open mics. Greg was visiting Steve at his place and while jamming, the basic riff emerged and by the end of the evening, they had the melody and the chorus. Roam, released in 2000, was about traveling around and it kicks off with a€?I Feel Lucky,a€? a joyous and twangy guitar rocker that matches anything Tom Petty ever wrote.
Maybe the Sun, released in late 2010, is a lot less New York-based and wide-ranging in its themes. One time, however, when Greg was in California, he appeared with them during one episode as part of a sub-plot on the TV series Dirty Sexy Money (2007-2009). After eight hours of hanging around, they got all of three seconds of screen time, playing secretly in a hotel room for the Lucy Liu character, who couldna€™t be seen in public attending a concert with her illicit lover (deep-pocketed, since how else are ya gonna afford a private Weepies concert?). Although Greg went on tour in late 2010 for two weeks behind the new album and played some one-off shows, performance plans at present are minimal. We want to encourage our readers to order Grega€™s CDs online and look for upcoming appearances in our listings pages in the months to come. In high school, he got his first band together called Talking to the Wall, with Greg on vocals and his Fender Telecaster (which he still owns). Returning to the States after one year, he settled in Boulder, Colo., (a€?A fairly good music towna€?) for about two years with older brother Steve. Given Grega€™s uncanny knack for radio-friendly tracks from the first album on, our conversation turned to songwriting. DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries.
No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe.
Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482. In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter. Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea. Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China. It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574. It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus. However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent.
A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations. The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom.
In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion. The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages. In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage. The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library.
The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio. Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library.
When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II.
These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years. The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript. Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496. The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians. Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana. Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west. Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia. The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century. Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America.
AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp. Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp. Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries.
The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487.
First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun. After a short enjoyable lunch break we head to the “SPICE BAZAAR” (Egyptian Bazaar) the air here is filled with the enticing aromas of cinnamon, caraway, saffron, mint, thyme and every other conceivable herb and spice.After the tour you have the option to experience the Bosphorus Cruise which will depart after the city tour. Day 8 - Sumela Monastery - Zigana - Karaca Cave - Erzurum(Breakfast and dinner included),Depart for Sumela Monastery, visit the 4th century Sumela Monastery which clings to a sheer cliff face in a deep forest, relax beside a fast flowing stream at Altindere Valley National Park, lunch, traveling along the Silk Road through the Zigana Mountains (Pontic Alps) will take us to Karaca Cave, considered to be the most beautiful in Turkey for its colors and formations.
After visiting the Iranian border, we will depart for Van in the early morning, a drive of approximately three hours. We depart for Adana in the morning and start our tour with the museum of Archiology the 16th Century Ulu Mosque and the 19th century Clock Tower then on to Tarsus going through Cleopatra Door and Yedi Uyurlar Cave. After an early breakfast, we drive north to Cappadocia on arrival we will check into your exquisite boutique cave hotel the perfect place and environment to spend the afternoon recharging the batteries, Cappadocia is unlike anything you will ever see in your life from the landscapes to the cave dwellings.. You don't have to wake up early, enjoy the thermal poll in Hotel and sunshine and and explore the city, shop in the local markets. Day 25 - Ephesus - Kusadasi,(Breakfast and dinner included),At 08:30am we depart for Ephesus (20 minutes drive) - once the commercial centre of the ancient world - is a highlight of any visit to Turkey. Day 26 - Bergama - Canakkale,(Breakfast and dinner included),Today we drive to Pergamum (45 minutes drive) - see Asklepion, Zeus’s alter, the Red Bassilcia etc. What a better way to see and experience Turkey than a full comprehensive and complete 28 day tour. After a short enjoyable lunch break we head to the “SPICE BAZAAR” (Egyptian Bazaar) the air here is filled with the enticing aromas of cinnamon, caraway, saffron, mint, thyme and every other conceivable herb and spice. After the tour you have the option to experience the Bosphorus Cruise which will depart after the city tour.
After breakfast at 09:00am we departure sleepy Safranbolu for Ankara (3 to 4 hours drive) On arrival we will have time for lunch before taking the city tour of Ankara which is the 2nd biggest city and the capital of Turkey. Depart for Sumela Monastery, visit the 4th century Sumela Monastery which clings to a sheer cliff face in a deep forest, relax beside a fast flowing stream at Altindere Valley National Park, lunch, traveling along the Silk Road through the Zigana Mountains (Pontic Alps) will take us to Karaca Cave, considered to be the most beautiful in Turkey for its colors and formations. An early morning departure from Erzurum will take us on a beautiful drive to Kars passing on the way Sarikamis, the coldest spot in Turkey. After visiting the Iranian border, we will depart for Van in the early morning, a drive of approximately three hours.
After visiting the eerie 12the century Selcuk cemetery in Ahlat in the morning we will head to Bitlis for lunch and a good walk around, Batis otherwise known as Alexander's town. We depart for Adana in the morning and start our tour with the museum of Archiology the 16th Century Ulu Mosque and the 19th century Clock Tower then on to Tarsus going through Cleopatra Door and Yedi Uyurlar Cave.
After an early breakfast, we drive north to Cappadocia on arrival we will check into your exquisite boutique cave hotel the perfect place and environment to spend the afternoon recharging the batteries, Cappadocia is unlike anything you will ever see in your life from the landscapes to the cave dwellings.. After we visit the biggest underground ccity of Cappadociaa, we will drive to the Pigeons Valley to see pigeon houses, which were made to collect guano in. Perge: According to the geographer Strabon, Perge has been founded by Akhas who came down here after the Trojan wars.
You don't have to wake up early, enjoy the thermal poll in Hotel and sunshine and and explore the city, shop in the local markets. At 08:30am we depart for Ephesus (20 minutes drive) - once the commercial centre of the ancient world - is a highlight of any visit to Turkey.
Today we drive to Pergamum (45 minutes drive) - see Asklepion, Zeus’s alter, the Red Bassilcia etc.
After breakfast we drive to Troy where you can explore the site of the legendary town, made famous by Homer in his Iliad and visit the Temple of Athena and have lunches in Eceabat. Victoria's Secret Sheer Love is another fragrance which I added to my expanding fragrance mist family.
DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography.
These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk. The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true.
France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees.
Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland.
THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification.
From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map.
These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe.
The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps.
An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. We began in June of 1999 with a cover story on Steve Tannen, the older brother of this montha€™s featured performer, Greg Tannen. Over the years, while I kept getting distracted by Fast Folk Musical Magazine alumni or someone new whoa€™d catch my ear, Greg just kept getting better and better, winning and placing in songwriting competitions (John Lennon, UNISONG, USA, ISC) and awards in festivals (Sierra Songwriters, Telluride, Rocky Mountain Folks).
However, after reacquainting myself with all of Grega€™s albums, I found that ita€™s really a continuation of a body of beautiful and compelling songs. Although Louis died in 1982, there is still a Tannena€™s Magic showroom near Herald Square and a Tannena€™s Magic website where magic products are sold. His family moved to Toronto right after his first birthday and stayed for around six years. The first names to come tumbling out of Greg were: a€?a lot of Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk and Bill Evansa€? (Pete is a huge Bill Evans fan). The band played covers of the Rolling Stones and REO Speedwagon, among others, and some of Grega€™s original songs.
At home, in more private moments, he was writing on acoustic guitar, focusing on songwriting, under the influence of acoustic-based songwriters such as Bob Dylan and those in Dylana€™s lineage. Taking his acoustic guitar and travel bag, he went to Australia, a€?doing the vagabond thing,a€? staying in youth hostels part of the time. They played gigs together as a duo called The Kahluas (named after the familya€™s dog) and made a recording.
Then, as Greg tells it, during their respective a€?crap part-time jobs,a€? at their computers, they started emailing lyrics back and forth to each other.
This is followed up with the gorgeous a€?Everything I Said,a€? a haunting reverie about a girl named Vanessa who stands by the clock in Grand Central Station with her hair up.
An attempt to do an extended riff turned into a laugher and is tacked on as a short bonus track. The title track is another soulful rendering of a breakup that somehow seems a bit more sharply rendered than its predecessors.
I posed the idea that brother Roberta€™s screenwriting connection had something to do with it.
He said, a€?Ia€™ve made a bunch of trips down there, written with some great people, had some great meetings, buta€¦ they want me in Nashville, and Ia€™m just not ready to live there.a€? Thata€™s good luck for us. Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps.
No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries. The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast. He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia. It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion. It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time.
It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps. In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it. The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South. On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850. So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established.
But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained.
In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470.
As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961. Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm).
In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored. It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands. He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts.
On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean. Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan]. The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents. On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way. This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond. In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427. One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts. His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change.
He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513.
The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north. From the metropolis of Istanbul, through the agricultural lands of the Black Sea along the silk trade routes into the east of Turkey, to the famous coast lines of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, experience Turkey it all its glory. You will have the chance to enjoy magnificent views of Bosphorus which is connecting Asia to Europe. Sophia (Ayasofya), a 13th century church and study its extraordinary collection of Byzantine frescoes, depart for Gulbahar Hatun Mosque, Castle and Ataturk's Mansion (a picturesque hillside retreat), visit Ortahisar Mosque (a Comneni cathedral in the old town).
The Toros Daglari (Taurus Mountains) forms a beautiful back drop to the fertile coast, rich with fields of cotton and vegetables.
The city, whose wealth and patronage supported its splendid architectural program, was dedicated to the goddess Artemis. Bergama is the site of the Hellenistic - and later Roman city of Pergamon, ruled for several centuries by a powerful local dynasty. Please make your own arrangements for departure remembering that your hotel will need you to check out before midday. Sophia built in the 16th century by the architect Mehmet, is known as the “BLUE MOSQUE” because of its magnificent interior decoration of blue Iznik tiles. You will have the chance to enjoy magnificent views of Bosphorus which is connecting Asia to Europe.
On the tour you will visit Ataturk`s (founder of the modern Turkey) Museum and the Ataturk Mausoleum. Hititians where Indo-German semi European people, they arrived via the Black Sea to north Anatolia at the beginning of 18 th century BC.
When the Roman Empire was divided into two at the end of the 4th century, Trabzon remained under the sovereignty of the Eastern Roman Empire which later on was called as Byzantine Empire. Sophia (Ayasofya), a 13th century church and study its extraordinary collection of Byzantine frescoes, depart for Gulbahar Hatun Mosque, Castle and Ataturk's Mansion (a picturesque hillside retreat), visit Ortahisar Mosque (a Comneni cathedral in the old town). Urfa has been occupied since the Babylonians followed by the Hurrites, Hittites, Assyrians, Greeks.
Later we drive a bit further and visit the cave dwellings in conical rock formations around Uchisar. The Monk's Valley will be our next stop where we see monk's cells in multi-capped Fairy Chimneys.
After lunch, we will visit Selime Cathedral and return back to Derinkuyu Underground City.
This morning we drive to Konya and see the imposing green-tiled Mausoleum of Mevlana, the mystic founder of the Islamic Sufi sect (Sufism is less an Islamic sect than a mystical way of approaching the Islamic faith. The Toros Daglari (Taurus Mountains) forms a beautiful back drop to the fertile coast, rich with fields of cotton and vegetables. We shall visit the calcium terraces of Pamukkale (cotton castle) and the ruins of Hierapolis, walking around this natural phenomenon gives you the option of lying in the waters of the natural springs that flow down the calcium terraces.
Bergama is the site of the Hellenistic - and later Roman city of Pergamon, ruled for several centuries by a powerful local dynasty. After Lunch visit the sites that have made Gallipoli a landmark and the memorial for all those that fell during the Battle of Gallipoli during World War 1.
Please make your own arrangements for departure remembering that your hotel will need you to check out before midday. I've managed to get this set during the Boxing Day sale half price off, so not really thinking straight and surrounding myself with plethora of different perfumes I strutted off to the till.


The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3).
1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes.
They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
Since wea€™re only now getting around to younger sibling Greg, you might say wea€™re running a little bit late. Ia€™d run into Greg often over the years and hea€™d greet me warmly, seemingly knowing it was only a matter of time before Ia€™d recognize his mastery of the songwritera€™s craft. Pete had been admitted to the Berklee School of Music for jazz, but his parents told him, a€?Therea€™s no money in music,a€? so he didna€™t attend. He picked that up and started playing it, saying he didna€™t want to study clarinet any more, and began taking guitar lessons from a female jazz guitarist. When Greg was 17, the band came into New York City and recorded its first (and only) album a€” material that a€?will never see the light of day,a€? he wryly states. Toward the end of high school, accompanying himself on acoustic guitar, he performed his original work at open mics and at the end-of-the-year senior talent show.
While at Oberlin, Greg did more performing on acoustic guitar, doing small gigs and open mics.
He always had his guitar out and busked in Sydney and Cairns (up the coast from Sydney near the Great Barrier Reef). After less than a year, Greg moved to New York City, and Steve followed a few months later. Rosanne has been very supportive of Greg, twittering to her fans about him during his opening sets, and generating lots of CD sales.
His take is that when you collaborate with someone, a different style emerges, a hybrid of two people. Grega€™s in the middle of a writing spurt and hopes to have enough material for a new album next year.
When Greg was 17, the band came into New York City and recorded its firstA  (and only) album a€” material that a€?will never see the light of day,a€? he wryly states. Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography. His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west. A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon.
Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well. He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km]. It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery. There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers.
We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal. They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast. Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale. It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales.
They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492. It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen. In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect. It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world. On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara. The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design.
Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border. According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?. The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea. It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map.
A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli. These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China].
23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew. Highlights of the tour include the historical Ottoman Istanbul, Mt Ararat and Noah's Ark, Mt Nemrut with its stone heads, Cappadocia and its moonscapes, and the ancient city of Ephesus.
Overnight in Erzurum.Day 9 - Erzurum - Kars,(Breakfast and dinner included),An early morning departure from Erzurum will take us on a beautiful drive to Kars passing on the way Sarikamis, the coldest spot in Turkey. Then the Hittites, Urartians, Persian, Armenians, Macedonians, Romans and finally in 11th century the Turks came here. Overnight in Cappadocia.,Day 19 - Cappadocia,(Breakfast and dinner included),Goreme Valley, where we will examine the process of the rock formations of Cappadocia. In the following years, Perge went under the control of Pergamon when the Kingdom of Pergamon became a part of the Roman city.
You will be given your room key and the rest of the day is yours to enjoy party and explore Kusadasi.
Her enormous temple, once considered one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World and rebuilt several times, dates in its latest form from the third century B.C. Its foremost attraction is the Kizil Avlu or "Red Basilica", a huge edifice on the river not far from the acropolis, originally built as a temple to the Egyptian god Osiris and converted to a basilica by the early Christians, when it was one of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor addressed by St John in the book of Revelation - though sadly it's now a crumbling ruin with a mosque in one of its towers. We hope you had a memorable tour and we look forward to seeing you in the future on another TravelShop Turkey Tour. They used horse carts as their war vehicles, which they used during their attack of Ramses the 2nd and they had a big war with the Egyptians and they then made a peace treaty where they wrote on the clay and had 2 women sign it. When relations and wars between the Byzantines and the Arabs started, the Arabs called the people under the Roman Sovereignty as Rum, and the areas under the Roman sovereignty as Diyar-i Rum or Memleket-ul Rum (land of Rums).
We will take a 45-minute drive to the medieval Armenian City of Ani, which lies mostly in ruins. Then the Hittites, Urartians, Persian, Armenians, Macedonians, Romans and finally in 11th century the Turks came here. We will take the time to visit, walk in its busy streets and bazaars, and admire the stonework all around the town.
We will also visit the holy sites at the Ainzelha, a lake with millions of domesticated fish. Tea and coffee break in a cave house before we go to Goreme Open-Air Museum, where the best preserved frescoed rock cut churches and monasteries are located. Avanos, the pottery town of Cappadocia is visited, and after a short walk in Rose valley Cavetown, will take you to a remote place for sunset. It has been defined as "mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God." “Whirling Dervishes”). In the following years, Perge went under the control of Pergamon when the Kingdom of Pergamon became a part of the Roman city.
You will be given your room key and the rest of the day is yours to enjoy party and explore Kusadasi. Its foremost attraction is the Kizil Avlu or "Red Basilica", a huge edifice on the river not far from the acropolis, originally built as a temple to the Egyptian god Osiris and converted to a basilica by the early Christians, when it was one of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor addressed by St John in the book of Revelation - though sadly it's now a crumbling ruin with a mosque in one of its towers. Gallipoli also stands as the birth place for the foundation of Turkey as we know it today. At home when I spritzed myself for the first time at first I was disappointed with the fragrance, but after a while I've learnt to really like it. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches.
India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them.
It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries.
Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them.
The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. Listening to his father play and hearing the melody digressions in jazz were a big part of Grega€™s formative experience (still a€?a€¦my favorite thing to listen toa€?). His most rewarding experience was working as a first mate, cooking and playing guitar on an 80-foot charter sailboat that was also an Americaa€™s Cup challenger.
Stevea€™s song a€?Brother Uptowna€? on his debut CD Big Senorita describes him coming in late and crashing at Grega€™s apartment. Although free of drug references and busts, to these ears, stylewise, ita€™s a cousin to the Grateful Dead hit, a€?Truckina€? with some a€?Friend of the Devila€? thrown in. Two tracks later, wea€™re treated to the award-winning a€?Mary,a€? in which wea€™re young again and transported to a summer night car ride with a girl in a white dress. They think that the head of the show was a big Deb Talan fan and wanted her on the show, so The Weepies were written into the script. He good-naturedly referred to the results of the combination of his efforts with others as a€?Frankensteina€? in nature. The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents. The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept. Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490. The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic.
Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south.
He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself. This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville.
Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps.
The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south. She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus. Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty. Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts.
The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map. This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz. Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India. Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo. From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format. Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources.
He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book.
Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy.
Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252). Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe. From here, we will visit the finest Armenian architectural wonder of the Church of the Holy Cross on Akdamar Island. The mountain top complex is composed of two flattened areas strewn with statues and separated by a false peak of crushed rock. Later we drive a bit further and visit the cave dwellings in conical rock formations around Uchisar. Whilst all other tour groups are at Ihlara Valley, we will be in an underground city where temperature is 12-13 C afternoon.After we visit the biggest underground ccity of Cappadociaa, we will drive to the Pigeons Valley to see pigeon houses, which were made to collect guano in.
Especially in the first and the second centuries BC, Perge became one of the richest towns in Pamphylia. In 486 BC, Greeks and Persians had a great battle here (Greeks won they didn't stay for long).
The tour of the ruins also includes a theatre, gymnasium, agora and baths, as well as the Library of Celsus.
Robes worn by the sultans and their families, the famous jewels of the Imperial Treasury, miniatures, and the Holy Mantle; enshrining relics of the Prophet Mohammed.
Impressive fortified walls still encircle the ruins of numerous churches, mosques and caravansaries. From here, we will visit the finest Armenian architectural wonder of the Church of the Holy Cross on Akdamar Island. We will also visit the Monastery of Deyr-az-Zaferan just outside of town, founded in 762 A.D.
Whilst all other tour groups are at Ihlara Valley, we will be in an underground city where temperature is 12-13 C afternoon. Especially in the first and the second centuries BC, Perge became one of the richest towns in Pamphylia.
In 486 BC, Greeks and Persians had a great battle here (Greeks won they didn't stay for long). Her enormous temple, once considered one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World and rebuilt several times, dates in its latest form from the third century B.C. The rise of Turkeys founder Ataturk as well as the friendships formed between several nations during the battle for the Dardanels. Sheer Love is very different from my usual Victoria's Secret scents (Pure Daydream, Love Spell, Pure Seduction) since I tend to go for sweet fragrances and this one is fresh, bright and cheerful with fresh white cotton and luminous pink lily. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame.
Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular.
Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents.
These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi.
They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360.
In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. A never-opened wooden a€?mystery boxa€? Abrams got as a boy at Tannena€™s Magic Shop played a seminal role in shaping his suspense-heavy career vision. Over a throbbing bass line we hurtle down the road and, the dash board lights set our sights way up higha€¦ hold on tight to mea€¦ Mary. Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period.
The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates. The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction. It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others. The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side. At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic. The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis.


The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough. If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean. Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers. This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies.
The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map.
This tour covers the areas of Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, South eastern Anatolia, central Anatolia, Mediterranean Region and the Aegean region. We will take a 45-minute drive to the medieval Armenian City of Ani, which lies mostly in ruins. We’ll also visit the wonderful Kurdish castle of Hosap very close to the Iranian border as well as the Urartian citadel. Antiouchus built the entire complex approximately 2000 years ago as a monument to his "divine ancestry." After watching sunset and exploring the mountain we will make our way to Kahta for the night.
Tea and coffee break in a cave house before we go to Goreme Open-Air Museum, where the best preserved frescoed rock cut churches and monasteries are located.
Overnight in Cappadocia.Day 21 - Transfer Cappadocia - Konya - Antalya,(Breakfast and dinner included)Today is along driving day but is broken up with a lunch break in Konya. During the reign of he Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-80 AD) Aspendos got its theatre, which is the best preserved of all. After lunch, we will make a shopping tour in which you will become aware of the ancient arts of Turkey like leather manufacturing and jewellery. The Hippodrome comprises of three monuments; the Obelisk of Theodosius, the bronze Serpentine Column and the Column of Constantine. Visiting Yazilikaya which is the ruin of an open air temple of the Hitites where there are rock carvings of the Hitites god and Goddes. Enjoy a walk around the ruins and see the beautiful view to the Armenian border imagining it as a city with one million people rivaling Bagdad in its time!
It is believed by some to be the resting-place of Noah's Ark; but to date no one has found anything that has been verified as the Ark - yet the search is still on. We’ll also visit the wonderful Kurdish castle of Hosap very close to the Iranian border as well as the Urartian citadel. The mountain top complex is composed of two flattened areas strewn with statues and separated by a false peak of crushed rock.
During the reign of he Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-80 AD) Aspendos got its theatre, which is the best preserved of all. The tour of the ruins also includes a theatre, gymnasium, agora and baths, as well as the Library of Celsus.
Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing.
Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework.
Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. About that magic booka€¦ it sits on a shelf and, when pulled, it opens the door to Abramsa€™ secret bathroom (really).
When faced with enormous expenses for his kidsa€™ college tuition, he spent years as Creative Director of various advertising agencies in New York City, Sydney, Australia, and Toronto, Canada. To many of their fans, ita€™s their most popular song and they still perform it together when touring schedules coincide. It centered around relationships and darker themes crept in, albeit always with beautiful melodies. South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.
Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates. The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron.
The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business. Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean.
Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news.
Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century. The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south. Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485. Enjoy the 7 regions of Turkey, complete with their unique cultures, different cuisines, contrasting landscapes and their historical significance. Impressive fortified walls still encircle the ruins of numerous churches, mosques and caravansaries.
Overnight in Van.,Day 12 - Van - Ahlat - Batis - Diyarbakir,(Breakfast and dinner included),After visiting the eerie 12the century Selcuk cemetery in Ahlat in the morning we will head to Bitlis for lunch and a good walk around, Batis otherwise known as Alexander's town.
Overnight in Kahta.,Day 16 - Kahta - Gaziantep,(Breakfast and dinner included),rive to Gaziantep, home to the famous Turkish dessert of Baklava. This morning we drive to Konya and see the imposing green-tiled Mausoleum of Mevlana, the mystic founder of the Islamic Sufi sect (Sufism is less an Islamic sect than a mystical way of approaching the Islamic faith. As this will be a guided tour, you will avoid the constant nagging and sometimes bullying that is well known in the markets of Turkey.
This city has experienced the cultures of Urartians, Armenians, Georgians, Mongols, Russians and finally the Turks.
Antiouchus built the entire complex approximately 2000 years ago as a monument to his "divine ancestry." After watching sunset and exploring the mountain we will make our way to Kahta for the night. After lunch, we will make a shopping tour in which you will become aware of the ancient arts of Turkey like leather manufacturing and jewellery.
The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]).
Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484). Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean. At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise.
Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue. His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484). It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas.
To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature. Enjoy a walk around the ruins and see the beautiful view to the Armenian border imagining it as a city with one million people rivaling Bagdad in its time!
Wine taste in a local winery and visiting the wishing hill in Urgup.A short walk in Devrent Valley where the rock formations look like different figures.
It has been defined as "mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God." “Whirling Dervishes”). The people of Perge loved and respected their Artemis to such an extent that Christianity had to wait for another 400 years to enter here.
The ruins of the ancient city are extensive and include a stadium, an agora, and a basilica. Enabling you to enjoy the shopping experience whilst gaining the knowledge of the ancient craftsmen. This tour covers the areas of Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, South eastern Anatolia, central Anatolia, Mediterranean Region and the Aegean region. Visiting the summer palace of Hitites and driving to Alacahoyuk that was first capital of Hitites and Hatti civilisation.
This complex is a combination of a mosque, a fortress, and a palace which originally had a room for every day of the year!
The people of Perge loved and respected their Artemis to such an extent that Christianity had to wait for another 400 years to enter here. The ruins of the ancient city are extensive and include a stadium, an agora, and a basilica. As this will be a guided tour, you will avoid the constant nagging and sometimes bullying that is well known in the markets of Turkey.
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.
He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved. Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489. The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross. For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south. The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them. This city has experienced the cultures of Urartians, Armenians, Georgians, Mongols, Russians and finally the Turks. Overnight in Diyarbakir.,Day 13 - Diyarbakir - Urfa,(Breakfast and dinner included),Mardin is very unique with lovely old-Arabic style houses. The Monk's Valley will be our next stop where we see monk's cells in multi-capped Fairy Chimneys. Enjoy the 7 regions of Turkey, complete with their unique cultures, different cuisines, contrasting landscapes and their historical significance. Below you can also see the remains of Eski Bayazit, and Urartian City which flourished in 1000 BC.
Enabling you to enjoy the shopping experience whilst gaining the knowledge of the ancient craftsmen. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples.
There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti. His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying.
Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map. According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it.
Sophia built in the 16th century by the architect Mehmet, is known as the “BLUE MOSQUE” because of its magnificent interior decoration of blue Iznik tiles.
Avanos, the pottery town of Cappadocia is visited, and after a short walk in Rose valley Cavetown, will take you to a remote place for sunset.
Even though Arabs raided Perge in the 7th century AD, when Seljuk Turks settled the area, records show the existence of an older race living here. Overnight in Antalya.Day 23 - Antalya - Pamukkale,(Breakfast and dinner included),After breakfast depart for Pamukkale. Amasya is one of the provinces which is distinct both with its natural setup and historical values it holds. Even though Arabs raided Perge in the 7th century AD, when Seljuk Turks settled the area, records show the existence of an older race living here. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489.
The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India. Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone. When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend. We will take the time to visit, walk in its busy streets and bazaars, and admire the stonework all around the town. We shall visit the calcium terraces of Pamukkale (cotton castle) and the ruins of Hierapolis, walking around this natural phenomenon gives you the option of lying in the waters of the natural springs that flow down the calcium terraces. This really only touches the surface on what is on display on this tour, enjoy a full 28 days exploring every corner of Turkey with no stone unturned.
The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise. We will also visit the Monastery of Deyr-az-Zaferan just outside of town, founded in 762 A.D.
Located in a narrow cleft of the Yesilirmak (Iris) river, it has a history of 3000 years during which many civilizations left priceless remains of their times. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. The Hippodrome comprises of three monuments; the Obelisk of Theodosius, the bronze Serpentine Column and the Column of Constantine. The ruins of the citadel on the rock face of the cleft shelters 2000 year old water-channels, 1000 year old bridges, an ancient mental hospital, an Ottoman Palace and a secret underground passageway. Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall. Without first reading the introductory overview, it's difficult to understand the later informaiton that is being presented here. After lunch we depart for Safranbolu (from the 13th century to the advent of the railway in the early 20th century, Safranbolu was an important caravan station on the main East-West trade route.
Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.
The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources.
During its apogee in the 17th century, Safranbolu's architecture influenced urban development throughout much of the Ottoman Empire).
They are shocked to realize that what they had been reading about (and studying photographs of) is also taking place right over their heads.
On arrival we will walk through the historical Safranbolu Bazaar, continuing on to Cinci Hodja Caravanserai, Cici Hodja Bath House, Kaymakamlar House (Museum). What some people had dismissed as mere "jet plane exhaust" (because there are now scores of internet propaganda web sites trying to convince you that 'everything is well' and 'there's nothing to be alarmed about' and that unaccountable 'jet plane exhaust'A  plumes are magically being converted into horizon-to-horizon overcasts of "cirrus clouds"A !) are dismayed to realize that chemtrails are indeed the toxin-laden aerosols that have been described here and at other web sites since 1998 and they are not being sprayed for any benign or national security reason as the disinformation peddlers would have you believe. This account of Gallo was copied, almost verbatim by Serenega in 1499 and by Giustiniani in 1516. I had taken my 35 mm camera with me to the monthly meeting of the Orange County Chapter of the American Society of Dowsers and after the meeting, I had stopped off at a supermarket.
Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506. After getting out of the car, I photographed for the very first time, the strange looking "contrails" that William Thomas had been describing on the Art Bell radio program a couple of weeks earlier. Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489. Thomas had dubbed them "chemtrails" on the Bell show to distinguish them from genuine (and rarely seen) short-lived ice crystal trailings properly identified as contrails.
Although I had a number of articles about the NWO and their dark Machiavellian agendas posted at my web site, I was now witnessing (and breathing in) the stark reality of those depopulation plans. A  Chemtrail spraying seems to be heaviest and most constant over North America and most countries ofA  western Europe. Some countries in Asia are being sprayed (Japan and Korea), but the greatest exception to any chemtrail activity whatsover is China.
The Chinese are being spared completely because China is being groomed by the NWO to replace the United States as the leading nation of the world, both economically and militarily. If you want to hasten the demise of the chemtrail spraying program, please take the time to read about orgone generators, chembusters, and the use of your mind-with focused intent- to rid the sky of these poisons.
People are now reporting the ability to clear the skies of chemtrails by use of the mind alone to obtain assistance from unseen helpers (Sylphs and others) and do the job for you based on your focused intention. I first posted an article in 2002 by Rich Work about using the mind and the the power of prayer to disperse chemtrails, and now we see this ability coming into reality with many people. Read these articles to understand what Sylphs are, what orgone generators are, and the difference between a DOR atmosphere and an OR atmosphere.
We are talking about nothing less than the demise of the chemtrail spraying operations!
Chemtrails cannot exist in the presence of these giant air elementals and are they being destroyed as rapidly as they are being sprayed out of spew planes. All of the information posted below is interesting and informative, but it is now HISTORY. We are winning the battle against chemtrails and defeating the satanic traitors at their own game. Spread the word: DEPLOY ORGONE GENERATORS IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD and you too will be free of chemtrail laden skies! I have seen the evidence here in southern California and have read of similar reports from different regions of America.
Read the articles below for an historical overview of chemtrails and the reasons for their deployment, but don't dwell on the negative aspects of this story because things are beginning to look up and we have good reason for optimism!
Get involved with making or obtaining orgone generators in your immediate environment and be part of the 'hit team' bringing down this Luciferian inspired genocide operation.
The fourth article describes a metaphysical method to destroy chemtrails that could work better than the physical method if employed by enough people and practiced correctly. Len Horowitz's latest book (Death in the Air) on the chemtrail spraying program describing its sinister goals, It's a valuable resource to have in your library. Deploying orgone generators in your immediate environment is an easy, safe, and highly effective way to mitigate chemtrails in your area. However, note that the person who is posting this information does not recognize that many of the photos show Sylphs neutralizing chemtrails, rather than government technology directed at harming the public. With the exception of the EDB petroleum aerosol rings seen around the sun, the majority of photos which reveal a "rainbow" effect are in fact demonstrating the presence of Sylphs who are transmuting the chemtrails into less harmful substances. Other Sylph photos show a large heart-shaped "hole" in the cloud cover which the web master assumes is government technology, but it is not negative technology. Joe Burton has been aggressively investigating and reporting on this story from early on.
Apparently he had been too aggressive, because his house had been targeted for direct spraying by low flying, unmarked aircraft.A  In a story postedA  Feb.
15, 1999, Joe reports the physical symptoms that his family and his pet have been experiencing from the sprayings.
Joe believes that many of these military tankers responsible for the sprayings are remote controlled aircraft, but Al Cuppet (6 years with the US Joint Chiefs of Staff) has told radio talk show hostA  Jeff Rense during interviews on June 1, 1999, May 16, 1999, and May 7, 1999 felt that many of these tanker planes were more likely being flown by foreign pilots, possibly Chinese or Russian.
His reports are titled Contrail Spraying of Cities is RealA  Part 1 , Part II, and Part IIIA  These articles chronicle Ken's apprehension and dismay at the discovery that the United States government was brazenly spraying the skies of southern Texas on April 9, 1999 with Chemtrails.
In June, a report from Florida said that sprayings had been going on for weeks over the Ft Lauderdale andA  Jacksonville areas, including military bases. Some people have gotten very ill and the symptoms seem to keep returning after a short period of improvement.
It's possible that some of these sprayings might contain special bioengineered pathogens designed to affect only certain racial groups.
In other words, a secondA  substance might be required (aerial spraying or substances added to the water supplyA  for example) to bring out the virulent phase of the pathogen, but of course this is only speculation. Rick Malinowski's long and detailed article also suggest the notion of a 2 or 3 part piggy back element to the chemtrail sprayings.
He has been interviewed many times on the Art Bell Radio show to discuss the chemtrails story and has many excellent articles and Photos posted at his own web site as well as other locations including-Jeff Rense's Sightings on the Radio .
Thomas has concluded that these sprayings are genocidal in nature and are intended to reduce or weaken the general population. In a November '99 interview with Art Bell, Thomas also voiced the idea that there might be a mind control element to the most recent spraying, since many people are reporting mental confusion and depression following recent sprayings. Thomas has reminded radio listeners that the government has had a long history of exposing the public to biological pathogens without their knowledge or consent. Most people would like to believe that, but the evidence is too strong in the opposite direction.



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